Talk to our experts


  • Water Pollution Essay


Water Pollution and How it Harms the Environment

Global pollution is a problem. Pollution can spread to remote areas where no one lives, despite the fact that urban areas are typically more polluted than the countryside. Air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution are the three main categories of pollution. Some contaminated water has a terrible smell, a muddy appearance, and floating trash. Some contaminated water appears clean, but it contains dangerous substances that you can't see or smell.

Together, developed and developing nations must fight to conserve the environment for present and future generations. Today, we dig deep into the subject of Water Pollution. This article can be an introduction to water pollution for kids as we will read many things such as the causes of water pollution further in the article.

What is Water Pollution?

Water contamination occurs when pollutants pollute water sources and make the water unfit for use in drinking, cooking, cleaning, swimming, and other activities. Chemicals, garbage, bacteria, and parasites are examples of pollutants. Water is eventually damaged by all types of pollution. Lakes and oceans become contaminated by air pollution. Land contamination may contaminate an underground stream, a river, and ultimately the ocean. As a result, trash thrown on an empty lot can eventually contaminate a water source.

(Image will be uploaded soon)

Water Pollution

seo images

The water cycle, called  the hydrological cycle, involves the following steps:

Evaporation- Because of the sun's heat, the water bodies such as oceans, lakes, seas etc., get heated up, and water evaporates in the air, forming water vapours.

Transpiration- Like evaporation, the plants and trees also lose water from them which goes to the atmosphere. This process is called transpiration.

Condensation- As the water evaporates, it starts to become cool because of the cold atmosphere in the air and because of this cooling down of water leads to the formation of clouds.

Precipitation- Because of the high movements of the wings, the clouds start to collide and then fall back to the earth’s surface in the form of rain. Sometimes they also fall back in the form of snow, hail, sleet etc., depending upon the temperature.

Runoff or Infiltration- After precipitation, the water either flows to the water bodies called runoff or is absorbed into the soil, called infiltration.

Causes of Water Pollution

There are many reasons for water pollution. Some of the reasons are directly affected by water pollution and some indirectly. Many factories and industries are dumping contaminated water, chemicals, and heavy metals into major waterways as a result of direct water pollution. 

One more reason for water pollution is the use of modern techniques in farms. Farmers apply nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium in the form of chemical fertilizers, manure, and sludge. It causes farms to discharge large quantities of agrochemicals, organic matter, and saline drainage into water bodies. It indirectly affects water pollution.

Pollutants can be of various types such as organic, inorganic, radioactive etc. Water pollutants are discharged either from one point from pipes, channels etc., which are called point sources or from various other sources. They can be agricultural areas, industries etc., called dispersed sources. 

Some of the major forms of water pollutants are as follows:

Sewage- Domestic sewage from homes contains various forms of pathogens that threaten the human body. Sewage treatment reduces the risk of pathogens, but this risk is not eliminated. 

Domestic sewage majorly contains nitrates and phosphates, and excess of these substances allows the algae to grow on the surface of water bodies. Due to this, the clean water bodies become nutrient-rich water body and then slowly, the oxygen level of water bodies reduces. This is called eutrophication or cultural eutrophication (if this step rapidly takes place by the activities of humans). This leads to the early death of water bodies.

Toxins- The industrial or factory wastes that are not disposed of properly and contain chemicals such as mercury and lead are disposed of in the water bodies making the bodies toxic, radioactive, explosive and cancerous.

Sediments- Sediments are the result of soil erosion that is formed in the water bodies. These sediments imbalances the water bodies ecologically. They also interfere in the reproductive cycle of various aquatic animals living in the water.

Thermal pollution- Water bodies get polluted because of heat, and excess heat reduces the oxygen level of the water bodies. Some of the species of fish cannot live in such water bodies with very low oxygen levels. The disposal of cold waters from the power plants leads to increased thermal pollution in the water bodies.

Petroleum oil pollution- The runoff of oil into the water bodies, either accidentally as happened in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, or intentionally, leads to an increase in water pollution.

As water is an important element of human health, polluted water directly affects the human body. Water pollution causes various diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, cancer, etc. Water pollution damages the plants and aquatic animals present in the river by reducing the oxygen content from the water. Polluted water washes the essential nutrients which plants need out of the soil and also leaves large amounts of aluminium in the soil, which can be harmful to plants. 

Wastewater and sewage are a by-product of daily life and thus produced by each household through various activities like using soap, toilets, and detergents. Such sewage contains chemicals and bacteria which are harmful to human life and environmental health. Water pollution also leads to an imbalance in our ecosystem. Lastly, it also affects the food chain as the toxins in the water bodies are consumed by aquatic animals like fish, crabs etc., and then humans consume those animals forming turmoil. 

Sometimes our tradition also becomes a cause for water pollution. Some people throw the statues of deities, flowers, pots, and ashes in rivers.

There are various standards to define water quality standards. Water meant for swimming may not be clean enough for drinking, or water meant for bathing may not be good for cooking. Therefore, there are different water standards for defined:

Stream standards- Standards that define streams, lakes, oceans or seas based on their maximum use.

Effluent standards- Define the specific standards for the level of contaminants or effluents allowed during the final discharge of those into the water bodies.

Drinking water standards- Define the level of contamination allowed in water that will be supplied for drinking or cooking in the domestic areas.

Different countries regulate their water quality standards through different acts and amendments.

While many of the solutions for water pollution need to be applied on a broader macro-level for that individual, companies, and communities can have a significant and responsible impact on the water quality. Companies, factories have to dispose of leftover chemicals and containers properly as per the product instructions. Farmers also have to reduce the use of nitrates and phosphates from fertilizers, pesticides, and contamination of groundwater. 

The Swachh Bharat Mission of the government had led to reduced groundwater contamination. Under the Namami Ganga program, the government has initiated several major projects to clean Ganga. Along with all these steps, conservation of water is the very basic and important step towards water conservation and should be followed globally, treatment of sewage before their disposal in the water bodies and using environment-friendly products that do not form toxins when dissolved in water. These are some small steps that have to be taken into consideration by every human being.

As we all know, “Water is life’s matter and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without water.” We have to save water. We must keep the water clean. If everyone will follow their responsibility against water to protect it from getting polluted then it will be easy to get clean and healthy drinking water. Clean water is a must for us and our kids' present, future, and healthy environment. 

We cannot just live with contaminated waters filled with toxins and no oxygen. We cannot see our wildlife being destroyed and therefore, immediate steps have to be taken by groups of people to first clean the already contaminated water bodies and then keep a check on all the surrounding water bodies. Small steps by every individual can make a huge difference in controlling water pollution.

Water Pollution Prevention

Conserve Water 

Our first priority should be to conserve water. Water wasting could be a big problem for the entire world, but we are just now becoming aware of it.

Sewage Treatment 

Cleaning up waste materials before disposing of them in waterways reduces pollution on a large scale. By lowering its dangerous elements, this wastewater will be used in other sectors or in agriculture.

Usage of Eco-Friendly Materials

We will reduce the amount of pollution produced by choosing soluble products that do not alter to become pollutants.

Water contamination is the discharge of pollutants into the water body, where they dissolve, are suspended, are deposited on the bottom, and collect to the point where they hinder the aquatic ecosystem's ability to function. Water contamination is brought on by toxic compounds that easily dissolve and combine with it and come from factories, municipalities, and farms.

