From staring to reaching - a case study of a special child

A journey to stare then reach - a case study of a special child, learning points, precautions and measures.

This is a story of a little angel of in the school Durgabhai Deshmukh Vocational Training and Rehabilitation Centre. The mother of the little angel is a homemaker while her father was working at a press. Little angel was the first child of her parents and was born on 19th March 2012. She was born normally like any other child. But later she had to become a special child because of her health issues. At the age of 3 months, she had pneumonia due to which her growth got delayed. Doctors titled her problem as Global Development Delay. Her parents happened to notice this as the child was not meeting the development milestones on time.

She was not able to roll, crawl, sit or stand. She was always in her mother’s lap. She had to stare at all things although she wanted to reach them. She even had a squint in her eye. She had to undergo eye surgeries at a very young age of 1 year. Later, advised by doctors to go for Physiotherapy her parents came with the child to DDVTRC. They approached the school on 27-6-14. She was soon put up in the physiotherapy department.

Physiotherapists trained the child initially for rolling, creeping, crawling. In the starting days, the child was not at all cooperative. Later she got adapted with it and soon she started learning all the movements and exercises taught to her. She learnt rolling, creeping, crawling, sitting in the very first few months. Later she was taught kneeling, half-kneeling, standing. The child achieved these in four months.

Once her functional activities were improved, she was trained for walking. As she learnt walking, she even improved her hand functions and finger grasp. She was now able to hold all the things, which she only stared at earlier. In the sixth month of her training, she started walking and climbing stairs with wall support.

Now, this completes her journey to reach from staring.

“Pregnancy”, “Motherhood” is a very beautiful and a happy memorable period in a women’s life. Utmost care of the mother and the baby during the following periods is required to prevent birth of a child with special needs.

  • Pre natal period – 0-9 months
  • Natal period – during delivery time
  • Post natal period – After birth
  • Nutritious and well-balanced diet is essential for mother and child at all times.
  • Proper and regular health check-ups should be done during 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. Any disabilities, if present, may be identified during scans done during these check-ups.
  • Vaccination of the mother during pregnancy and vaccination of the child after birth are important for the child.
  • Mother should avoid lifting heavy weight objects or take up activities which require rigorous physical activities.
  • Delivery should be done in a hospital. Forceps delivery should be avoided as this includes the use of forceps, which may cause injury to the child.
  • Any kind of health issue after birth should be taken care. For eg. viral fever, jaundice, pneumonia, etc. Delayed attention to medical needs may also result in brain damage or developmental delays.

Source: Andhra Mahila Sabaha DDVTRC, Osmania University Road, Vidyanagar, Hyderabad-500044. Ph: 91-040-27634299, 27636686

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Parenting a Child with Disabilities: the Intersection of Education and Cultural Perceptions in Southern India

  • Published: 05 March 2018
  • Volume 3 , pages 72–80, ( 2018 )

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Cultural and religious stigmas continue to negatively affect the basic human rights of people with disabilities in India in areas such as education and access to specialized services. There has been an increase in efforts to address misperceptions that affect daily life for people with disabilities and their families, particularly through special schools that serve these families. This qualitative study utilized the method of photo elicitation in an exploratory examination of the perceptions of parents in South India concerning what it is like to have a child with a disability. Six mothers and two fathers were recruited from one large special school operating multiple centers to serve children with disabilities in both an urban area and the surrounding rural villages. Findings did not reflect experiences of shame and rejection in having a child with a disability. Instead, parents endorsed themes of pride, the need to not underestimate their children’s abilities, patience and persistence, and hope. The findings provide preliminary support of anecdotal local reports that efforts by the school to educate the community regarding the biological influences on disabilities may be reducing cultural and religious misperceptions and negative treatment of families in which a child has a disability.

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Dickinson, R. Parenting a Child with Disabilities: the Intersection of Education and Cultural Perceptions in Southern India. J. Hum. Rights Soc. Work 3 , 72–80 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41134-018-0053-8

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Educational Rights of Children with Disabilities in India: With special reference to Inclusive Education Approach

Mr. amit kumar.

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Research Scholar at Department of Law, Kurukshetra University, India.

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The objective of education is to mold an individual in such a manner that it would bring out the best so that they could supplement societal growth. Education system in India has evolved over time. Earlier Vedic Education was different from the contemporary system. India since her Independence in 1947 has seen the emphasis on the value of Education. From the first enactment of the Constitution of India till the Right of Education Act has been the example of the Government's seriousness on the issue. Education in India and all over the world is considered as the tool to remove unemployment, improve standard of living and reduce poverty. When it comes to the question of marginalised weaker sections of the society, education becomes more paramount. The Constitution of India created the right to education as the fundamental rights of every citizen. However in spite of this constitutional guarantee there still exists a strata of society which have been disadvantaged due to some disability and are left without education and this creates the need for a system of Inclusive Education.

