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  • What Is a Research Design | Types, Guide & Examples

What Is a Research Design | Types, Guide & Examples

Published on June 7, 2021 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023 by Pritha Bhandari.

A research design is a strategy for answering your   research question  using empirical data. Creating a research design means making decisions about:

  • Your overall research objectives and approach
  • Whether you’ll rely on primary research or secondary research
  • Your sampling methods or criteria for selecting subjects
  • Your data collection methods
  • The procedures you’ll follow to collect data
  • Your data analysis methods

A well-planned research design helps ensure that your methods match your research objectives and that you use the right kind of analysis for your data.

Table of contents

Step 1: consider your aims and approach, step 2: choose a type of research design, step 3: identify your population and sampling method, step 4: choose your data collection methods, step 5: plan your data collection procedures, step 6: decide on your data analysis strategies, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research design.

  • Introduction

Before you can start designing your research, you should already have a clear idea of the research question you want to investigate.

There are many different ways you could go about answering this question. Your research design choices should be driven by your aims and priorities—start by thinking carefully about what you want to achieve.

The first choice you need to make is whether you’ll take a qualitative or quantitative approach.

Qualitative research designs tend to be more flexible and inductive , allowing you to adjust your approach based on what you find throughout the research process.

Quantitative research designs tend to be more fixed and deductive , with variables and hypotheses clearly defined in advance of data collection.

It’s also possible to use a mixed-methods design that integrates aspects of both approaches. By combining qualitative and quantitative insights, you can gain a more complete picture of the problem you’re studying and strengthen the credibility of your conclusions.

Practical and ethical considerations when designing research

As well as scientific considerations, you need to think practically when designing your research. If your research involves people or animals, you also need to consider research ethics .

  • How much time do you have to collect data and write up the research?
  • Will you be able to gain access to the data you need (e.g., by travelling to a specific location or contacting specific people)?
  • Do you have the necessary research skills (e.g., statistical analysis or interview techniques)?
  • Will you need ethical approval ?

At each stage of the research design process, make sure that your choices are practically feasible.

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Within both qualitative and quantitative approaches, there are several types of research design to choose from. Each type provides a framework for the overall shape of your research.

Types of quantitative research designs

Quantitative designs can be split into four main types.

  • Experimental and   quasi-experimental designs allow you to test cause-and-effect relationships
  • Descriptive and correlational designs allow you to measure variables and describe relationships between them.

With descriptive and correlational designs, you can get a clear picture of characteristics, trends and relationships as they exist in the real world. However, you can’t draw conclusions about cause and effect (because correlation doesn’t imply causation ).

Experiments are the strongest way to test cause-and-effect relationships without the risk of other variables influencing the results. However, their controlled conditions may not always reflect how things work in the real world. They’re often also more difficult and expensive to implement.

Types of qualitative research designs

Qualitative designs are less strictly defined. This approach is about gaining a rich, detailed understanding of a specific context or phenomenon, and you can often be more creative and flexible in designing your research.

The table below shows some common types of qualitative design. They often have similar approaches in terms of data collection, but focus on different aspects when analyzing the data.

Your research design should clearly define who or what your research will focus on, and how you’ll go about choosing your participants or subjects.

In research, a population is the entire group that you want to draw conclusions about, while a sample is the smaller group of individuals you’ll actually collect data from.

Defining the population

A population can be made up of anything you want to study—plants, animals, organizations, texts, countries, etc. In the social sciences, it most often refers to a group of people.

For example, will you focus on people from a specific demographic, region or background? Are you interested in people with a certain job or medical condition, or users of a particular product?

The more precisely you define your population, the easier it will be to gather a representative sample.

  • Sampling methods

Even with a narrowly defined population, it’s rarely possible to collect data from every individual. Instead, you’ll collect data from a sample.

To select a sample, there are two main approaches: probability sampling and non-probability sampling . The sampling method you use affects how confidently you can generalize your results to the population as a whole.

Probability sampling is the most statistically valid option, but it’s often difficult to achieve unless you’re dealing with a very small and accessible population.

For practical reasons, many studies use non-probability sampling, but it’s important to be aware of the limitations and carefully consider potential biases. You should always make an effort to gather a sample that’s as representative as possible of the population.

Case selection in qualitative research

In some types of qualitative designs, sampling may not be relevant.

