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Cephalic Position: Getting Baby in the Right Position for Birth

types of cephalic presentation

You know your busy bean is exploring their digs because sometimes you can feel those little feet kick you in the ribs (ouch!) to help propel them along. Just think of them as a little astronaut attached to you — the mother ship — with their oxygen (umbilical) cord.

Your baby may start moving around before you’re barely 14 weeks pregnant. However, you probably won’t feel anything until about the 20 th week of pregnancy.

If your baby is bouncing around or turning in your womb, it’s a good sign. A moving baby is a healthy baby. There are even cute names for when you first feel your baby moving, like “fluttering” and “quickening.” Your baby’s movement is most important in the third trimester .

By this time, your growing baby may not be moving that much because the womb isn’t as roomy as it used to be. But your baby can probably still do acrobatic flips and turn himself upside down. Your doctor will closely monitor where your baby’s head is as your due date nears.

Your baby’s position inside you can make all the difference in how you give birth. Most babies automatically get into the head-first cephalic position just before they are born.

What is cephalic position?

If you’re getting closer to your exciting due date, you might have heard your doctor or midwife mention the term cephalic position or cephalic presentation. This is the medical way of saying that baby is bottom and feet up with their head down near the exit, or birth canal.

It’s difficult to know which way is up when you’re floating in a warm bubble, but most babies (up to 96 percent) are ready to go in the head-first position before birth. The safest delivery for you and your baby is for them to squeeze through the birth canal and into the world headfirst.

Your doctor will start checking your baby’s position at week 34 to 36 of your pregnancy. If your baby is not head down by week 36, your doctor might try to gently nudge them into position.

Keep in mind, though, that positions can continue to change, and your baby’s position really doesn’t come into play until you’re ready to deliver.

There are two kinds of cephalic (head-down) positions that your little one might assume:

Some babies in the head-first cephalic position might even have their heads tilted back so they move through the birth canal and enter the world face first. But this is very rare and most common in preterm (early) deliveries.

What are the other positions?

Your baby might settle into a breech (bottom-down) position or even a transverse (sideways) position.

A breech baby can cause complications for both mom and baby. This is because the birth canal has to open wider if your baby decides to come out bottom first. It’s also easier for their legs or arms to get tangled up a bit as they slide out. However, only about four percent of babies are in the bottom-first position when it’s time for delivery.

There are also different kinds of breech positions your baby could be in:

A sideways position where your baby is lying horizontally across your stomach is also called a transverse lie. Some babies start like this close to your due date but then decide to shift all the way into the head-first cephalic position.

So if your baby is settled across your stomach like they’re swinging in a hammock, they may just be tired and taking a break from all the moving before another shift.

In rare cases, a baby can get wedged sideways in the womb (and not because the poor thing didn’t try moving). In these cases, your doctor might recommend a cesarean section (C-section) for your delivery.

How do you know what position your baby is in?

Your doctor can find out exactly where your baby is by:

If you’re already in labor and your baby is not turning into a cephalic presentation — or suddenly decides to acrobat into a different position — your doctor might be concerned about your delivery.

Other things that your doctor has to check include where the placenta and umbilical cord are inside your womb. A moving baby can sometimes get their foot or hand caught in their umbilical cord. Your doctor might have to decide on the spot whether a C-section is better for you and your baby.

How can you tell your baby’s position?

You might be able to tell what position your baby is in by where you feel their little feet practice their soccer kick. If your baby is in a breech (bottom-first) position, you might feel kicking in your lower stomach or groin area. If your baby is in the cephalic (head-down) position, they might score a goal in your ribs or upper stomach.

If you rub your belly, you might be able to feel your baby well enough to figure out what position they’re in. A long smooth area is likely your little one’s back, a round hard area is their head, while bumpy parts are legs and arms. Other curved areas are probably a shoulder, hand, or foot. You might even see the impression of a heel or hand against the inside of your belly!

What is lightening?

Your baby will likely naturally drop into a cephalic (head-down) position sometime between weeks 37 to 40 of your pregnancy. This strategic positional change by your brilliant little one is called “lightening.” You might feel a heavy or full sense in your lower stomach — that’s baby’s head!