  • Children with Disabilities
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Right to education
  • Fundamental Rights
  • Inclusive Education

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International Journal of Law Management and Humanities, Volume 5, Issue 1, Page 19 - 28

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case study of a child with special needs in hindi

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution -NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits remixing, adapting, and building upon the work for non-commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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I. Introduction

“Disabled Children are equally entitled to an exciting and brilliant future” ….. Nelson Mandela

The Constitution of India is the highest law of the land. It guaranteed the citizens Fundamental rights. The most important and the first fundamental right in terms of sequence is the Right to Equality. Right to equality is not only a fundamental right but also a human right. Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 provides that “ All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” [1] Article 14 of the Indian Constitution guarantee every person “Equality before law and Equal protection of law” [2] Article 21 of the Indian Constitution further guarantees “ right to life and personal liberty” ; both these guarantees are given to persons with disabilities also.

Supreme Court in Jeeja Ghosh v. Union of India [3] has held that Person with Disabilities (PWDs) have the constitutional right to live with dignity and without any discrimination and no authority can violate their rights.

II. Meaning of disability

Disability can be defined as the absence of individual functional capacity which can be performed by other individuals in absence of impairment. Around the world there is no consensus regarding the definition of disability. However there are certain classifications for example hearing , visual, locomotive , speech and psychological incapacity.

The impact of disability is not only on the organs of the body but it also affects the functioning of the individual in the society. People with disabilities experience poorer health outcomes, have less access to education and work opportunities, and are more likely to live in poverty than those without a disability. Discrimination on the basis of disability is more severe in case of women or girlchild, they face what is known as “Double Discrimination.”.

Due to lack of educational facilities PWDs further suffer unemployment which result in the lower standard of living.

            “Across the world, people with disabilities have…less economic participation  and higher rates of poverty than people without disabilities.’ [4]

PWD’s face a large number of obstacles every day. Most of these obstacles are due to inadequate welfare legislation and policy, negative outlook of the society, discrimination , lack of financial resources , lack of awareness and lack of representation in the decision making body. In developing countries and the third world countries of the world there is a more severe condition of the PWD’s.

III. Education for children with disabilities (cwds)

Children with disabilities(CWDs) have special needs. When we talk of imparting education to CWDs we need to take a different approach considering their special needs. Different approaches have been adopted for educating the CWDs. Two major approaches are Special Education and Integrated Education. However a third approach that is the Inclusive Education Approach have also emerged and is gaining acceptance all over the world.

IV. Special education approach

The Special Education Approach emerged during the later 19 century period. This approach is based on the principle of segregation of the CWDs from other children on the basis of their special needs. This approach believes that CWDs with similar conditions or disabilities need to be taught separately outside the mainstream and within a similar environment.  Because of this segregation this approach has received criticism because of the impact of isolation.

V. Integrated education approach

The Integrated Education Approach tried to curb the criticism of the Special education Approach by placing the CWDs at the same place with other students. However this approach did not consider the special needs of the CWDs, rather it only focused on the attendance and education of them with the mainstream. This approach rather than being facilitating has forced the CWDs to adjust with the education system. This rigid approach has been a subject of criticism for this approach.

VI. Inclusive education approach

Inclusive Education Approach has evolved in recent times as a solution of criticism of both Special Education and Integrated Education Approach. The word inclusive means to accommodate or to include everyone or everything. This approach puts emphasis on bringing all types of students whether suffering with disabilities or not or students which are not part of the mainstream of the society for example child labourer, children belonging to scheduled caste or indegenious tribe under the common roof. However this approach caters to the special demand of every student. This approach can also be said to be the reformative approach bringing reform in the student as well as the  Educational institution.

Indian Parliament has enacted Right of person with disability Act, 2016 which defines “inclusive education” as “ a system of education wherein students with and without disability learn together and the system of teaching and learning is suitably adapted to meet the learning needs of different types of students with disabilities.” [5]

In United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Cali Conference, members agreed on definition of inclusion as a  transformative  process  that  ensures  full participation and access to quality learning opportunities for all children, young people and adults, respecting and valuing diversity, and eliminating all forms of discrimination in  and  through  education.  The  term  inclusion  represents  a  commitment  to making preschools, schools, and other education settings, places in which everyone is valued and belongs, and diversity is seen as enriching. [6] The term Inclusive education is further defined as “means through which all the children, no matter what they are, get education in the same institution.” [7]

VII. Progression of inclusive education in india

The concept of inclusiveness is not alien to Indian society. Since the Vedic times, PWD’s have enjoyed equal status and rights with their fellow citizens. Classic example is from Arthashastra written by Kautilya where it has put an obligation on the King to make available the assistance to the orphan children, the old aged people, the infirm aggrieved and the helpless. [8]

Ancient epic shows the culture of Gurukula Ashram where kings and mostly nobles at that time used to send their children to learn the art of war, customs and ancient texts. The splendid feature of Gurukula education system was specialised education according to the need and ability of the pupil. Examples of Inclusive education can be seen in the epic of Mahabharata where Dhritarashtras was taught in the gurukulas despite his visual impairment  and later on his anointment as a king of Kuru Kingdom showed the inclusiveness of the society. 