For example, in an ethnography or a case study , your aim is to deeply understand a specific context, not to generalize to a population. Instead of sampling, you may simply aim to collect as much data as possible about the context you are studying.

In these types of design, you still have to carefully consider your choice of case or community. You should have a clear rationale for why this particular case is suitable for answering your research question .

For example, you might choose a case study that reveals an unusual or neglected aspect of your research problem, or you might choose several very similar or very different cases in order to compare them.

Data collection methods are ways of directly measuring variables and gathering information. They allow you to gain first-hand knowledge and original insights into your research problem.

You can choose just one data collection method, or use several methods in the same study.

Survey methods

Surveys allow you to collect data about opinions, behaviors, experiences, and characteristics by asking people directly. There are two main survey methods to choose from: questionnaires and interviews .

Observation methods

Observational studies allow you to collect data unobtrusively, observing characteristics, behaviors or social interactions without relying on self-reporting.

Observations may be conducted in real time, taking notes as you observe, or you might make audiovisual recordings for later analysis. They can be qualitative or quantitative.

Other methods of data collection

There are many other ways you might collect data depending on your field and topic.

If you’re not sure which methods will work best for your research design, try reading some papers in your field to see what kinds of data collection methods they used.

Secondary data

If you don’t have the time or resources to collect data from the population you’re interested in, you can also choose to use secondary data that other researchers already collected—for example, datasets from government surveys or previous studies on your topic.

With this raw data, you can do your own analysis to answer new research questions that weren’t addressed by the original study.

Using secondary data can expand the scope of your research, as you may be able to access much larger and more varied samples than you could collect yourself.

However, it also means you don’t have any control over which variables to measure or how to measure them, so the conclusions you can draw may be limited.

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As well as deciding on your methods, you need to plan exactly how you’ll use these methods to collect data that’s consistent, accurate, and unbiased.

Planning systematic procedures is especially important in quantitative research, where you need to precisely define your variables and ensure your measurements are high in reliability and validity.


Some variables, like height or age, are easily measured. But often you’ll be dealing with more abstract concepts, like satisfaction, anxiety, or competence. Operationalization means turning these fuzzy ideas into measurable indicators.

If you’re using observations , which events or actions will you count?

If you’re using surveys , which questions will you ask and what range of responses will be offered?

You may also choose to use or adapt existing materials designed to measure the concept you’re interested in—for example, questionnaires or inventories whose reliability and validity has already been established.

Reliability and validity

Reliability means your results can be consistently reproduced, while validity means that you’re actually measuring the concept you’re interested in.

For valid and reliable results, your measurement materials should be thoroughly researched and carefully designed. Plan your procedures to make sure you carry out the same steps in the same way for each participant.

If you’re developing a new questionnaire or other instrument to measure a specific concept, running a pilot study allows you to check its validity and reliability in advance.

Sampling procedures

As well as choosing an appropriate sampling method , you need a concrete plan for how you’ll actually contact and recruit your selected sample.

That means making decisions about things like:

  • How many participants do you need for an adequate sample size?
  • What inclusion and exclusion criteria will you use to identify eligible participants?
  • How will you contact your sample—by mail, online, by phone, or in person?

If you’re using a probability sampling method , it’s important that everyone who is randomly selected actually participates in the study. How will you ensure a high response rate?

If you’re using a non-probability method , how will you avoid research bias and ensure a representative sample?

Data management

It’s also important to create a data management plan for organizing and storing your data.

Will you need to transcribe interviews or perform data entry for observations? You should anonymize and safeguard any sensitive data, and make sure it’s backed up regularly.

Keeping your data well-organized will save time when it comes to analyzing it. It can also help other researchers validate and add to your findings (high replicability ).

On its own, raw data can’t answer your research question. The last step of designing your research is planning how you’ll analyze the data.

Quantitative data analysis

In quantitative research, you’ll most likely use some form of statistical analysis . With statistics, you can summarize your sample data, make estimates, and test hypotheses.

Using descriptive statistics , you can summarize your sample data in terms of:

  • The distribution of the data (e.g., the frequency of each score on a test)
  • The central tendency of the data (e.g., the mean to describe the average score)
  • The variability of the data (e.g., the standard deviation to describe how spread out the scores are)

The specific calculations you can do depend on the level of measurement of your variables.

Using inferential statistics , you can:

  • Make estimates about the population based on your sample data.
  • Test hypotheses about a relationship between variables.

