A Perspective on Arc Welding Research: The Importance of the Arc, Unresolved Questions and Future Directions

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  • Published: 22 March 2015
  • Volume 35 , pages 471–489, ( 2015 )

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  • Anthony B. Murphy 1  

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The state-of-the-art on arc welding research is considered, with unresolved questions and future directions highlighted. Both diagnostics and modelling are discussed. The focus is on the arc plasma, and its interactions with the electrode and workpiece, in tungsten–inert-gas and metal–inert-gas welding. Areas in which the need for further work is identified include development of techniques to measure current density distributions, calculation of the distribution of different gasses in the arc plasma (for example vapours of different metallic elements when welding alloys), computational methods for modelling metal transfer, and treatments of the sheath regions. It is shown that a thorough understanding of the arc is important in welding research and development. For example, reliable calculation of the heat flux to the workpiece requires the interactions between the arc and electrodes to be considered. Computational models of welding that take into account these interactions can already predict the shape and depth of the weld pool. Extensions of these methods would enable the determination of important properties of the welded metal, such as microstructure, residual stress and distortion, raising the possibility of the development of a “virtual manufacturing” capability.

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Murphy, A.B. A Perspective on Arc Welding Research: The Importance of the Arc, Unresolved Questions and Future Directions. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 35 , 471–489 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-015-9620-2

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Received : 19 January 2015

Accepted : 26 February 2015

Published : 22 March 2015

Issue Date : May 2015

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-015-9620-2

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Computer Science > Computation and Language

Title: realm: reference resolution as language modeling.

Abstract: Reference resolution is an important problem, one that is essential to understand and successfully handle context of different kinds. This context includes both previous turns and context that pertains to non-conversational entities, such as entities on the user's screen or those running in the background. While LLMs have been shown to be extremely powerful for a variety of tasks, their use in reference resolution, particularly for non-conversational entities, remains underutilized. This paper demonstrates how LLMs can be used to create an extremely effective system to resolve references of various types, by showing how reference resolution can be converted into a language modeling problem, despite involving forms of entities like those on screen that are not traditionally conducive to being reduced to a text-only modality. We demonstrate large improvements over an existing system with similar functionality across different types of references, with our smallest model obtaining absolute gains of over 5% for on-screen references. We also benchmark against GPT-3.5 and GPT-4, with our smallest model achieving performance comparable to that of GPT-4, and our larger models substantially outperforming it.

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Fatal Traffic Risks With a Total Solar Eclipse in the US

  • 1 Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2 Evaluative Clinical Science Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 3 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 4 Division of General Internal Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 5 Center for Leading Injury Prevention Practice Education & Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 6 Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 7 Centre for Clinical Epidemiology & Evaluation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

A total solar eclipse occurs when the moon temporarily obscures the sun and casts a dark shadow across the earth. This astronomical spectacle has been described for more than 3 millennia and can be predicted with high precision. Eclipse-related solar retinopathy (vision loss from staring at the sun) is an established medical complication; however, other medical outcomes have received little attention. 1

Read More About

Redelmeier DA , Staples JA. Fatal Traffic Risks With a Total Solar Eclipse in the US. JAMA Intern Med. Published online March 25, 2024. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2023.5234

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  3. Intelligent welding system technologies: State-of-the-art review and

    1. Introduction. Welding processes and systems play an important role in modern industrial production lines. After decades of evolution, many welding operations using handheld-tools have been replaced by automated welding systems using industrial robots [[1], [2], [3]].While welding robots have been in use for decades, they are preprogrammed machines with limited, if any, intelligence.

  4. Weld optimisation: Science and Technology of Welding and Joining: Vol

    These optimisation problems were formulated as either a single-objective or multi-objectives or many-objectives ones. Both traditional and nature-inspired optimisation tools were used for the said purposes. This paper provides an extensive review on the role of optimisation in welding. Some research areas have also been identified for future study.

  5. A roadmap for selection of metal welding process: a review and

    This study aims to report the progress and latest status of the "selection of welding process" problem in terms of research, developments, and applications. In addition, it introduces guidelines to serve constructing future expert systems for the problem. Therefore, it presents an extensive literature review on the approaches used to model and solve the problem over 36 years. Hence ...

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    REVIEW PAPER A Perspective on Arc Welding Research: The Importance of the Arc, Unresolved Questions and Future Directions Anthony B. Murphy1 Received: 19 January 2015/Accepted: 26 February 2015/Published online: 22 March 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015 Abstract The state-of-the-art on arc welding research is considered, with ...