During the colonial period the Christian Missionaries as a part of the charity had established special schools for the special children with disabilities. India after Independence has focused on the rehabilitation , education, and social equality which have resulted in the growth of special education in India. This has further been supplemented by the availability of specialised personnel for the task. Thus, over the period we  can see that India is moving toward an inclusive education model.

VIII. International efforts for inclusive education

The important milestone in the field of international effort for ensuring equal treatment among humans is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948(UDHR). Article 26 of the declaration provides that every person has the right to education further it provides that education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. [9]

The General Conference of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) adopted the Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1960 at its meeting in Paris. [10] The convention prohibits any type of exclusion with respect to education. [11]

The United Nation General Assembly on 20th November 1989 adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child. [12] Article 26 of the convention recognises the right of the child to education on the basis of equal opportunity further proposing free elementary education. [13] In 1990, the World Declaration on Education for All was held in Jomtien(Thailand). [14]   The Convention was aimed at universalization of the access to education and broadening the scope of basic education.

The United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities(UNCRPD) was adopted in 2006 which has played a pivotal role in recognising the rights of the PWDs worldwide. The UNCRPD provides that CWDs shall not be discriminated against with regard to access to education. [15]

The United Nation adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) in 2015. Goal 4 aims for inclusive and equitable quality education and promotes lifelong learning opportunities for all. Target 4A  provides for building school infrastructure  CWDs friendly. [16]

IX. Initiatives and legislation in india

Since the first National government formed at the centre after Independence, education has remained a point of focus for every government. Kothari Commission also known as National Education Commission was formulated under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari in 1964. In this report the commission suggested CWDs  should receive education which is useful and beneficial not merely for namesake. Report also emphasised on the need for integration rather than segregation of CWDs. The commission report also set targets for advancement in education of CWDs. [17]

National Education Policy, 2020(NEP 2020) also endorses the notion of inclusive education. NEP 2020 also recommended  an increase in  investment in the education sector to 6% of total GDP which will further help in strengthening the Educational infrastructure. [18]

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was an important initiative launched by the Indian Government with partnership of the state and local government in 2001-2002. It was launched with an objective of Universal elementary education for the age group of 6 – 14. The sarva Shiksha Abhiyan also focused on the inclusive education  to CWDs wherein the CWDs can co learn with the other students. No Rejection Policy was adopted so that no child can be deprived of education. [19]

Eighty Sixth Constitutional Amendment Act , 2002 has inserted and amended various provisions of the constitution with an objective of guaranteeing the right to education in the country. Article 21A has been inserted which creates the fundamental right to education for all the children between the age group of 6 to 14 year and Article 51A (k) has put the fundamental duty on the parent to educate their children between the age group of 6 to 14 years.

Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009(RTE Act) was enacted to enable the fundamental right under Article 21A.This act was amended in the year 2012 which amended section 2(d) i.e. child belonging to disadvantaged groups also include a child with disability. [20] Further section 12(1)(c) of the act provides that 25 % seats in the private schools be reserved for the disadvantaged groups. [21]

In the year 2019, the Scheme for Inclusive Education for Diabled at Secondary Stage(IEDSS) was launched for CWDs who are studing in Class IX to XII. This scheme covers all types of educational institutions whether government aided or not. Scheme covers disabilities such as “blindness, low vision, leprosy, hearing impairment, locomotor disabilities, mental illness, learning or speaking disabilities. Special focus under the scheme is given to girls with disabilities. [22]  

In 2016 the government enacted the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 to give effect to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006. The act creates legal status for inclusive education in India. Section 16 states that it shall be the duty of the appropriate Government and the local authorities shall endeavour that all educational institutions funded or recognised by them provide inclusive education to the children with disabilities and towards that end. Further , section 17 provides for the measures to promote and facilitate inclusive education. These include namely –

  • To conduct survey of school going children every five years for identifying children with disabilities, ascertaining their special needs and the extent to which these are being met.
  • To train and employ teachers, including teachers with disability who are qualified in sign language and Braille and also teachers who are trained in teaching children with intellectual disability.
  • To train professionals and staff to support inclusive education at all levels of school education.
  • To promote the use of appropriate augmentative and alternative modes including means and formats of communication, Braille and sign language to supplement the use of one’s own speech to fulfil the daily communication needs of persons with speech, communication or language disabilities and enables them to participate and contribute to their community and society.