Regression and correlation tests look for associations between two or more variables, while comparison tests (such as t tests and ANOVAs ) look for differences in the outcomes of different groups.

Your choice of statistical test depends on various aspects of your research design, including the types of variables you’re dealing with and the distribution of your data.

Qualitative data analysis

In qualitative research, your data will usually be very dense with information and ideas. Instead of summing it up in numbers, you’ll need to comb through the data in detail, interpret its meanings, identify patterns, and extract the parts that are most relevant to your research question.

Two of the most common approaches to doing this are thematic analysis and discourse analysis .

There are many other ways of analyzing qualitative data depending on the aims of your research. To get a sense of potential approaches, try reading some qualitative research papers in your field.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

A research design is a strategy for answering your   research question . It defines your overall approach and determines how you will collect and analyze data.

A well-planned research design helps ensure that your methods match your research aims, that you collect high-quality data, and that you use the right kind of analysis to answer your questions, utilizing credible sources . This allows you to draw valid , trustworthy conclusions.

Quantitative research designs can be divided into two main categories:

  • Correlational and descriptive designs are used to investigate characteristics, averages, trends, and associations between variables.
  • Experimental and quasi-experimental designs are used to test causal relationships .

Qualitative research designs tend to be more flexible. Common types of qualitative design include case study , ethnography , and grounded theory designs.

The priorities of a research design can vary depending on the field, but you usually have to specify:

  • Your research questions and/or hypotheses
  • Your overall approach (e.g., qualitative or quantitative )
  • The type of design you’re using (e.g., a survey , experiment , or case study )
  • Your data collection methods (e.g., questionnaires , observations)
  • Your data collection procedures (e.g., operationalization , timing and data management)
  • Your data analysis methods (e.g., statistical tests  or thematic analysis )

A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population . Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research. For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

In statistics, sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population.

Operationalization means turning abstract conceptual ideas into measurable observations.

For example, the concept of social anxiety isn’t directly observable, but it can be operationally defined in terms of self-rating scores, behavioral avoidance of crowded places, or physical anxiety symptoms in social situations.

Before collecting data , it’s important to consider how you will operationalize the variables that you want to measure.

A research project is an academic, scientific, or professional undertaking to answer a research question . Research projects can take many forms, such as qualitative or quantitative , descriptive , longitudinal , experimental , or correlational . What kind of research approach you choose will depend on your topic.

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The Essential Guide to Doing Your Research Project

The Essential Guide to Doing Your Research Project

  • Zina O'Leary - The Australia and New Zealand School of Government
  • Description

Packed with pragmatic guidance for tackling research in the real world, this fourth edition:

  • Offers support for diving into a project using digital data, with how-to guidance on conducting online and social media research
  • Empowers you to confidently disseminate your work and present with impact
  • Helps you map out your research journey and put a plan in place with decision trees in every chapter
  • Challenges you to be reflective and critical about the research you consume and undertake

Zina O'Leary's detailed and down-to-earth approach gives you the research skills and momentum you need to successfully complete your research project.

See what’s new to this edition by selecting the Features tab on this page. Should you need additional information or have questions regarding the HEOA information provided for this title, including what is new to this edition, please email [email protected] . Please include your name, contact information, and the name of the title for which you would like more information. For information on the HEOA, please go to http://ed.gov/policy/highered/leg/hea08/index.html .

For assistance with your order: Please email us at [email protected] or connect with your SAGE representative.

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The writing style is appropriate to all levels and is totally accessible to the students I teach. Overall, this is a very welcome book for research.

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This text is a stalwart in approaching independent projects and dissertations. The fourth edition keeps it sharp and current.

I so enjoyed reading this book because I felt like Zina was in the room talking to me and I was her student. She clearly understands undertaking research from a student's perspective. She has obviously drawn on a rich and lengthy experience demonstrated by the relevant questions she poses throughout the book and her writing is so easily accessible and understandable, even the bits students often find tricky. All aspects the process are covered, from preliminary thinking to actually getting started to finally sharing your research with others. A book I will definitely include in our reading list for next year.

This a very useful and comprehensive book for students studying research methods and/or dissertations students.

Simple and easy to use for my MSc Students especially those that have never done a dissertation.

Really useful text, accurate, brief and clear direction for students and staff. I do not manage research but supervise researchers and this is an excellent framework for creating excellence in this essential discipline.