Healthy ecosystems depend on a complex network of organisms, including animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi, all of which interact with one another either directly or indirectly. In this article, we read about water pollution, its causes and prevention. With this, we have come to the end of our article, in case of any other doubts, feel free to ask in the comments.


FAQs on Water Pollution Essay

1. What are the effects of water pollution?

Water pollution has a great impact on human health. Water pollution kills. It's been recorded that in 2015 nearly 1.8 million people died because of water pollution. People with low income are exposed to contaminated water coming out from the industries. Presence of disease causing pathogens in drinking water are the major cause of illness which includes cholera, giardia, and typhoid. Water pollution not only affects human health but also our environment by causing algal bloom in a lake or marine environment. Water pollution also causes eutrophication which suffocates plants and animals and thus causes dead zones. Chemicals and heavy metals from industrial and municipal wastewater contaminate waterways and harm aquatic life.

2. What are the causes of Water pollution?

Water being a universal solvent is vulnerable to pollution as it dissolves more substances than any other liquid on earth. Therefore, water is easily polluted. Toxic substances from farms, towns, and factories readily dissolve into water and mix with it, resulting in water pollution. Agricultural pollution is one of the major causes of contamination in rivers and streams. The use of excessive fertilizers, pesticides, and animal waste from farms and livestock operations lets the rain wash the nutrients and pathogens—such as bacteria and viruses—into our waterways. The other major cause of water pollution is used water,  termed as wastewater which comes from our sinks, showers, toilets and from commercial, industrial, and agricultural activities. It's been reported that the world's 80% wastewater flows back into the environment without being treated or reused. Oil spills and radioactive waste also cause water pollution to a great extent.

3. How to prevent water pollution?

It is important to keep our water bodies clean so we can take the following preventive measures to prevent from water pollution:

Chemicals like bleach, paint, paint thinner, ammonia, and many chemicals are becoming a serious problem. Dumping toxic chemicals down the drain or flushing them down the toilet can cause water pollution. Thus, proper disposal is important. Also, household chemicals need to be recycled.

Avoid buying products that contain persistent and dangerous chemicals. Buying non-toxic cleaners and biodegradable cleaners and pesticides cut down on water pollution.

Prevent from pouring fats or greasy substances down the drain as it might clog the drain resulting in the dumping of waste into yards or basement which can contaminate the local water bodies.

4. What is the role of medical institutions in polluting the water?

Pharmaceutical pollution affects aquatic life and thus there is a need to take preventive measures. Consumers are responsible for winding up pharmaceutical and personal care products in lakes, rivers, and streams. There's a lot of unused and expired medication that can potentially get into the water if not disposed of properly.

5. What are the major kinds of pollution?

The three main types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution or soil pollution. Some artificial pollution is also there, such as noise pollution. Factors leading to such pollution include:

Air Pollution: Industrial emissions, fires, traffic and transportation, burning of chemical waste, etc.

Water Pollution: No proper sewage disposal, pesticides in farms leaking into water bodies, industrial waste dumped into water bodies, etc.

Soil Pollution:  Oil spills, acid rains, irresponsible disposal of trash, chemical waste, etc.

Noise Pollution: Honking of horns, construction activities, loud parties, etc.

Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions

Introduction, causes of water pollution, effects of water pollution, solutions to water pollution, reference list.

Rivers are common sources of water in the world. Water is useful in various ways both domestically and in industries. It is imperative that such water remains clean and safe and free from any pollution. Unfortunately, water pollution takes place in various water bodies all over the world. This essay seeks to examine the concept of water pollution, its causes, effects, and solutions to water pollution.

Water pollution refers to dirtying of water resulting in a chemical, physical or biological alteration in the condition of water making such water harmful to anyone who utilizes it. In other words, pollution makes water unfit for consumption (Go Green Academy, 2013). There are various causes of water pollution. Disposing solid waste in water sources is the main cause of water pollution (Go Green Academy, 2013). Most of these wastes are made of plastic, which by nature, is non-biodegradable. Plastics take over four hundred years to decompose in water and as such, they move in different places before they finally decompose.

Effluence from industries and factories cause water pollution (Go Green Academy, 2013). Coffee factories use fresh water to transport waste to rivers. Effluence from industrial plants adds pollutants like lead and mercury into rivers. Oil spills from ships on transit also cause water pollution. Oil is indissoluble in water and consequently forms thick patches on the water surface making it hard for organisms in such a water body to survive. Overall, such contaminated water destroys an ecosystem (Go Green Academy, 2013).

Sewerage disposal from households and commercial houses cause water pollution. In some places, sewage can be treated or recycled but in most places, such waste finds a way into rivers. Due to chemical substances used in maintaining hygiene in washrooms, effluence from such places is destructive to water sources into which it flows (Go Green Academy, 2013). Cauterizing of fossil fuels leads to building up of acidic particles in the air, which in turn leads to acidic rains falling on water bodies (Go Green Academy, 2013).

Groundwater polluted through the use of chemicals in farming causes destruction to plants, which in turn affect human beings and animals that feed on them (Go Green Academy, 2013). Secondly, polluted water causes skin rashes and even cancer to swimmers. In addition, such water can cause reproductive difficulties and typhoid fever, which if untreated, leads to death. Water pollution leads to flooding when solid wastes accumulate to very high levels (Go Green Academy, 2013).

Global warming leads to increased water temperatures and this leads to the destruction of aquatic plants. Coral reefs, for instance, suffer destruction because warm water has a discoloring effect on them. In addition, plastic materials can easily entangle organisms such as fish leading to their suffocation and death hence reduction in available organisms for human consumption. Water polluted by oil spills also leads to the death of aquatic animals (Go Green Academy, 2013).

Several measures are necessary to tackle water pollution. Relevant authorities should enforce existing regulations concerning water pollution and come up with an even stricter penalty for those who pollute water (Hearn, 2013). Secondly, people should use less plastic and avoid littering by using designated dumping sites. Farmers, as well as householders, should minimize the use of chemicals such as fertilizers and adopt the use of environmental friendly fertility boosters like animal wastes. Since cars emit particles that lead to acidic rains, people should drive less and where possible use public transport to minimize emissions into the atmosphere (Hearn, 2013)

Go Green Academy. 2013, Causes and effects of water pollution . Web.

Hearn, M. 2013, Solutions to water pollution . Web.

Cite this paper

  • Chicago (N-B)
  • Chicago (A-D)

StudyCorgi. (2020, September 8). Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions.

"Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions." StudyCorgi , 8 Sept. 2020,

StudyCorgi . (2020) 'Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions'. 8 September.

1. StudyCorgi . "Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions." September 8, 2020.


StudyCorgi . "Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions." September 8, 2020.

StudyCorgi . 2020. "Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions." September 8, 2020.

This paper, “Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions”, was written and voluntary submitted to our free essay database by a straight-A student. Please ensure you properly reference the paper if you're using it to write your assignment.

Before publication, the StudyCorgi editorial team proofread and checked the paper to make sure it meets the highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, fact accuracy, copyright issues, and inclusive language. Last updated: November 8, 2023 .

If you are the author of this paper and no longer wish to have it published on StudyCorgi, request the removal . Please use the “ Donate your paper ” form to submit an essay.

Essay on Water Pollution for Students and Children

500+ words essay on water pollution.