To provide books, other learning materials and appropriate assistive devices to students with benchmark disabilities free of cost up to the age of eighteen years.

  • To provide scholarships in appropriate cases to students with benchmark disability.
  • To make suitable modifications in the curriculum and examination system to meet the needs of students with disabilities such as extra time for completion of examination paper, facility of scribe or amanuensis, exemption from second and third language courses.

Government of India in 2021 relaunched the Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan 2.0 (SSA-2.0). Inclusive education is one of the important objectives of SSA-2.0. Under the scheme allocation for Children with Special Needs (CwSN) is increased from Rs. 3000 to Rs. 3500 per child per annum. And also provided stipend of Rs. 200 per month for Girls with Special Needs from classes 1 to 12. [23]

X. Judicial interventions

The Supreme Court is considered as the guardian of the Constitution and the various rights that are provided under it. Judiciary has played an important role in recognising the right to education. In Mohini Jain v. Union of India [24] Hon’ble Apex court held that the right to education is  a fundamental right enshrined under the Constitution. It was further held that there cannot be a right to life without the right to education. Next year in the celebrated judgement of Unni Krishnan v. State of Andhra Pradesh [25] , Supreme Court further reiterated the fundamental right of education under Article 21. After this judgement the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002 was made which inserted Article 21A and 51A(1)(k).

In Bandhua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India [26] , the Supreme Court noted the significance of ensuring education for children from educationally deprived sections i.e., the poor, weaker sections, Dalits, tribals and minorities. Furthermore, it noted that providing compulsory education to such children was essential to the “stability of the democracy, social integration and to eliminate social tensions.” Therefore, the recognition of education as a site of social justice was recognized even prior to the enactment of Article 21A.

The Delhi High Court in Social Jurist v. Government of NCT of Delhi [27] considered that, on the basis of the RTE Act, children with disabilities had the right to access all schools, whether aided or unaided by the Government. The Court acknowledged that the absence of such facilities creates a “vicious cycle”, where children with disabilities don’t seek admission due to the absence of such facilities, thereby rendering their right to education meaningless. [28] In Pramod Arora v. Governor of Delhi [29] , the Court considered that the fact that “children with disabilities” faced even greater marginalization than other groups of children from disadvantaged groups and therefore, their inclusion within the education set up only created a higher burden of affirmative action by the Government, in view of the right to equality under Article 14 and the statutory scheme, to ensure meaningful inclusion within the education set up.

In Kamal Gupta v. State of Uttarakhand [30] Uttarakhand High Court proposed a reporting mechanism which allowed for admission for children with disabilities in line with information on aided and unaided schools which had the facilities to cater to them. However, it is clear that after the RPWD Act came into force, all schools are required to meet the conditions of reasonable accommodation. At the same time, Courts continue to refer to the provisions of the old Act in interpreting the scope of education for children with disabilities even after the Act came into force.

The scope of the obligations under the RPWD was thereafter considered by the Delhi High Court in Syed Mehedi v. Government of Delhi [31] , wherein the Court conducted, to an extent, the exercise referred to it Part III of this paper i.e. the recognition that the duty cast by Sections 16 and 17 of the RPWD is binding.

“19 A statutory duty has been cast upon the respondents to ensure that all  educational institutions, funded and recognised by them, provide inclusive education to children with special needs and raise the requisite infrastructure to serve that purpose. The respondents have, in fact, been directed to ensure that this process of inclusivity of disabled children begins by ensuring that they are admitted in educational institutions without discrimination, and are granted equal opportunities to partake in activities with other children. The respondents are also obligated to put in place and promote adequate measures in furtherance of the objective to attain inclusive education for children with special needs by inter alia facilitating research to improve the methodology adopted to teach them and monitoring their overall progress within the existing educational system.”

While the Court read the obligations of the RTE Act and RPWD Act together, the obligations under Section 16 of the RPWD Act require reading into the norms and standards under the RTE Act to ensure substantive compliance by all schools as per the legislative intent of the RPWD Act.

XI. Conclusion

Segregated education approach is anti to the commitments of India in International Human Rights law as well as Constitutional law and statutory frameworks. While the quality of meaningful inclusion will be progressively realized through innovations in technology and teacher training, the rights to education in a nearby school and the right to non-discrimination are immediately realizable. In adopting Article 21A a recognising Right to education as a fundamental right, the State accepted the constitutional obligation to ensure primary education of all children. There is no basis for the exclusion of children with disabilities. Segregated education deprives children with  disabilities from access to their community and from becoming part of the mainstream. The State has the obligation to provide access to the common education environment as well as to ensure reasonable accommodation of the common environment to ensure that access to education is meaningful. There is a need to improve the accommodation facilities so that the child or their parents have the choice to opt for specialized education in a choice of school.