You might also notice that your belly button is now more of an “outie” than an “innie.” That’s also your baby’s head and upper body pushing against your stomach.

As your baby gets into cephalic position, you might suddenly notice that you can breathe more deeply because they’re not pushing up any longer. However, you might have to pee even more often because your baby is pushing against your bladder.

Can your baby be turned?

Stroking your belly helps you feel your baby, and your baby feels you right back. Sometimes stroking or tapping your stomach over the baby will get them to move . There are also some at-home methods for turning a baby, like inversions or yoga positions.

Doctors use a technique called external cephalic version (ECV) to get a breech baby into cephalic position. This involves massaging and pushing on your belly to help nudge your baby in the right direction. In some cases, medications that help you and your muscles relax can help turn your baby.

If your baby is already in cephalic position but not quite facing the right way, a doctor can sometimes reach through the vagina during labor to help gently turn baby the other way.

Of course, turning a baby also depends on how large they are — and how petite you are. And if you’re pregnant with multiples, your babies can be changing positions even during birth as the space in your womb opens up.

About 95 percent of babies drop down into the head-first position a few weeks or days before their due date. This is called the cephalic position, and it’s safest for mom and baby when it comes to giving birth.

There are different kinds of cephalic positions. The most common and safest one is where baby is facing your back. If your little one decides to change positions or refuses to float head down in your womb, your doctor might be able to coax him into the cephalic position.

Other baby positions like breech (bottom first) and transverse (sideways) might mean that you must have a C-section delivery. Your doctor will help you decide what’s best for you and your little one when it’s time for delivery.

Last medically reviewed on May 19, 2020

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Fetal Positions for Birth

What does fetal positioning mean?

The presentation of the fetus is how it's positioned in the uterus. Throughout your pregnancy, the fetus will move around in your uterus. It’s normal for the fetus to be in a variety of positions during most of your pregnancy. Early on, the fetus is small enough to move freely. You may have even felt this movement over the last few months. The larger the fetus becomes, however, the more limited the movement becomes. As the end of the pregnancy approaches, the fetus will start to move into position for birth. This typically involves flipping over so that it's head down in your uterus. Then, it starts to move down in your uterus, preparing to go through your birth canal during childbirth.

The birth canal is made up of your cervix (immediately outside of your uterus), vagina and vulva. Think of the birth canal as an expandable tunnel. During labor, your contractions work to stretch this space so that the baby can pass through it during childbirth.

What is the most common position for childbirth?

Ideally for labor, the baby is positioned head-down, facing the mother’s back with the chin tucked to its chest and the back of the head ready to enter the pelvis. This position is called cephalic presentation. Most babies settle into this position within the 32nd to 36th weeks of pregnancy.

What other positions can the baby be in for childbirth?

Sometimes the baby doesn’t get into the perfect position before birth. There are several positions that the baby can be in and each of these positions could come with complications during childbirth. These fetal positions can include:

Is my baby at risk if it’s in a breech position?

A breech birth is when the baby is positioned with its feet down in the birth canal. While in the uterus, the fetus isn’t in any danger. However, in this position, the baby would be born foot first. A vaginal delivery is often a very safe form of childbirth, however, when the baby is breech, a vaginal delivery can be complicated. Because the baby’s head is larger than the bottom, there is a risk of head entrapment where the baby’s head becomes stuck in your uterus. In this situation, the baby can be difficult to deliver. Some babies in the breech position may want to come in a hurry during labor. Some providers are comfortable performing a vaginal birth as long as the baby is doing well. In many cases, your healthcare provider may recommend a cesarean birth (C-section) instead of a vaginal birth. This is a surgical procedure where an incision is made in your abdomen and the baby is removed in an operating room. There’s a lot less risk to the baby during this procedure compared to a breech vaginal birth.

Why does the position of the baby at birth matter?

During childbirth, your healthcare provider’s goal is to safely deliver your baby and ensure your well-being. If the baby is in a different position (not a cephalic presentation), this job becomes more challenging. Different fetal positions have a range of difficulties and the risks can vary depending on the position of your child.