Water is the most important resource for survival on a planet. It is the essence of life on our planet – Earth. Yet if you ever see a river or lake around your city, it would be evident to you that we are facing a very serious problem of Water pollution. Let us educate ourselves about water and water pollution . Two-thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered by water , seventy-six perfect of your body is made up of water.

essay on water pollution

Water and Water Cycle

As you already know water is everywhere and all around.  However, we have a fixed amount of water on earth. It just changes its states and goes through a cyclic order, known as the Water Cycle. The water cycle is a natural process that is continuous in nature. It is the pattern in which the water from oceans, seas, lakes, etc gets evaporated and turns to vapor. After which it goes through the process of condensation, and finally precipitation when it falls back to earth as rain or snow.

What is Water Pollution?

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, aquifers, and groundwater) usually caused due to human activities. Water pollution is any change, minor or major in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water that eventually leads to a detrimental consequence of any living organism . Drinking water, called Potable Water, is considered safe enough for human and animal consumption.

Sources of Water Pollution

  • Domestic Waste
  • Industrial effluents
  • Insecticides and pesticides
  • Detergents and Fertilizers

Some of the water pollutions are caused by direct Sources, such as factories, waste management facilities, refineries, etc, that directly releases waste and dangerous by-products into the nearest water source without treating them. Indirect sources include pollutants that infuse in the water bodies via groundwater or soil or via the atmosphere through acidic rain.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Effects of Pollution of Water

The effects of Water Pollution are:

Diseases: In humans, drinking or consuming polluted water in any way has many disastrous effects on our health. It causes typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and various other diseases.

Eradication of Ecosystem: Ecosystem is extremely dynamic and responds to even small changes in the environment. Increasing water pollution can cause an entire ecosystem to collapse if left unchecked.

Eutrophication: Chemicals accumulation and infusion in a water body, encourages the growth of algae. The algae form a layer on top of the pond or lake. Bacteria feed on this algae and this event decreases the amount of oxygen in the water body, severely affecting the aquatic life there

Effects of the food chain: Turmoil in food chain happens when the aquatic animals (fish, prawns, seahorse, etc) consume the toxins and pollutants in the water,  and then the humans consume them.

Prevention of Water Pollution

The best way to prevent large-scale water pollution is to try and reduce its harmful effects. There are numerous small changes we can make to protect ourselves from a future where water is scarce.

Conserve Water: Conserving water should be our first aim. Water wastage is a major problem globally and we are only now waking up to the issue. Simple small changes made domestically will make a huge difference.

Treatment of sewage: Treating waste products before disposing of it in water bodies helps reduce water pollution on a large scale. Agriculture or other industries can reuse this wastewater by reducing its toxic contents.

Use of environment-friendly products: By using soluble products that do not go on to become pollutants, we can reduce the amount of water pollution caused by a household.

Life is ultimately about choices and so is water pollution. We cannot live with sewage-strewn beaches, contaminated rivers , and fish that are poisonous to drink and eat. To avoid these scenarios,  we can work together to keep the environment clean so the water bodies, plants, animals, and people who depend on it remain healthy. We can take individual or teamed action to help reduce water pollution. As an example, by using environmentally friendly detergents, not pouring oil down the drains, reducing the usage of pesticides, and so on. We can take community action too to keep our rivers and seas cleaner. And we can take action as countries and continents to pass laws against water pollution. Working together, we can make water pollution less of a problem—and the world a better place.

Customize your course in 30 seconds

Which class are you in.


  • Travelling Essay
  • Picnic Essay
  • Our Country Essay
  • My Parents Essay
  • Essay on Favourite Personality
  • Essay on Memorable Day of My Life
  • Essay on Knowledge is Power
  • Essay on Gurpurab
  • Essay on My Favourite Season
  • Essay on Types of Sports

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Download the App

Google Play

  • Random article
  • Teaching guide
  • Privacy & cookies

Photo of polluted stormwater draining into a creek from an overflow

Water pollution: an introduction

by Chris Woodford . Last updated: October 1, 2023.

O ver two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water ; less than a third is taken up by land. As Earth's population continues to grow, people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet's water resources. In a sense, our oceans, rivers , and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human activities—not so they take up less room, but so their quality is reduced. Poorer water quality means water pollution .

We know that pollution is a human problem because it is a relatively recent development in the planet's history: before the 19th century Industrial Revolution, people lived more in harmony with their immediate environment. As industrialization has spread around the globe, so the problem of pollution has spread with it. When Earth's population was much smaller, no one believed pollution would ever present a serious problem. It was once popularly believed that the oceans were far too big to pollute. Today, with around 7 billion people on the planet, it has become apparent that there are limits. Pollution is one of the signs that humans have exceeded those limits.

Photo: Stormwater pollution entering a river from a drain. Photo by Peter C Van Metre courtesy of US Geological Survey .

What is water pollution?

Water pollution can be defined in many ways. Usually, it means one or more substances have built up in water to such an extent that they cause problems for animals or people. Oceans, lakes, rivers, and other inland waters can naturally clean up a certain amount of pollution by dispersing it harmlessly. If you poured a cup of black ink into a river, the ink would quickly disappear into the river's much larger volume of clean water. The ink would still be there in the river, but in such a low concentration that you would not be able to see it. At such low levels, the chemicals in the ink probably would not present any real problem. However, if you poured gallons of ink into a river every few seconds through a pipe, the river would quickly turn black. The chemicals in the ink could very quickly have an effect on the quality of the water. This, in turn, could affect the health of all the plants, animals, and humans whose lives depend on the river.

Photo: Pollution means adding substances to the environment that don't belong there—like the air pollution from this smokestack. Pollution is not always as obvious as this, however.

Thus, water pollution is all about quantities : how much of a polluting substance is released and how big a volume of water it is released into. A small quantity of a toxic chemical may have little impact if it is spilled into the ocean from a ship. But the same amount of the same chemical can have a much bigger impact pumped into a lake or river, where there is less clean water to disperse it.

"The introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities." [1]

What are the main types of water pollution?

When we think of Earth's water resources, we think of huge oceans, lakes, and rivers. Water resources like these are called surface waters . The most obvious type of water pollution affects surface waters. For example, a spill from an oil tanker creates an oil slick that can affect a vast area of the ocean.

Photo of detergent pollution in a creek

Photo: Detergent pollution entering a river—an example of surface water pollution. Photo courtesy of US Fish & Wildlife Service Photo Library.

Not all of Earth's water sits on its surface, however. A great deal of water is held in underground rock structures known as aquifers, which we cannot see and seldom think about. Water stored underground in aquifers is known as groundwater . Aquifers feed our rivers and supply much of our drinking water. They too can become polluted, for example, when weed killers used in people's gardens drain into the ground. Groundwater pollution is much less obvious than surface-water pollution, but is no less of a problem. In 1996, a study in Iowa in the United States found that over half the state's groundwater wells were contaminated with weed killers. You might think things would have improved since then, but, two decades on, all that's really changed is the name of the chemicals we're using. Today, numerous scientific studies are still finding weed killers in groundwater in worrying quantities: a 2012 study discovered glyphosate in 41 percent of 140 groundwater samples from Catalonia, Spain; scientific opinion differs on whether this is safe or not. [2]

Surface waters and groundwater are the two types of water resources that pollution affects. There are also two different ways in which pollution can occur. If pollution comes from a single location, such as a discharge pipe attached to a factory, it is known as point-source pollution . Other examples of point source pollution include an oil spill from a tanker, a discharge from a smoke stack (factory chimney), or someone pouring oil from their car down a drain. A great deal of water pollution happens not from one single source but from many different scattered sources. This is called nonpoint-source pollution .