Inclusive education is a challenging approach. It is not only a method of imparting knowledge to the CWDs rather it is method which creates a sense of equality and ensure that in future there is a proficient participation in the society.Government both at centre and state level is making an effort to develop an inclusive approach but still the challenges persists. Lack of awareness , sensitivity  and a non learner friendly approach limit the progress.

According to Gandhiji, “Education is an all round drawing out of the best in child and man – body, mind and spirit” . It is important to understand that inclusion of PWDs can only be possible if society accepts them and recognizes them as equal.The social prejudice regarding disability is maintained by persons without a disability who occupy key positions and have little interaction with persons with disability in the public space.  Meaningful inclusion is therefore essential to enable persons with disabilities.The focus should be on ability rather than disability.

[1] https://nhrc.nic.in/sites/default/files/UDHR_Eng_0.pdf

[2] Article 14 , Constitution of India, 1950

[3] 2016 (7) SCC &61

[4] Margaret Chan,former  Director General World Health Organization.

[5] Section 2(m), The Rights of Person with Disability Act, 2016

[6] Cali, Conference Report, 2019 available at https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000370910

[7] Idid. page 2

[8] Kautilya’s Arthashastra , Jaico Publishing House

[9] https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights

[10] https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/DiscriminationInEducation.aspx

[11] Article 1, The Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1960

[12] https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx

[13] Article 28 , Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1980

[14] https://bice.org/app/uploads/2014/10/unesco_world_declaration_on_education_for_all_jomtien_thailand.pdf

[15] https://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf

[16] http;//sdgeducation2030.org/the-goal

[17] http://dise.in/Downloads/KothariCommissionVol.2pp.289.pdf

[18] https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf

[19] https://dsel.education.gov.in/sites/default/files/2019-05/Manual_Planning_and_Apprisal.pdf

[20] Section 2(d) The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009

[21] Section 12(1)(c) The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009

[22] http://schooleducation.kar.nic.in/minoedn/IEDSS/IEDSS-MHRDFormat&Proc.pdf

[23] https://samagra.education.gov.in/ (last accessed on 21, December, 2021)

[24] AIR 1992 SC 1858

[25] AIR 1993 SC 2178

[26] 1997(10) SCC 549

[27] 2012 SCC Online Del 4651

[28] Ibid. pg 14-15

[29] (2014) 5 HCC (Del) 215

[30] 2018 SCC OnLine UTT 677

[31] 2019 SCC OnLine Del 9015

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Disability and Children with Special Need (in Hindi)

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(hindi) concepts of inclusive education for ctet/tet.

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Introduction (in Hindi)

Target Group & Disadvantaged Learners (in Hindi)

Check your progress : Part-1 (in Hindi)

Check your Progress : Part-2 (in Hindi)

Check your Progress : Part-3 (in Hindi)

Check your Progress : Part-4 (in Hindi)

Check your Progress : Part-5(in Hindi)

Methods of Inclusive Education (in Hindi)

Check your Progress : Part-6 (in Hindi)

Benefits of Inclusive Education (in Hindi)

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Features & Techniques of Inclusive Education (in Hindi)

Check your Progress : Part-8 (in Hindi)

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School Education & Litercay, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India

Children With Special Needs

case study of a child with special needs in hindi

For Students:

The audiobooks for visually impaired and ISL Dictionary for hearing impaired have been put up on DIKSHA platform. In addition, the National Institute of Open Schooling is committed to make its website accessible to people with disabilities. In its effort to make the website accessible, NIOS has incorporated different features which will make it easier for users to browse the website.

Some of the accessibility features incorporated in the website includes adjusting the display settings, ease of navigation, content readability and so on. Following are the accessibility features incorporated in this website:

  • Alternate description for Images & Audio/Video
  • Display settings
  • Ease of navigation
  • Content readability & structure
  • Keyboard support

Visually Impaired Learners

  • Study material has been developed in Digitally Accessible Information System (DAISY), a technical standard for digital audiobooks, periodicals and computerized text.
  • Learners can access all study material of NIOS through DAISY
  • An Indian Sign Language (ISL) Dictionary has been developed to facilitate communication and education of the deaf and hard-of-hearing learners.
  • NIOS has also developed more than 270 Video in Sign Language in 7 subjects to provide educational access to learners at secondary level and Yoga course.

case study of a child with special needs in hindi

  • Accessibility in School Curriculum-NCERT’s Initiatives can be found here https://ciet.nic.in/pages.php?id=accesstoedu&ln=en&ln=en