When should my baby move into position for birth?

Typically, your baby will drop down in the uterus and move into position for birth in the third trimester. This happens in the last few weeks of your pregnancy (often between weeks 32 and 36). Your healthcare provider will check the position of the baby by touching your abdomen during your regular appointments. This will happen during most of your appointments in the third trimester. In some cases, your provider may also do an ultrasound to check the baby’s position.

Can my healthcare provider turn or reposition my baby before birth?

There are several ways that your healthcare provider can try and turn the fetus before you go into labor. These methods don’t always work and sometimes, the fetus can actually turn back into the wrong position again. You can actually try some of these techniques at home and they won’t harm you or the fetus. They might encourage the fetus to turn on its own, but there’s also a chance that nothing will happen. Even though there isn’t a guaranteed success rate, these methods are still recommended because they’re usually worth a try and could help you avoid a C-section delivery.

Methods for turning your baby can include:

A chiropractic technique, called the Webster technique, can also be used to move your hips. This is meant to allow your uterus to relax. Some providers even recommend acupuncture to help your body relax. Both of these techniques need to be done by a professional that your healthcare provider has recommended. Relaxation could promote movement in the baby and help get the fetus into the best possible position for birth.

Can my baby change position on its own?

It’s always possible that your baby will reposition all on its own. In the weeks leading up to birth, the baby still has time to make adjustments and change position. Most find their own way into the correct position before birth.

How is the baby delivered when it’s breech or in another position?

Most birth plans begin with the idea of having a vaginal birth. Your provider will look at your medical history, the scans of your baby throughout your pregnancy and the position of the fetus to pick the safest form of delivery. When the fetus is in a breech position or another abnormal position, your healthcare provider may suggest a cesarean section (C-section) delivery. This is a surgical procedure where an incision is made in your lower abdomen. The baby is delivered through this opening instead of through the birth canal.

It is possible to deliver a breech baby vaginally. However, this type of birth can be much more dangerous for the baby and the risk of injury from the umbilical cord is much higher. If the cord is compressed during birth, the baby could be deprived of oxygen and this could harm the brain and nerves. The cord could also slip around the baby’s neck or arms, causing injury. Different healthcare providers have various levels of comfort with vaginal deliveries of breech babies. Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of different types of birth for a breech baby.

Does anything increase my risk of having a dangerous fetal position?

There are several factors that could increase the risk of a fetal position like a breech presentation. These can include:

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Learning that the fetus is in a breech or other complicated position before birth can add to the anxiety that often surrounds childbirth. It’s alright to have concerns and questions about what this means for your birth experience. You may have developed a birth plan during your pregnancy. A birth plan is an ideal plan for your labor and delivery. These plans can be very helpful as a tool. Take your birth plan to an appointment and talk to your healthcare provider about what you are picturing for your labor and delivery. Your provider can help guide you through not only the ideal plan, but an emergency plan. Remember, things can change quickly during childbirth. Having a C-section may not be a part of your birth plan. However, the goal is to safely deliver your child and protect your health. Talk to your healthcare provider about questions and any concerns you might have about your baby’s position.

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

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Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

, MD, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Abnormal Presentations

Shoulder dystocia.

types of cephalic presentation

Position refers to whether the fetus is facing rearward (toward the woman’s back—that is, face down when the woman lies on her back) or forward (face up).

types of cephalic presentation

Presentation refers to the part of the fetus’s body that leads the way out through the birth canal (called the presenting part). Usually, the head leads the way, but sometimes the buttocks or a shoulder leads the way.

The most common and safest combination consists of the following:

Head first (called vertex or cephalic presentation)

Facing rearward

Face and body angled toward the right or left

Neck bent forward

Chin tucked in

Arms folded across the chest

If the fetus is in a different position or presentation, labor may be more difficult, and delivery through the vagina may not be possible.

Position and Presentation of the Fetus

There are several abnormal presentations.