When point-source pollution enters the environment, the place most affected is usually the area immediately around the source. For example, when a tanker accident occurs, the oil slick is concentrated around the tanker itself and, in the right ocean conditions, the pollution disperses the further away from the tanker you go. This is less likely to happen with nonpoint source pollution which, by definition, enters the environment from many different places at once.

Sometimes pollution that enters the environment in one place has an effect hundreds or even thousands of miles away. This is known as transboundary pollution . One example is the way radioactive waste travels through the oceans from nuclear reprocessing plants in England and France to nearby countries such as Ireland and Norway.

How do we know when water is polluted?

Some forms of water pollution are very obvious: everyone has seen TV news footage of oil slicks filmed from helicopters flying overhead. Water pollution is usually less obvious and much harder to detect than this. But how can we measure water pollution when we cannot see it? How do we even know it's there?

There are two main ways of measuring the quality of water. One is to take samples of the water and measure the concentrations of different chemicals that it contains. If the chemicals are dangerous or the concentrations are too great, we can regard the water as polluted. Measurements like this are known as chemical indicators of water quality. Another way to measure water quality involves examining the fish, insects, and other invertebrates that the water will support. If many different types of creatures can live in a river, the quality is likely to be very good; if the river supports no fish life at all, the quality is obviously much poorer. Measurements like this are called biological indicators of water quality.

What are the causes of water pollution?

Most water pollution doesn't begin in the water itself. Take the oceans: around 80 percent of ocean pollution enters our seas from the land. [16] Virtually any human activity can have an effect on the quality of our water environment. When farmers fertilize the fields, the chemicals they use are gradually washed by rain into the groundwater or surface waters nearby. Sometimes the causes of water pollution are quite surprising. Chemicals released by smokestacks (chimneys) can enter the atmosphere and then fall back to earth as rain, entering seas, rivers, and lakes and causing water pollution. That's called atmospheric deposition . Water pollution has many different causes and this is one of the reasons why it is such a difficult problem to solve.

With billions of people on the planet, disposing of sewage waste is a major problem. According to 2017 figures from the World Health Organization, some 2 billion people (about a quarter of the world's population) don't have access to safe drinking water or the most basic sanitation, 3.4 billion (60 people of the population) lack "safely managed" sanitation (unshared, with waste properly treated). Although there have been great improvements in securing access to clean water, relatively little, genuine progress has been made on improving global sanitation in the last decade. [20] Sewage disposal affects people's immediate environments and leads to water-related illnesses such as diarrhea that kills 525,000 children under five each year. [3] (Back in 2002, the World Health Organization estimated that water-related diseases could kill as many as 135 million people by 2020; in 2019, the WHO was still estimating the annual death toll from poor water and sanitation at over 800,000 people a year.) In developed countries, most people have flush toilets that take sewage waste quickly and hygienically away from their homes.

Yet the problem of sewage disposal does not end there. When you flush the toilet, the waste has to go somewhere and, even after it leaves the sewage treatment works, there is still waste to dispose of. Sometimes sewage waste is pumped untreated into the sea. Until the early 1990s, around 5 million tons of sewage was dumped by barge from New York City each year. [4] According to 2002 figures from the UK government's Department for the Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), the sewers of Britain collect around 11 billion liters of waste water every day; there are still 31,000 sewage overflow pipes through which, in certain circumstances, such as heavy storms, raw sewage is pumped untreated into the sea. [5] The New River that crosses the border from Mexico into California once carried with it 20–25 million gallons (76–95 million liters) of raw sewage each day; a new waste water plant on the US-Mexico border, completed in 2007, substantially solved that problem. [6] Unfortunately, even in some of the richest nations, the practice of dumping sewage into the sea continues. In early 2012, it was reported that the tiny island of Guernsey (between Britain and France) has decided to continue dumping 16,000 tons of raw sewage into the sea each day.

In theory, sewage is a completely natural substance that should be broken down harmlessly in the environment: 90 percent of sewage is water. [7] In practice, sewage contains all kinds of other chemicals, from the pharmaceutical drugs people take to the paper , plastic , and other wastes they flush down their toilets. When people are sick with viruses, the sewage they produce carries those viruses into the environment. It is possible to catch illnesses such as hepatitis, typhoid, and cholera from river and sea water.

Photo: Nutrients make crops grow, but cause pollution when they seep into rivers and other watercourses. Photo courtesy of US Department of Agriculture (Flickr) .

Suitably treated and used in moderate quantities, sewage can be a fertilizer: it returns important nutrients to the environment, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which plants and animals need for growth. The trouble is, sewage is often released in much greater quantities than the natural environment can cope with. Chemical fertilizers used by farmers also add nutrients to the soil, which drain into rivers and seas and add to the fertilizing effect of the sewage. Together, sewage and fertilizers can cause a massive increase in the growth of algae or plankton that overwhelms huge areas of oceans, lakes, or rivers. This is known as a harmful algal bloom (also known as an HAB or red tide, because it can turn the water red). It is harmful because it removes oxygen from the water that kills other forms of life, leading to what is known as a dead zone . The Gulf of Mexico has one of the world's most spectacular dead zones. Each summer, according to studies by the NOAA , it typically grows to an area of around 5500–6500 square miles (14,000–16,800 square kilometers), which is about the same size as the state of Connecticut. [21]

Waste water

A few statistics illustrate the scale of the problem that waste water (chemicals washed down drains and discharged from factories) can cause. Around half of all ocean pollution is caused by sewage and waste water. Each year, the world generates perhaps 5–10 billion tons of industrial waste, much of which is pumped untreated into rivers, oceans, and other waterways. [8] In the United States alone, around 400,000 factories take clean water from rivers, and many pump polluted waters back in their place. However, there have been major improvements in waste water treatment recently. Since 1970, in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has invested about $70 billion in improving water treatment plants that, as of 2021, serve around 90 percent of the US population (compared to just 69 percent in 1972). However, another $271 billion is still needed to update and upgrade the system. [15]

Factories are point sources of water pollution, but quite a lot of water is polluted by ordinary people from nonpoint sources; this is how ordinary water becomes waste water in the first place. Virtually everyone pours chemicals of one sort or another down their drains or toilets. Even detergents used in washing machines and dishwashers eventually end up in our rivers and oceans. So do the pesticides we use on our gardens. A lot of toxic pollution also enters waste water from highway runoff . Highways are typically covered with a cocktail of toxic chemicals—everything from spilled fuel and brake fluids to bits of worn tires (themselves made from chemical additives) and exhaust emissions. When it rains, these chemicals wash into drains and rivers. It is not unusual for heavy summer rainstorms to wash toxic chemicals into rivers in such concentrations that they kill large numbers of fish overnight. It has been estimated that, in one year, the highway runoff from a single large city leaks as much oil into our water environment as a typical tanker spill. Some highway runoff runs away into drains; others can pollute groundwater or accumulate in the land next to a road, making it increasingly toxic as the years go by.