Hearing Impaired Learners

  • Course content (Selected ones) of NIOS has also been recorded in sign language which is placed on NIOS website as well as on YouTube.
  • These videos are available at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCXBn5q8Zv4Bz-LZXWWD7Jxw/playlists
  • The recorded content is sent to HI learners on DVD

case study of a child with special needs in hindi

Innovative Material developed by NCERT

Various steps are being taken to bring children with special needs (CwSN) to schools such as the National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT) has developed exemplar material for providing low cost quality home education to students with severe disabilities through e-learning. NCERT text books have been converted into digital books which can be downloaded free by any one, any time. Most of the books are in UNICODE which a child with special needs can read using a Text-to-Speech (TTS)/Software/mobile app though e-Pathshaala mobile app. For visually challenged learners e-book in DAISY format and tactile maps have been developed.

Promoting Inclusive Education in the Foundational Years - Barkha: A Reading Series for ‘All’

The department has developed Barkha: A Reading Series for ‘All’ as an exemplary, inclusive learning material in the form of a supplementary early reading series. This reading series is available in print and digital formats. Its design is based on the principles of inclusion and the concept of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). Barkha: A Reading Series for ‘All’ is exemplary in demonstrating how the principles of UDL can guide the design of inclusive features like tactile and high resolution visuals, text in accessible scripts etc. This exemplar provides a direction and initial guidelines for developing similarly accessible material in the form of textbooks and other learning resources for all school stages.

In tandem with the Digital India Campaign, the department has also developed a digital version of Barkha: A Reading Series for ‘All’. This digital version retains all the inclusive features of the print version and is unique in its functionality because it allows for greater flexibility and has greater scope of appealing to all. Children can access all 40 story booklets through a single device. This also gives them space to revisit any book whenever and wherever they like. The privacy that is afforded by being able to read on one’s own computer or tablet allows one to read comfortably and at one’s own pace therefore promoting reading in a non-threatening environment with meaning and pleasure. An introduction to each story is available in audio-video format both in sign and regular language forms. It helps to introduce sign language as a regular form of communication at an early age to all children in an inclusive setting. The digital version of this reading series is available on NCERT website and the epathshala portal.

Sample Content:

https://nroer.gov.in/home/e-library

case study of a child with special needs in hindi

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case study of a child with special needs in hindi

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A CASE STUDY OF A CHILD WITH SPECIAL NEED/LEARNING DIFFICULTY Researcher

Profile image of VIPAN RAJ

2018, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CREATIVE RESEARCH THOUGHTS(IJCRT)

The study has been conducted to investigate the levels and kind of difficulty the child/student is facing in learning things in or outside the classroom. It also examines the relationship between the school and home environment of the student with special needs who is facing difficulty in learning i.e. reading, writing listening or speaking. The case study was conducted by keen observations of the special needed child by involving and getting information directly from different reliable sources like,concerned teachers, peer groups from the school, parents, family members and peer groups of the child from the home environment. The tools used in the study were 1. Qustionnaire. 2. Direct observation. Etc.The study reveals the fact that the actually the child not having any slow learners like problem nor she is shy or un interested in learning by nature but she loves to read , learn , take part in different activities, she is having a creative mind by birth or nature but only the problem of her difficulties in learning is because of the depression she has laid in her mind of part of the home environment and improper treatment given to her by parents,family,teacher' s, elder' s in the school or at home.

Related Papers

The main purpose of this study was to find out the contributions and challenges of Sebeta Special School for the students with visual impairments. The research design used was qualitative case study method as this would enable the researcher to make in-depth study of the case from different perspectives. For responding to this main purpose of the study, purposive sampling was used and the subjects of the study were selected by purposive sampling technique as they were taught to have the necessary information for the problem under study. Accordingly, twelve teachers, (six males and six females), ten members of the support staff (five males and five females) and twelve students of grades five to eight (six males and six females) were selected for focus group discussions. Besides, interview was conducted with the director and vice-director of the school and two teachers (a male and a female) and two students of grades five to eight (a male and a female).Relevant documents and observation checklists were also used as data sources. Finally, the data collected were organized, thematically analyzed and presented. Regarding the contributions made, the findings revealed that the school has been serving the students as school to learn in and succeed, home to live in and family to leave with. There were also services being delivered for the students and different resources were also available in the special school. Findings displayed that challenges to the special school as manpower assignment was not need based and there were lack of skills necessary to run activities in the special school as reading and writing braille, inadequate budget and resources like student textbooks transcribed in to braille and wastages in usage of the available resources. Besides, there were conditions that violate the safety of students. The recommendations made included such things as alleviating the challenges the school encountered such as appropriate use of resource, availing the necessary resources as braille textbooks, budget and others.