Occiput posterior presentation

In occiput posterior presentation (also called sunny-side up), the fetus is head first but is facing up (toward the mother's abdomen). It is the most common abnormal position or presentation.

Cesarean Delivery

Breech presentation

In breech presentation, the buttocks or sometimes the feet present first. Breech presentation occurs in 3 to 4% of full-term deliveries. It is the second most common type of abnormal presentation.

When delivered vaginally, babies that present buttocks first are more likely to be injured than those that present head first. Such injuries may occur before, during, or after birth. The baby may even die. Complications are less likely when breech presentation is detected before labor or delivery.

Breech presentation is more likely to occur in the following circumstances:

Labor starts too soon ( preterm labor Preterm Labor Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered preterm. Babies born prematurely can have serious health problems. The diagnosis of preterm labor is usually obvious. Measures such... read more ).


The fetus has a birth defect Overview of Birth Defects Birth defects, also called congenital anomalies, are physical abnormalities that occur before a baby is born. They are usually obvious within the first year of life. The cause of many birth... read more .

Sometimes the doctor can turn the fetus to present head first by pressing on the woman’s abdomen before labor begins, usually after 37 weeks of pregnancy. Some women are given a drug (such as terbutaline ) to prevent labor from starting too soon. If labor begins and the fetus is in breech presentation, problems may occur.

The passageway made by the buttocks in the birth canal may not be large enough for the head (which is wider) to pass through. In addition, when the head follows the buttocks, it cannot be molded to fit through the birth canal, as it normally is. Thus, the baby’s body may be delivered and the head may be caught inside the woman. When the baby’s head is caught, it puts pressure on the umbilical cord in the birth canal, so that very little oxygen can reach the baby. Brain damage due to lack of oxygen is more common among babies presenting buttocks first than among those presenting head first.

In a first delivery, these problems may occur more frequently because the woman’s tissues have not been stretched by previous deliveries. Because the baby could be injured or die, cesarean delivery is preferred when the fetus is in breech presentation unless the doctor is very experienced with and skilled at delivering breech babies.

Other presentations

In face presentation , the neck arches back so that the face presents first.

In brow presentation , the neck is moderately arched so that the brow presents first.

Usually, fetuses do not stay in a face or brow presentation. They often correct themselves. If they do not, forceps, vacuum extractor, or cesarean delivery may be used.

In transverse lie , the fetus lies horizontally across the birth canal and presents shoulder first. A cesarean delivery is done, unless the fetus is the second in a set of twins. In such a case, the fetus may be turned to be delivered through the vagina.

Shoulder dystocia occurs when one shoulder of the fetus lodges against the woman’s pubic bone, and the baby is therefore caught in the birth canal.

In shoulder dystocia, the fetus is positioned normally Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Position refers to whether the fetus is facing rearward (toward the woman’s back—that is, face down when the woman lies on her back) or forward (face up). It’s important to check the baby’s... read more (head first) for delivery, but the fetus’s shoulder becomes lodged against the woman’s pubic bone as the fetus’s head comes out. (The two pubic bones are part of the pelvic bone. They are joined together by cartilage at the bottom of the pelvis, behind the vaginal opening.) Consequently, the head is pulled back tightly against the vaginal opening. The baby cannot breathe because the chest and umbilical cord are compressed by the birth canal. As a result, oxygen levels in the baby’s blood decrease.

Shoulder dystocia is not common, but it is more common when any of the following is present:

A large fetus Large-for-Gestational-Age (LGA) Newborns A newborn who weighs more than 90% of newborns of the same gestational age at birth (above the 90th percentile) is considered large for gestational age. Newborns may be large because the parents... read more is present.

Labor is difficult, long, or rapid.

A vacuum extractor or forceps Operative Vaginal Delivery Operative vaginal delivery is delivery using a vacuum extractor or forceps. A vacuum extractor consists of a small cup made of a rubberlike material that is connected to a vacuum. It is inserted... read more is used because the fetus’s head has not fully moved down (descended) in the pelvis.

Women are obese.

Women have diabetes Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high. Urination and thirst are... read more .

Women have had a previous baby with shoulder dystocia.