Chemical waste

Detergents are relatively mild substances. At the opposite end of the spectrum are highly toxic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) . They were once widely used to manufacture electronic circuit boards , but their harmful effects have now been recognized and their use is highly restricted in many countries. Nevertheless, an estimated half million tons of PCBs were discharged into the environment during the 20th century. [9] In a classic example of transboundary pollution, traces of PCBs have even been found in birds and fish in the Arctic. They were carried there through the oceans, thousands of miles from where they originally entered the environment. Although PCBs are widely banned, their effects will be felt for many decades because they last a long time in the environment without breaking down.

Another kind of toxic pollution comes from heavy metals , such as lead, cadmium, and mercury. Lead was once commonly used in gasoline (petrol), though its use is now restricted in some countries. Mercury and cadmium are still used in batteries (though some brands now use other metals instead). Until recently, a highly toxic chemical called tributyltin (TBT) was used in paints to protect boats from the ravaging effects of the oceans. Ironically, however, TBT was gradually recognized as a pollutant: boats painted with it were doing as much damage to the oceans as the oceans were doing to the boats.

The best known example of heavy metal pollution in the oceans took place in 1938 when a Japanese factory discharged a significant amount of mercury metal into Minamata Bay, contaminating the fish stocks there. It took a decade for the problem to come to light. By that time, many local people had eaten the fish and around 2000 were poisoned. Hundreds of people were left dead or disabled. [10]

Radioactive waste

People view radioactive waste with great alarm—and for good reason. At high enough concentrations it can kill; in lower concentrations it can cause cancers and other illnesses. The biggest sources of radioactive pollution in Europe are two factories that reprocess waste fuel from nuclear power plants : Sellafield on the north-west coast of Britain and Cap La Hague on the north coast of France. Both discharge radioactive waste water into the sea, which ocean currents then carry around the world. Countries such as Norway, which lie downstream from Britain, receive significant doses of radioactive pollution from Sellafield. [19] The Norwegian government has repeatedly complained that Sellafield has increased radiation levels along its coast by 6–10 times. Both the Irish and Norwegian governments continue to press for the plant's closure. [11]

Oil pollution

Photo: Oil-tanker spills are the most spectacular forms of pollution and the ones that catch public attention, but only a fraction of all water pollution happens this way. Photo by Lamar Gore courtesy of US Fish & Wildlife Service Photo Library and US National Archive .

When we think of ocean pollution, huge black oil slicks often spring to mind, yet these spectacular accidents represent only a tiny fraction of all the pollution entering our oceans. Even considering oil by itself, tanker spills are not as significant as they might seem: only 12 percent of the oil that enters the oceans comes from tanker accidents; over 70 percent of oil pollution at sea comes from routine shipping and from the oil people pour down drains on land. [12] However, what makes tanker spills so destructive is the sheer quantity of oil they release at once — in other words, the concentration of oil they produce in one very localized part of the marine environment. The biggest oil spill in recent years (and the biggest ever spill in US waters) occurred when the tanker Exxon Valdez broke up in Prince William Sound in Alaska in 1989. Around 12 million gallons (44 million liters) of oil were released into the pristine wilderness—enough to fill your living room 800 times over! Estimates of the marine animals killed in the spill vary from approximately 1000 sea otters and 34,000 birds to as many as 2800 sea otters and 250,000 sea birds. Several billion salmon and herring eggs are also believed to have been destroyed. [13]

If you've ever taken part in a community beach clean, you'll know that plastic is far and away the most common substance that washes up with the waves. There are three reasons for this: plastic is one of the most common materials, used for making virtually every kind of manufactured object from clothing to automobile parts; plastic is light and floats easily so it can travel enormous distances across the oceans; most plastics are not biodegradable (they do not break down naturally in the environment), which means that things like plastic bottle tops can survive in the marine environment for a long time. (A plastic bottle can survive an estimated 450 years in the ocean and plastic fishing line can last up to 600 years.)

While plastics are not toxic in quite the same way as poisonous chemicals, they nevertheless present a major hazard to seabirds, fish, and other marine creatures. For example, plastic fishing lines and other debris can strangle or choke fish. (This is sometimes called ghost fishing .) About half of all the world's seabird species are known to have eaten plastic residues. In one study of 450 shearwaters in the North Pacific, over 80 percent of the birds were found to contain plastic residues in their stomachs. In the early 1990s, marine scientist Tim Benton collected debris from a 2km (1.5 mile) length of beach in the remote Pitcairn islands in the South Pacific. His study recorded approximately a thousand pieces of garbage including 268 pieces of plastic, 71 plastic bottles, and two dolls heads. [14]

Alien species

Most people's idea of water pollution involves things like sewage, toxic metals, or oil slicks, but pollution can be biological as well as chemical. In some parts of the world, alien species are a major problem. Alien species (sometimes known as invasive species ) are animals or plants from one region that have been introduced into a different ecosystem where they do not belong. Outside their normal environment, they have no natural predators, so they rapidly run wild, crowding out the usual animals or plants that thrive there. Common examples of alien species include zebra mussels in the Great Lakes of the USA, which were carried there from Europe by ballast water (waste water flushed from ships ). The Mediterranean Sea has been invaded by a kind of alien algae called Caulerpa taxifolia . In the Black Sea, an alien jellyfish called Mnemiopsis leidyi reduced fish stocks by 90 percent after arriving in ballast water. In San Francisco Bay, Asian clams called Potamocorbula amurensis, also introduced by ballast water, have dramatically altered the ecosystem. In 1999, Cornell University's David Pimentel estimated that alien invaders like this cost the US economy $123 billion a year; in 2014, the European Commission put the cost to Europe at €12 billion a year and "growing all the time. [18]

Other forms of pollution

These are the most common forms of pollution—but by no means the only ones. Heat or thermal pollution from factories and power plants also causes problems in rivers. By raising the temperature, it reduces the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water, thus also reducing the level of aquatic life that the river can support. Another type of pollution involves the disruption of sediments (fine-grained powders) that flow from rivers into the sea. Dams built for hydroelectric power or water reservoirs can reduce the sediment flow. This reduces the formation of beaches, increases coastal erosion (the natural destruction of cliffs by the sea), and reduces the flow of nutrients from rivers into seas (potentially reducing coastal fish stocks). Increased sediments can also present a problem. During construction work, soil, rock, and other fine powders sometimes enters nearby rivers in large quantities, causing it to become turbid (muddy or silted). The extra sediment can block the gills of fish, effectively suffocating them. Construction firms often now take precautions to prevent this kind of pollution from happening.

What are the effects of water pollution?

Some people believe pollution is an inescapable result of human activity: they argue that if we want to have factories, cities, ships, cars, oil, and coastal resorts, some degree of pollution is almost certain to result. In other words, pollution is a necessary evil that people must put up with if they want to make progress. Fortunately, not everyone agrees with this view. One reason people have woken up to the problem of pollution is that it brings costs of its own that undermine any economic benefits that come about by polluting.

Take oil spills, for example. They can happen if tankers are too poorly built to survive accidents at sea. But the economic benefit of compromising on tanker quality brings an economic cost when an oil spill occurs. The oil can wash up on nearby beaches, devastate the ecosystem, and severely affect tourism. The main problem is that the people who bear the cost of the spill (typically a small coastal community) are not the people who caused the problem in the first place (the people who operate the tanker). Yet, arguably, everyone who puts gasoline (petrol) into their car—or uses almost any kind of petroleum-fueled transport—contributes to the problem in some way. So oil spills are a problem for everyone, not just people who live by the coast and tanker operates.