case study of a child with special needs in hindi

CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research - Zenodo

Arpeeta Anand

IOSR Journals

" The ramification and still over effect of learning disability affect so much that education of school children find hard reality to attain its universal character. At the same time the problem continues to be the most baffling one for the state thriving for universalization of elementary education and ensuring right to education for all. Many interventions and policy measures although were initiated to increase the achievement level of students but at the Psycho-social level addressing the problem still remained attempted. Providing appropriate literacy and innumeracy learning opportunities especially, continues to be a challenge both for the teachers so also parents. Observing the gravity of the problem an earnest attempt has been made in this paper to understand the conflicting currents of the problem from a psycho-social perspective. A diagnosis also has been made to address the challenges of learning disability among school children, so that the objective of universalization of education could be well attained with.

Croatian Journal of Education - Hrvatski časopis za odgoj i obrazovanje

Jasna Kudek

Journal of emerging technologies and innovative research

Masrat Majeed

Learning Disorder is not single disorder but include disabilities in any of seven areas related to Reading, Language and Mathematics. These separate types of learning disabilities frequently co-occur with one-another and with Social Skill Deficits and Emotional or Behavioral Disorder. Approximately 7% of all school children under the age group of 3-6 years are identified as Learning Disability in the Composite Regional Centre (CRC) according the Survey done during the period of 2018. Using many tests and assessments, it was found that these children with LD are also attributed to other emotional or behavioral disorders. While learning disability, learning disorder and learning difficulty are often used interchangeably, they differ in many ways. Disorder refers to significant learning problems in an academic area. These problems, however, are not enough to warrant an official diagnosis. Learning disability, on the other hand, is an official clinical diagnosis, whereby the individual ...

SHODH SARITA

Arpeeta Anand , Mohd. Faijullah Khan (Asstt. Prof., IASE)

Specific Learning Disability (SLD) is a neurological problem which creates lots of challenges in the life of children. Academic challenges are the most significant one when it comes to SLD. Aims: To realize the academic challenges that children experienced with Specific Learning Disability. Setting and Design: Phenomenological method with purposive sampling technique was used to understand the perspective of children. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured Interview Schedule was administered on 10 SLD children who are already diagnosed by clinical psychologist studying in elementary grade i.e. 6th grade to 8th grade of private inclusive schools of Delhi. Analysis Used: Content Analysis was used to elicit the data from open-ended questions. Results: (i) Children with learning disability are not lazy & dumb, they perceive and process information in a different manner. (ii) They encounter difficulty in comprehending what they have read, experience making mistakes while reading, repeating the sentences, taking pause, trouble in remembering & mispronouncing same sounding words. (iii)Children doesn’t want to write because of the fright behind committing spelling mistakes. (iv) Many children experience problem of illegible writing, pain in hand, extra efforts & longer time for writing and trouble in expressing their own ideas & feelings in writing. (v)They struggle while comprehending & solving the word problems, issues of learning formulas, making things in order of operations, basic calculations, understanding time, directions, money related work and difficulty in keeping scores of games & matches. (vi) Have trouble in adjusting to new situations, take time to adapt new changes in their life, demand lots of coordination & organization, face problem in rote learning & remembering, comprehending meaning from text and thinking out of box (vii) Complained about inability to perform activities that require sequential order, meeting deadlines, following schedules, arranging things, setting priorities and managing time for themselves. (viii) Experience inability to interpret their own environment as a consequence react inappropriately, misunderstood situation and comprehend different meaning with incorrect interpretation. (ix) Trouble in understanding what they hear and making differences in sound, difficulty in comprehending meaning from sounds, require frequent repetition and struggle in remembering what they heard. (x) The foremost problem of misunderstanding in analyzing and synthesizing visually presented information. (xi)They experience inability to differentiate between same sounding words, struggle while copying from writing board, mispronouncing the words while reading, difficulty in comprehending meaning out of what they read and figuring out what is there in pictures & graphs. Conclusions: The present study has identified various challenges faced by children academically. Proper support & motivation of parents & teachers can help children in developing positive attitude towards learning. Keywords: Specific Learning Disability, Children, Education, Academic Challenges, Phenomenological Analysis

Science Park Research Organization & Counselling

This study aims to obtain problems encountered in special education in the direction of opinions of parents attending to Special Training and Rehabilitation Institution and develop solution suggestions compansating these problems. In the scope of study parents of 20 students were interviewed. Tha datas that were obtained as a result of qualitative semi-structured interview form, were analysed by descriptive analysis method. The participant parents were asked 7 questions about education period, physical conditions, difficulties they encountered regarding their children in the scope of relations of teachers with parents and managers and point of view of society. Most of the participants expressed problems such as most of the problems should be solved by top levels, training hours are insufficient and rejection of society.