Delivery of the baby

Shoulder dystocia increases the risk of problems and of death in the newborn. The newborn's bones may be broken during delivery, and the brachial plexus Plexus Disorders Plexuses (networks of interwoven nerve fibers from different spinal nerves) may be damaged by injury, tumors, pockets of blood (hematomas), or autoimmune reactions. Pain, weakness, and loss... read more (the network of nerves that sends signals from the spinal cord to the shoulders, arms, and hands) may be injured. The woman is also more likely to have problems such as

Excessive bleeding at delivery (postpartum hemorrhage)

Tears in the area between the vaginal opening and the anus

Injury of muscles in the genital area and nerves in the groin

Separation of the pubic bones.

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Illustration of babies in various fetal positions

While babies twist, stretch and tumble during pregnancy, before labor begins they usually settle in a way that allows them to be delivered headfirst (cephalic presentation) through the birth canal. That doesn't always happen, though.

Check out some of the possible fetal presentations and positions at the end of pregnancy and find out how they can affect delivery.

Illustration of babies in various fetal positions

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Cephalic presentation

October 14, 2016

A cephalic presentation or head presentation or head-first presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lie and the head enters the pelvis first; the most common form of cephalic presentation is the vertex presentation where the occiput is the leading part (the part that first enters the birth canal). All other presentations are abnormal (malpresentations) which are either more difficult to deliver or not deliverable by natural means.

The movement of the fetus to cephalic presentation is called head engagement. It occurs in the third trimester. In head engagement, the fetal head descends into the pelvic cavity so that only a small part (or none) of it can be felt abdominally. The perineum and cervix are further flattened and the head may be felt vaginally. Head engagement is known colloquially as the baby drop, and in natural medicine as the lightening because of the release of pressure on the upper abdomen and renewed ease in breathing. However, it severely reduces bladder capacity, increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum, and the mother may experience the perpetual sensation that the fetus will “fall out” at any moment.

The vertex is the area of the vault bounded anteriorly by the anterior fontanelle and the coronal suture, posteriorly by the posterior fontanelle and the lambdoid suture and laterally by 2 lines passing through the parietal eminences.

In the vertex presentation the occiput typically is anterior and thus in an optimal position to negotiate the pelvic curve by extending the head. In an occiput posterior position, labor becomes prolonged and more operative interventions are deemed necessary. The prevalence of the persistent occiput posterior is given as 4.7 %

The vertex presentations are further classified according to the position of the occiput, it being right, left, or transverse, and anterior or posterior:

Left Occipito-Anterior (LOA), Left Occipito-Posterior (LOP), Left Occipito-Transverse (LOT); Right Occipito-Anterior (ROA), Right Occipito-Posterior (ROP), Right Occipito-Transverse (ROT);

By Mikael Häggström – Own work, Public Domain  

Cephalic presentation. (2016, September 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . Retrieved 05:18, September 17, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cephalic_presentation&oldid=739815165

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Important Terms Used to Describe the Fetal Relationship to the Maternal Pelvis

What Is Cephalic Position?

The ideal fetal position for labor and delivery

types of cephalic presentation

Cherie Berkley is an award-winning journalist and multimedia storyteller covering health features for Verywell.

types of cephalic presentation

Monique Rainford, MD, is board-certified in obstetrics-gynecology, and currently serves as an Assistant Clinical Professor at Yale Medicine. She is the former chief of obstetrics-gynecology at Yale Health.

Risks of Other Positions

The cephalic position is when a fetus is head down, facing back, with the chin tucked and the back of the head ready to enter the birth canal. This is one of a few variations of how a fetus can rest in the womb and is considered the ideal one for labor and delivery.

About 96% of babies are born in the cephalic position. Most settle into it between the 32nd and 36th weeks of pregnancy . Your healthcare provider will monitor the fetus's position during the last weeks of gestation to ensure this has happened by week 36.

If the fetus is not in the cephalic position at that point, the provider may try to turn it. If this doesn't work, some—but not all—practitioners will attempt to deliver vaginally, while others will recommend a Cesarean (C-section).