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    submerged arc welding process. This paper also focused on analysis of some research papers containing heat input rate, cooling rate of weld, micro structure of weld and heat affected zone and their effect on the performance of the joint Keywords: Process Parameters, Cooling rate, Submerged Arc Welding, Current, Microstructure, HAZ

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    The American Welding Society gratefully acknowledges the time and effort expended by the members of the Research Committee and the Research Finance Committee and the financial support of the program by industry contributions. Supporting Organizations Alloy Rods Division of Allegheny Ludlum Steel Company Westinghouse Electric Company Airco, Inc.

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    2. Welding power supply development This paper uses the method of melting gas metal arc welding (GMAW), a 600A all-digital inverter structure underwater dedicated welding power supply is equipped with the experiment. The core of the welding power supply is ARM Cortex-M4 microprocessor, which has a dedicated floating-point unit

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    population parameters, this technique is often used for research, especially in experimental research design [10]. 3. Results Calculation of Pull Test Based on the tensile test on one of the normal specimens or without the welding process and the heating process, it is known that the material strength is based on the following data: Dimension of


    WELDING RESEARCH. Published 2002. Materials Science, Engineering. -S 211 WELDING JOURNAL ABSTRACT. The mechanisms by which liquation is initiated in the partially melted zone of wrought, multicomponent aluminum alloys during welding were studied using three representative liquationsusceptible alloys 2024, 6061 and 7075 as examples.


    -s 11 WELDING JOURNAL ABSTRACT. Double-electrode gas metal arc welding (DE-GMAW) is a novel welding process recently developed to increase welding productivity while maintaining the base metal heat input at a desired low level. In this paper, the DE-GMAW process was improved by replacing its nonconsumable tungsten electrode with a consumable welding wire electrode resulting in a new process ...


    This paper presents two possibilities of martensitic (fine grain and coarse grain) microstructure preparation. These microstructures are present as sub-zones in the heat-affected zone of welded joints. Due to the narrow region of HAZ in a real weld, only a few tests are possible to perform such as micro-hardness.

  16. PDF Scrutinize Research on Underwater Welding Process: A Review

    Scrutinize Research On Underwater Welding Process: A Review DOI: 10.9790/1684-1305067478 www.iosrjournals.org 77 | Page Fig-5. V. Underwater Welding: Future Scope Of Development. Wet MMA is still being used for underwater repairs, but the quality of wet welds is poor and is prone to hydrogen cracking.


    WELDING RESEARCH. ft W. Nichols. Published 2013. Engineering, Materials Science. Dr. R. W. Nichols is Deputy Head of the UK Atomic Energy Authority's Engineering and Materials Laboratory at Risley, Warrington, England. After qualifying as an Air Engineer at Loughborough College he spent some time in the Navy and then studied for a metallurgy ...

  18. PDF arXiv:2403.20329v1 [cs.CL] 29 Mar 2024

    Transactions on Machine Learning Research. Yang Xu, Yiheng Xu, Tengchao Lv, Lei Cui, Furu Wei, Guoxin Wang, Yijuan Lu, Dinei Florencio, Cha Zhang, Wanxiang Che, Min Zhang, and Lidong Zhou. 2021.LayoutLMv2: Multi-modal pre-training for visually-rich document understanding. In Proceed-ings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for

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    We present Stable Video 3D (SV3D) -- a latent video diffusion model for high-resolution, image-to-multi-view generation of orbital videos around a 3D object. Recent work on 3D generation propose techniques to adapt 2D generative models for novel view synthesis (NVS) and 3D optimization. However, these methods have several disadvantages due to either limited views or inconsistent NVS, thereby ...

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    Inspired by these challenges, this paper presents AIOS, an LLM agent operating system, which embeds large language model into operating systems (OS) as the brain of the OS, enabling an operating system "with soul" -- an important step towards AGI. Specifically, AIOS is designed to optimize resource allocation, facilitate context switch across ...

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  24. [2403.20329] ReALM: Reference Resolution As Language Modeling

    View a PDF of the paper titled ReALM: Reference Resolution As Language Modeling, by Joel Ruben Antony Moniz and 7 other authors. View PDF HTML (experimental) Abstract: Reference resolution is an important problem, one that is essential to understand and successfully handle context of different kinds. This context includes both previous turns ...

  25. Fatal Traffic Risks With a Total Solar Eclipse in the US

    2 Evaluative Clinical Science Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 3 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 4 Division of General Internal Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Get unlimited access and a printable PDF ($40.00)— ...