Sewage is another good example of how pollution can affect us all. Sewage discharged into coastal waters can wash up on beaches and cause a health hazard. People who bathe or surf in the water can fall ill if they swallow polluted water—yet sewage can have other harmful effects too: it can poison shellfish (such as cockles and mussels) that grow near the shore. People who eat poisoned shellfish risk suffering from an acute—and sometimes fatal—illness called paralytic shellfish poisoning. Shellfish is no longer caught along many shores because it is simply too polluted with sewage or toxic chemical wastes that have discharged from the land nearby.

Pollution matters because it harms the environment on which people depend. The environment is not something distant and separate from our lives. It's not a pretty shoreline hundreds of miles from our homes or a wilderness landscape that we see only on TV. The environment is everything that surrounds us that gives us life and health. Destroying the environment ultimately reduces the quality of our own lives—and that, most selfishly, is why pollution should matter to all of us.

How can we stop water pollution?

There is no easy way to solve water pollution; if there were, it wouldn't be so much of a problem. Broadly speaking, there are three different things that can help to tackle the problem—education, laws, and economics—and they work together as a team.

Making people aware of the problem is the first step to solving it. In the early 1990s, when surfers in Britain grew tired of catching illnesses from water polluted with sewage, they formed a group called Surfers Against Sewage to force governments and water companies to clean up their act. People who've grown tired of walking the world's polluted beaches often band together to organize community beach-cleaning sessions. Anglers who no longer catch so many fish have campaigned for tougher penalties against factories that pour pollution into our rivers. Greater public awareness can make a positive difference.

One of the biggest problems with water pollution is its transboundary nature. Many rivers cross countries, while seas span whole continents. Pollution discharged by factories in one country with poor environmental standards can cause problems in neighboring nations, even when they have tougher laws and higher standards. Environmental laws can make it tougher for people to pollute, but to be really effective they have to operate across national and international borders. This is why we have international laws governing the oceans, such as the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (signed by over 120 nations), the 1972 London (Dumping) Convention , the 1978 MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships , and the 1998 OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic . The European Union has water-protection laws (known as directives) that apply to all of its member states. They include the 1976 Bathing Water Directive (updated 2006), which seeks to ensure the quality of the waters that people use for recreation. Most countries also have their own water pollution laws. In the United States, for example, there is the 1972 Clean Water Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act .

Most environmental experts agree that the best way to tackle pollution is through something called the polluter pays principle . This means that whoever causes pollution should have to pay to clean it up, one way or another. Polluter pays can operate in all kinds of ways. It could mean that tanker owners should have to take out insurance that covers the cost of oil spill cleanups, for example. It could also mean that shoppers should have to pay for their plastic grocery bags, as is now common in Ireland, to encourage recycling and minimize waste. Or it could mean that factories that use rivers must have their water inlet pipes downstream of their effluent outflow pipes, so if they cause pollution they themselves are the first people to suffer. Ultimately, the polluter pays principle is designed to deter people from polluting by making it less expensive for them to behave in an environmentally responsible way.

Our clean future

Life is ultimately about choices—and so is pollution. We can live with sewage-strewn beaches, dead rivers, and fish that are too poisonous to eat. Or we can work together to keep the environment clean so the plants, animals, and people who depend on it remain healthy. We can take individual action to help reduce water pollution, for example, by using environmentally friendly detergents , not pouring oil down drains, reducing pesticides, and so on. We can take community action too, by helping out on beach cleans or litter picks to keep our rivers and seas that little bit cleaner. And we can take action as countries and continents to pass laws that will make pollution harder and the world less polluted. Working together, we can make pollution less of a problem—and the world a better place.

If you liked this article...

Find out more, on this site.

  • Air pollution (introduction)
  • Climate change and global warming
  • Environmentalism (introduction)
  • Land pollution
  • Organic food and farming

For older readers

For younger readers.

  • Earth Matters by Lynn Dicks et al. Dorling Kindersley, 2008: A more general guide to problems Earth faces, with each major biome explored separately. In case you're interested, I contributed the polar regions chapter. The book is mostly a simple read and probably suitable for 7–10 (and maybe 9–12).

Selected news articles

Water pollution videos, notes and references.

Text copyright © Chris Woodford 2006, 2022. All rights reserved. Full copyright notice and terms of use .

This article was originally written for the UK Rivers Network and first published on their website in April 2006. It is revised and updated every year.

Rate this page

Tell your friends, cite this page, more to explore on our website....

  • Get the book
  • Send feedback
  • Name This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
  • Climate Change
  • Policy & Economics
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation

Get focused newsletters especially designed to be concise and easy to digest

  • ESSENTIAL BRIEFING 3 times weekly
  • TOP STORY ROUNDUP Once a week
  • MONTHLY OVERVIEW Once a month
  • Enter your email *
  • Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

What Causes Water Pollution and How Do We Solve it?

What Causes Water Pollution and How Do We Solve it?

Water pollution is putting our health at risk. Unsafe water kills more people each year than war and all other forms of violence combined. Meanwhile, less than 1% of the Earth’s freshwater is actually accessible to us and it’s in our best interest to protect what we have, especially considering that by 2050, global demand for freshwater is expected to be one-third greater than it is now. Here are six causes of water pollution, as well as what we can do to reduce it.

Water is uniquely vulnerable to pollution because it’s able to dissolve more substances than any other liquid on Earth. Toxic substances from farms, towns, and factories readily dissolve into and mix with it, which causes water pollution as a result.

6 Most Common Causes of Water Pollution

1. sewage and wastewater .

According to the UN , more than 80% of the world’s wastewater flows back into the environment without being treated or reused; in some least-developed countries, this figure tops 95%. Harmful chemicals and bacteria can be found in sewage and wastewater even after it’s been treated. Households release sewage and wastewater, which makes its way to the ocean, mixing with freshwater and affecting the water quality and marine life. Also, the bacteria and pathogens found in wastewater breed disease, and cause health-related issues in humans and animals. 

2. Oil Spills

Large oil spills and leaks are some of most significant causes of water pollution. These are often caused by oil drilling operations in the ocean, but nearly half of the estimated 1 million tons of oil that makes its way into marine environments each year come not from oil tankers, but from land-based sources like factories, farms and cities. In England and Wales, there are about 3,000 pollution incidents involving oil and fuel each year. Oil makes drinking water unsafe and a substantial amount of oil released into oceans or become river water pollution, will destroy marine life and the ecosystems that support them. What’s more, oil reduces the oxygen supply within the water environment.  Oil is also naturally released from under the ocean floor through fractures known as seeps.

You Might Also Like: How Do Oil Spills Affect the Environment?

3. Industrial Waste

Industrial waste is one of the biggest sources of water contamination. Many industrial sites produce waste in the form of toxic chemicals and pollutants, and some don’t have proper waste management systems in place. Sometimes, industrial waste is dumped into nearby freshwater systems. The toxic chemicals leached from this waste can make the water unsafe for human consumption, and they can also cause the temperature in freshwater systems to change, making them dangerous for marine life. Finally, industrial waste can cause “ dead zones ,” which are areas of water that contain so little oxygen that marine life cannot survive in them.

sources of water pollution, oil spill, gulf of mexico

4. Agricultural Runoff

To protect crops from pests, farmers use pesticides, however when these substances seep into the groundwater, they can harm animals, plants and humans. Additionally, when it rains, the chemicals mix with rainwater, which flows into waterways and creates further pollution. Other agricultural processes such as uncontrolled spreading of slurries and manures, tillage and ploughing the land can also cause water pollution.