Getty Images

Why Is the Cephalic Position Best?

During labor, contractions stretch the birth canal so the fetus has adequate room to come through at birth. The cephalic position is the easiest and safest way for the baby to pass through the birth canal.

If the fetus is in a noncephalic position, delivery becomes more challenging. Different fetal positions have a range of difficulties and varying risks.

A small percentage of babies present in noncephalic positions. This can pose risks both to the fetus and the mother, and make labor and delivery more challenging. It can also influence the way in which someone can deliver.

A fetus may actually find itself in any of these positions throughout pregnancy, as the move about the uterus. But as they grow, there will be less room to tumble around and they will settle into a final position.

It is at this point that noncephalic positions can pose significant risks.

Cephalic Posterior

A fetus may also present in an occiput or cephalic posterior position. This means they are positioned head down, but they are facing the abdomen instead of the back.

This position is also nicknamed "sunny-side up."

Presenting this way increases the chance of a painful and prolonged delivery.

There are three different types of breech fetal positioning:

A vaginal delivery is most times a safe way to deliver. But with breech positions, a vaginal delivery can be complicated.

When a baby is born in the breech position, the largest part—its head—is delivered last. This can result in them getting stuck in the birth canal (entrapped). This can cause injury or death.

The umbilical cord may also be damaged or slide down into the mouth of the womb, which can reduce or cut off the baby's oxygen supply.

Some providers are still comfortable performing a vaginal birth as long as the fetus is doing well. But breech is always a riskier delivery position compared with the cephalic position, and most cases require a C-section.

Likelihood of a Breech Baby

You are more likely to have a breech baby if you:

Transverse Lie

In transverse lie position, the fetus is presenting sideways across the uterus rather than vertically. They may be:

If a transverse lie is not corrected before labor, a C-section will be required. This is typically the case.

Determining Fetal Position

Your healthcare provider can determine if your baby is in cephalic presentation by performing a physical exam and ultrasound.

In the final weeks of pregnancy, your healthcare provider will feel your lower abdomen with their hands to assess the positioning of the baby. This includes where the head, back, and buttocks lie

If your healthcare provider senses that the fetus is in a breech position, they can use ultrasound to confirm their suspicion.

Turning a Fetus So They Are in Cephalic Position

External cephalic version (ECV) is a common, noninvasive procedure to turn a breech baby into cephalic position while it's still in the uterus.

This is only considered if a healthcare provider monitors presentation progress in the last trimester and notices that a fetus is maintaining a noncephalic position as your delivery date approaches.

They may also recommended several other ways to encourage a head-down position.

None of these options are sure to work or have long-lasting results, however.

External Cephalic Version (ECV)

ECV involves the healthcare provider applying pressure to your stomach to turn the fetus from the outside. They will attempt to rotate the head forward or backward and lift the buttocks in an upward position. Sometimes, they use ultrasound to help guide the process.

The best time to perform ECV is about 37 weeks of pregnancy. Afterward, the fetal heart rate will be monitored to make sure it’s within normal levels. You should be able to go home after having ECV done.

ECV has a 50% to 60% success rate. However, even if it does work, there is still a chance the fetus will return to the breech position before birth.

Natural Methods For Turning a Fetus

There are also natural methods that can help turn a fetus into cephalic position. There is no medical research that confirms their efficacy, however.

A Word From Verywell

While most babies are born in cephalic position at delivery, this is not always the case. And while some fetuses can be turned, others may be more stubborn.

This may affect your labor and delivery wishes. Try to remember that having a healthy baby, and staying well yourself, are your ultimate priorities. That may mean diverting from your best laid plans.

Speaking to your healthcare provider about turning options and the safest route of delivery may help you adjust to this twist and feel better about how you will move ahead.

Glezerman M. Planned vaginal breech delivery: current status and the need to reconsider . Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2012;7(2):159-166. doi:10.1586/eog.12.2

Cleveland Clinic. Fetal positions for birth .

MedlinePlus. Breech birth .

UT Southwestern Medical Center. Can you turn a breech baby around?