Sara Sadiki , Fitore Bajrami

The qualitative method was the research method used in this study as the most appropriate to the purpose, objectives, and research questions of the study. The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of parents during education of their children with special needs. The research question of this study was: What experiences have parents had during the education of their children with special needs? The sample in this paper consists of 13 respondents, citizens of Debar parents of children with special needs. The interviewed sample consisted of 10 mothers and 3 fathers. From the analyzes made, it appears that 99% of parents regarding the inclusion of children answered that it is very necessary, they hope that these laws and rules are respected in schools, that there are no differences and discriminations with children, but that everyone is equal in the classroom and have maximum care, especially children with special needs. 46% of the parents answered that they got enough help from the school, they were not underestimated by others, the teacher supported them and helped them adapt, showing that the children were calmer and more productive. While 53.8% of parents answered that the school does not have help with their child, they express dissatisfaction and non-fulfillment of the conditions for work with children with special needs. Based on the analyzes carried out, 75% of the parents answered that they had difficulties with their child's adaptation to school, and the parents were also forced to stay with them in the classroom for several months.

Dr. Muhammad Irfan Arif

Authors: Kafiat Ullah Khan Research Scholar Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad E-mail: [email protected] Ameer Hasan MS(Management Sciences) Riphah International University Islamabad E-mail: [email protected] Muhammad Irfan Arif Ph.D Scholar University of Education Lahore E-mail: [email protected] "ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to explore and measure the perception and satisfaction level of parents of special children about the role of special education institutes in the adjustment of special children in their families. The researcher used two self developed questionnaires to collect the data about the problem under investigation, one questionnaire to explore the perception of parents of special children about the role of special education school in the adjustment of special children in their families and the other questionnaire to measure the satisfaction level of parents. All special children of District Bhakkar were constituted as target population for the study. The special children of Special Education School Bhakkar were assessable population for the study. Parents of sixty special children from Special Education School Bhakkar conveniently selected as a sample for the study. Simple descriptive statistical techniques such as mean and percentages were used to analyze the collected data. After careful data analysis the researchers concluded that the special education schools may play very vital role in the adjustment of special children in their family but unfortunately due to lack of resources and infrastructure they are not fulfilling the needs of special children and there is also some lack in the awareness about the importance of social adjustment of special children in their families. The researcher identified very important needs, problems, self concept, and adjustment problems of special children through review of literature and research. Key Words: Special Education , Special Children , Family Adjustment "

The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention

Ermira Tati

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  16. PM e-Vidya

    Various steps are being taken to bring children with special needs (CwSN) to schools such as the National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT) has developed exemplar material for providing low cost quality home education to students with severe disabilities through e-learning. NCERT text books have been converted into digital ...

  17. PDF Challenges and activities for supporting Children with Special Needs

    Parents of children with special needs were required to play the role of teacher, therapist, peer and parent while they work from home. Parents are not trained in speech physiotherapy and other therapies. Lockdown is difficult for the deaf children as most of the parents were unable to comprehend the signs of their kids.

  18. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Three Case Studies

    These policy documents can help clinicians navigate the case studies presented below and assist with their own decisions about assessment and intervention tools and strategies. The following case studies present three different children with ASD and describe the SLP's strategies to enhance communication and quality of life.

  19. (PDF) Identification of Learning Disabilities in India: Current

    Through the lens of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), teachers can ensure their classes are designed to serve all students, including children with special needs. This paper will share how UDL ...

  20. (Pdf) a Case Study of A Child With Special Need/Learning Difficulty

    I- Research proposed / Case Study: A Case Study on a actual situation:In this activity I Mr Vipan Raj Sardar Patel University Balaghat,{MP} have taken a real situation of a student/ child of a village, Jagota of tehsil Bhella , District Doda Jammu & Kashmir (India) from class 6th from a government school with special need/learning difficulty ...

  21. Positive behavioural support for children and young people with

    Background. Positive behavioural support (PBS) can be effective in supporting children and young people (CYP) with developmental disabilities. This systematic review focused on describing the components and nine characteristics of PBS that have been used with CYP with developmental disabilities in special education settings, and the evidence for PBS effectiveness in these settings.

  22. PDF CASE STUDIES OF STUDENTS WITH EXCEPTIONAL NEEDS

    The Web site for the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC). This national organization is important for special education teachers and others who deal with children with special needs. Case Studies of Students With Exceptional Needs113. 05-Campoy.qxd 6/23/2004 7:33 PM Page 113.

  23. Case Study Hindi PDF

    case study hindi.pdf - Free download as PDF File (.pdf) or read online for free.