5. Marine Dumping and Plastic Pollution in the Sea

Most items collected and dumped into oceans by many countries can take anywhere from two to 200 years to decompose completely! Other sources of waste at sea include plastic and other materials blown or washed from land. Currently, about 11 million metric tons of plastic make their way into the oceans each year. Research has found that should this rate of pollution continues, the amount of ocean plastics will grow to 29 million metric tons per year by 2040. The damage to wildlife habitats and to life on land is incalculable. 

You Might Also Like: 8 Shocking Plastic Pollution Statistics to Know About

6. Radioactive Waste

Radioactive waste can persist in the environment for thousands of years , making disposal a major challenge and one of the most harmful water contaminants. Radioactive waste released from facilities that create nuclear energy can be extremely harmful to the environment and must be disposed of properly; uranium, the element used in the creation of nuclear energy, is a highly toxic chemical. Accidents occur at these facilities from time to time, and toxic waste is released into the environment.

In April 2021, Japan discharged contaminated water containing radioactive materials from the damaged Fukushima nuclear plant into the sea. Though the Japanese government claims potential health risks and damage to marine life to be minimal as the waste water have been treated, close monitoring is required to ensue there are no environment effects from the water pollution. 

You Might Also Like: The Nuclear Waste Disposal Dilemma

How Can You Reduce Water Pollution?

  • Reduce your plastic consumption and reuse or recycle plastic when you can. 
  • Properly dispose of chemical cleaners, oils and non-biodegradable items.
  • Use phosphate-free detergents – phosphates lead to algae blooms and kill fish and other aquatic animals by reducing the oxygen in the water. 
  • Dispose of medical waste properly.
  • Eat more organic food, which is produced without the use of pesticides.
  • Cut down on your meat consumption – raising animals for meat takes lots of water for the grains and other feed they need. Furthermore, the antibiotics and solid waste are both likely to end up in groundwater and rivers.

You Might Also Like: Flood Water Contamination Threatens Communities Living Near Chemical Facilities – Can Private Law Protect Them?

Fast Fashion and Its Environmental Impact

Fast Fashion and Its Environmental Impact

10 Companies Called Out For Greenwashing

10 Companies Called Out For Greenwashing

10 Concerning Fast Fashion Waste Statistics

10 Concerning Fast Fashion Waste Statistics

Hand-picked stories weekly or monthly. We promise, no spam!

Boost this article By donating us $100, $50 or subscribe to Boosting $10/month – we can get this article and others in front of tens of thousands of specially targeted readers. This targeted Boosting – helps us to reach wider audiences – aiming to convince the unconvinced, to inform the uninformed, to enlighten the dogmatic.

  • Skip to main content
  • Skip to secondary menu
  • Skip to primary sidebar
  • Skip to footer

Study Today

Largest Compilation of Structured Essays and Exams

Essay on Water Pollution : Causes, Effects & Solutions

February 2, 2021 by Study Mentor Leave a Comment

Water is one of the most important factors essential for sustaining life. Every organism, no matter how big or small, requires water to live.

You must’ve noticed that water quality has undergone a sea change over the years. The water has gotten harder and harder.

The color of water in rivers and lakes has significantly changed. The crystal clear surface on water bodies was a thing of the past and we no longer get to see a picturesque image of a clean and perfect water body anymore.

The tap water we receive can no longer be used for drinking, and we are forced to buy separate drinking water, install water purifying devices in our homes.

Have you wondered why we are forced to go in for such applications at our homes. There is no answer for water scarcity in big cities today and people are forced to live with the bitter truth.

Table of Contents

What is water pollution?

Water pollution is nothing but contamination of water bodies with chemicals, toxins and effluents let out from industrial establishments and factories.

These toxins contain harmful concentrations of lead, Sulphur, heavy metals and detergents in them.

Not just that, water bodies are mixed with sewage water and one can imagine the extent of dirt and filth that is contained in the waters of river bodies, thus making them highly polluted.

Pollution is tainting or forcefully mixing harmful and toxic substances into environment. These substances that endanger the consistency and integrity of the environment are called Pollutants.

Pollutants have been ever rampant since man entered the industrial ages.

The environment has been enduring the abuse we afflicted on it since ages. Industries, factories, etc. contribute to pollution on a large scale.

The daily activities that we perform, also pollute the earth due to inefficiency of the methods we use. Alarming quantities of pollutants are being produced and released.

Causes of water pollution

Speaking about water, most of the industries and factories have leftover chemical effluents. They release these residual products into primary water sources like rivers streams, lakes, fresh water tanks etc.

These residues may be a mixture of a myriad of chemically toxic substances.

The microbes present in the natural sources of water have the ability to purify the water to some extent. But the problem arises when we dump more Pollutants before the current batch of water is purified.

Purified, in this context, means oxidizing the water.

Microbes present in water have the natural ability to oxidize it. But constant human intended interference has almost nullified that ability.

In short, pollutants just overtake the good microbial activity and instead cause damage to water sources by inducing them  with filth and dirt.

The activities of the microbes in cleaning up the water reduce to a low minimum or may not take place at all. Waste water from domestic sources is also often dumped into rivers. This pollutes the entire source.

Other Essays on Pollution

  • Essay on Pollution
  • Essay on Marine Pollution
  • Essay on Land Pollution
  • Essay on Soil Pollution
  • Essay on Radioactive Pollution
  • Essay on Water Pollution
  • Essay on Anti Pollution
  • Essay on Noise Pollution
  • Essay on Air Pollution
  • Essay on Environmental Pollution

Effects of water pollution

Water pollution affects us on a daily basis. The cases of water borne disease are on the rise. Since water is one of the building blocks of life, we have but no choice to consume the same water in adequacy.

The dangers of polluted water increases when people unknowingly use polluted water for daily purposes.

This mostly occurs in rural areas, where rivers are a prime source of water.

Factories set up near river bodies may be releasing effluents and people downstream maybe using the same water for drinking purposes and for other daily activities.

It is common knowledge that 70 percent of the earth is covered by water. But not all of this water can be used for drinking and household purposes.

Only a small percentage is fresh water, and most of the other share in the percentage finds itself frozen at the Poles.

The advent of pollution has further reduced the potable water resources. Water available today is way more polluted than it was ages ago.

Our quality of life is greatly affected by this. Use of polluted water causes diseases and ailments. It can be directly linked to the receding length of our lifespan.

Solutions for water pollution

Humans have realized that they have greatly affected the environment in a bad way. Everywhere, efforts are being made to conserve water.

Water treatment plants are setup everywhere. Every waste disposal station has a water treatment department, so that all the chemical and other harmful substances can be removed from water before it is let into the main source.

This has been pivotal in controlling pollution of water. Rules and regulations have been made stringent for factories and industries, regarding their effluent emission, both through the air and through water.

Domestic waste disposal techniques have been improved and proper steps taken in the right direction.

It is entirely up to us, what we decide to do, with our water sources. Global warming is becoming an ever gaping issue and a worldwide concern. There’s always fear of the rains being more infrequent and unseasonal.

What on earth do we do without adequate water. The hardships we’d have to face to obtain enough water for sustaining looks so terrible if we were to quest for a suitable answer.

The everyday tasks that we do would become incredibly difficult. We need to take measures ourselves, to save water and keep it from being polluted.