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. If your baby is breech .

Roecker CB. Breech repositioning unresponsive to Webster technique: coexistence of oligohydramnios .  Journal of Chiropractic Medicine . 2013;12(2):74-78. doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2013.06.003

By Cherie Berkley, MS Cherie Berkley is an award-winning journalist and multimedia storyteller covering health features for Verywell.

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Physicians & Midwives ObGyn

Which Way is Up? What Your Baby’s Position Means for Your Delivery

types of cephalic presentation

Are you going to be able to have a vaginal delivery? Will your labor pains be more in your pelvis or your back? The answers to these questions depend in large part of the position of your baby in your uterus as you go into labor. Medical professionals call this position the fetal presentation .

Cephalic presentation

Almost all (95-97%) babies are delivered in head-first or cephalic presentation. Most babies move into the head down position by the third trimester. Cephalic presentation is further broken down by the position of the head; in the vast majority of cephalic deliveries, the crown or top of the head (called the vertex ), enters the birth canal first and is the first part of the baby to be delivered. This is why we say a baby is ‘crowning’.

In most cases of vertex presentation, the back of the baby’s head (called the occiput ) is toward the front ( anterior ) of the mother’s pelvis. This presentation is called occiput anterior , and is considered the best position for a vaginal delivery. Around 5% of babies are delivered in the occiput posterior position, where the back of the baby’s head is toward the mother’s backbone and tailbone. This is popularly believed to be the cause of painful ‘back labor’, although the scientific support for this is somewhat lacking. What is known is that the occiput posterior (OP) presentation can significantly prolong labor, and is three times more likely than occiput anterior (OA) presentation to result in cesarean section. This is because the position of the baby makes it harder to pass through the birth canal. Occiput presentation is more common in older and first-time mothers, as well as with larger or overdue babies. Surfing the internet will provide you with many different exercises which claim to prevent occiput posterior presentation, but none of these have been scientifically proven to be of benefit.

Rarely (around 1 in every 800 births), the baby will present face-first instead of with the top of the head. Around 70% of these babies can be delivered vaginally, although the labor may be mildly prolonged. The remainder tend to be delivered by cesarean section either because the labor is not progressing or because the doctor or midwife is concerned about the baby’s heart rate.

Breech presentation

Breech presentation occurs when a baby enters the birth canal with the buttocks or feet first, rather than the head. This prevents the cervix (opening to the uterus) from dilating effectively, and can lead to problems with the umbilical cord becoming pinched/compressed. Breech presentations occur in approximately 3-4% of deliveries, and are more likely in premature births and with multiple babies (e.g. twins and triplets). While breech babies can be delivered vaginally, studies have found that vaginal deliveries are around three times more likely to result in serious harm to the baby than cesarean sections. Therefore, in most cases in the US, breech babies are delivered by c-section. Your midwife or doctor may diagnose a breech presentation by physical exam and/or ultrasound.

Shoulder presentation

Shoulder presentation is uncommon, occurring in less than 1% of deliveries.  This occurs when the baby is lying sideways in the uterus, rather than head down or buttocks/feet down. If labor starts with the baby in this position, the shoulder becomes wedged in the pelvis and the labor cannot progress. Almost all babies with shoulder presentation will need to be delivered by cesarean section. Shoulder presentation, like breech presentation, is more common in premature babies or in the setting of multiple gestations.

The chances are good that your baby will know which way is up; in the case of labor and delivery, this means head down. Attending your regular prenatal visits will allow your doctor or midwife to keep a close eye on your baby, and plan the safest delivery for the two of you.

types of cephalic presentation

Author:  Physicians & Midwives

Physicians and Midwives is composed of a team of doctors , midwives , and nurse practitioners that practice in five centers spread out across Northern Virginia ( Alexandria , North Arlington , Kingstowne , Mt. Vernon and Woodbridge ). Telemedicine is also available. We understand that our patients are time sensitive and our office hours and locations are in place to stress convenience. In addition, our dedicated call center is in place during office hours to facilitate your requests for medication refills, lab results or questions about your treatment. Read more

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