Great book for beginner researchers

Content is appropriate for intended student population

This book is very accessible for undergraduate students with lots of examples and templates alongside advice on how to develop their research skills.

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Designing and Managing Your Research Project: Core Skills for Social and Health Research

  • By: David R. Thomas & Ian D. Hodges
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd
  • Publication year: 2010
  • Online pub date: December 20, 2013
  • Discipline: Anthropology
  • Methods: Research questions , Research proposals , Literature review
  • DOI: https:// doi. org/10.4135/9781446289044
  • Keywords: core skills , report writing , skills for health , social skills , software , teams , technical reports Show all Show less
  • Print ISBN: 9781848601932
  • Online ISBN: 9781446289044
  • Buy the book icon link

Subject index

Emerging researchers need a range of specific skills to plan and successfully complete their research projects. While there are multiple books available on methods, there is much less information on the key skills needed to complete a project.

Designing and Managing Your Research Project provides information about the key areas needed for a successful project. It includes software skills, developing research objectives, writing proposals, literature reviews, getting ethics approval, seeking funding, managing a project, communicating research findings, and writing reports. There is also a chapter on working as an independent researcher.

Designing and Managing Your Research Project includes numerous examples, checklists, and practical exercises designed to assist the learning of research skills and the completion of crucial project tasks. It covers procedures needed for conducting projects electronically and accessing information from the Internet.

This book is designed to complement texts covering quantitative and qualitative research methods in health and social sciences. It will be particularly useful to advanced undergraduate and graduate students planning theses and dissertations and other researchers in the early stages of their career.

Front Matter

  • Education at SAGE
  • List of Figures and Tables
  • Chapter 1 | Designing and Managing Research Projects: An Overview
  • Chapter 2 | Designing a New Research Project: Issues to Think About
  • Chapter 3 | Developing Research Aims and Objectives
  • Chapter 4 | Preparing and Writing a Research Proposal
  • Chapter 5 | Getting Funding for Research
  • Chapter 6 | Research Ethics and Ethics Reviews
  • Chapter 7 | Doing a Literature Review
  • Chapter 8 | Managing a Research Project
  • Chapter 9 | Software for Research
  • Chapter 10 | Working with Colleagues and Supervisors
  • Chapter 11 | Communicating Research Findings
  • Chapter 12 | Writing for Research: Some Guiding Principles
  • Chapter 13 | Writing a Research Report: Organisation and Presentation
  • Chapter 14 | Careers in Research

Back Matter

  • Concluding Ideas: Research Projects and Research Careers
  • Appendix 1: Example of a Completed Research Proposal

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Loyola University > Center for Engaged Learning, Teaching, and Scholarship (CELTS) > Programs > Undergraduate Research (LUROP) > For Students > How to Develop a Research Project

How to develop a research project.

LUREC Bird Watching

Each research project is different. In order to build a successful project, you will need to consider time, scale, and resources. Work with your faculty, graduate student, and/or community partner mentor(s) to plan your project. Here are some key steps to consider:

Develop a Research Question

Identify a specific topic, burning question, or issue that sparks your curiosity and pursue it. What interests you? What would you like to learn more about? Is there a problem you would like to solve? An issue you would like to explore?

Review the Literature

Explore how your project fits into existing knowledge and scholarship. Is there important background or context for your project? How have other scholars approached your topic? What are the key conversations in your field? What might be missing from the conversation?

Design the Project

What steps will you take to investigate the research question? What methods or approaches will you use? What preparation will you need before beginning research? What skills or tools will you need? Consult with your mentor to discuss the next steps of your research and create a detailed timeline for the project.

Collect Data

Carry out your research! Gather and reflect on data. Keep track of your progress and begin thinking about how your research answers and/or complicates your initial research questions.

Analyze Results

Analyze the data you have collected. Draw conclusions about your outcomes. What have you learned or discovered? What kinds of new questions does your research introduce? What does your project contribute to ongoing conversations about your project’s central topic, problem, or issue?

Share Your Research

Share what you have learned! Work with your mentor to determine how you will share your research with the broader scholarly and/or public community and in what form. Present your project at the Undergraduate Research & Engagement Symposium , Chicago Area Undergraduate Research Symposium , and/or other conferences in your field or discipline. Ask your mentor about publishing your research in professional journals or other relevant venues.

  • Undergraduate Research (LUROP)

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