We must start conserving water in our homes. Only then will the next generation have even the slightest hope for a well-rounded future.

Water pollution is actually a two-fold issue raising global concerns today.

The first issue, the most common one as we know is of the contamination of water by toxins and measures to reduce the contamination and improve the quality of water.

The second one is more serious and pertains to the availability of potable water on earth after some years, putting a question mark on the survival of life on earth itself.

We talk about beautifying our lakes, restoring the cleanliness of our water bodies, removing their contaminants and making them toxic free.

Yes, this is definitely required at the moment and there have been measures taken in the right direction to make our rivers clean and clear.

Specific installations of dust collector and dirt remover equipment’s in river basins have been employed to collect waste material from river surfaces.

This is primarily to remove hard traces of waste or what we can call as visible wastes. This also takes removes unnecessary growth of phytoplankton in rivers, thus letting the river waters breathe at ease.

Regarding toxin removal from river waters, purification using reverse osmosis methods, chemical filtration methods and other treatments using distillation methods are employed to make them free from chemical residues.

Much other advancement have been achieved and successfully employed in the river basins of our country to restore the natural beauty of lakes and rivers.

The best example of river water cleaning in our country is the cleanliness drive carried out at river Ganga in the holy city of Varanasi.

The government of India took it up as a big challenge to clean the river waters at the region and was successful in achieving its mission.

It is only with citizen co-operation and participation that any reformative measures taken by the governments will prove fruitful and worthy of action.

We blame successive governments for not cleaning up our river beds, for not providing us clean drinking water, for not beautifying our lakes etc.

In the melee, we forget our own responsibilities of acting with care and concern.

If we visit rural areas and spot women washing their clothes, utensils and cattle in river waters, it is our duty to educate them and spread awareness about their wrong acts.

We ought to tell them that they aren’t supposed to pollute the river water.

Reader Interactions

Leave a reply cancel reply.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Top Trending Essays in March 2021

  • Essay on my School
  • Summer Season
  • My favourite teacher
  • World heritage day quotes
  • my family speech
  • importance of trees essay
  • autobiography of a pen
  • honesty is the best policy essay
  • essay on building a great india
  • my favourite book essay
  • essay on caa
  • my favourite player
  • autobiography of a river
  • farewell speech for class 10 by class 9
  • essay my favourite teacher 200 words
  • internet influence on kids essay
  • my favourite cartoon character


Content & links.

Verified by

Essay for Students

  • Essay for Class 1 to 5 Students

Scholarships for Students

  • Class 1 Students Scholarship
  • Class 2 Students Scholarship
  • Class 3 Students Scholarship
  • Class 4 Students Scholarship
  • Class 5 students Scholarship
  • Class 6 Students Scholarship
  • Class 7 students Scholarship
  • Class 8 Students Scholarship
  • Class 9 Students Scholarship
  • Class 10 Students Scholarship
  • Class 11 Students Scholarship
  • Class 12 Students Scholarship


  • About Study Today
  • Privacy Policy
  • Terms & Conditions


  • Apj Abdul Kalam Scholarship
  • Ashirwad Scholarship
  • Bihar Scholarship
  • Canara Bank Scholarship
  • Colgate Scholarship
  • Dr Ambedkar Scholarship
  • E District Scholarship
  • Epass Karnataka Scholarship
  • Fair And Lovely Scholarship
  • Floridas John Mckay Scholarship
  • Inspire Scholarship
  • Jio Scholarship
  • Karnataka Minority Scholarship
  • Lic Scholarship
  • Maulana Azad Scholarship
  • Medhavi Scholarship
  • Minority Scholarship
  • Moma Scholarship
  • Mp Scholarship
  • Muslim Minority Scholarship
  • Nsp Scholarship
  • Oasis Scholarship
  • Obc Scholarship
  • Odisha Scholarship
  • Pfms Scholarship
  • Post Matric Scholarship
  • Pre Matric Scholarship
  • Prerana Scholarship
  • Prime Minister Scholarship
  • Rajasthan Scholarship
  • Santoor Scholarship
  • Sitaram Jindal Scholarship
  • Ssp Scholarship
  • Swami Vivekananda Scholarship
  • Ts Epass Scholarship
  • Up Scholarship
  • Vidhyasaarathi Scholarship
  • Wbmdfc Scholarship
  • West Bengal Minority Scholarship
  • Click Here Now!!

Mobile Number

Have you Burn Crackers this Diwali ? Yes No

water pollution problem solution essay

25,000+ students realised their study abroad dream with us. Take the first step today

Meet top uk universities from the comfort of your home, here’s your new year gift, one app for all your, study abroad needs, start your journey, track your progress, grow with the community and so much more.

water pollution problem solution essay

Verification Code

An OTP has been sent to your registered mobile no. Please verify

water pollution problem solution essay

Thanks for your comment !

Our team will review it before it's shown to our readers.

Leverage Edu

  • School Education /

Essay on Water Pollution: Samples in 200, 500 Words

' src=

  • Updated on  
  • Mar 23, 2024

Essay on water pollution

Essay on Water Pollution: Water pollution occurs when human activities introduce toxic substances into freshwater ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater, leading to the degradation of water quality. The combination of harmful chemicals with water has a negative impact on these ecosystems. 

Various human actions, particularly those affecting land, water, and underwater surfaces, contribute to this pollution, disrupting the natural supply of clean water and posing a significant danger to all forms of life, including humans.

Table of Contents

  • 1 What is Water Pollution?
  • 2.1 Contaminants 
  • 2.2 Solution 
  • 3.1 Reasons for Water Pollution
  • 3.2 Methods of Water Pollution Management
  • 3.3 Real-Life Encounter

Also Read: Types of Water Pollution

What is Water Pollution?

When many pollutants such as garbage, chemicals, bacteria, household waste, industrial waste, etc get mixed in the water resources and make the water unfit for cooking, drinking, cleaning, etc. it is known as water pollution. Water pollution damages the quality of water. lakes, water streams, rivers, etc may become polluted and eventually they will pollute the oceans. All this will directly or indirectly affect the lives of us humans and the animals deteriorating our health.

Essay on Water Pollution in 200 Words

Water is plentiful on Earth, present both above and beneath its surface. A variety of water bodies, such as rivers, ponds, seas, and oceans, can be found on the planet’s surface. Despite Earth’s ability to naturally replenish its water, we are gradually depleting and mishandling this abundant resource. 

Although water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface and land constitutes the remaining 29%, the rapid expansion of water pollution is impacting both marine life and humans. 


Water pollution stems significantly from city sewage and industrial waste discharge. Indirect sources of water pollution include contaminants that reach water supplies via soil, groundwater systems, and precipitation. 

Chemical pollutants pose a greater challenge in terms of removal compared to visible impurities, which can be filtered out through physical cleaning. The addition of chemicals alters water’s properties, rendering it unsafe and potentially lethal for consumption.


Prioritizing water infrastructure enhancement is vital for sustainable water management, with a focus on water efficiency and conservation. 

Furthermore, rainwater harvesting and reuse serve as effective strategies to curb water pollution. Reclaimed wastewater and collected rainwater alleviate stress on groundwater and other natural water sources. 

Groundwater recharge, which transfers water from surface sources to groundwater, is a well-known approach to mitigate water scarcity. These measures collectively contribute to safeguarding the planet’s water resources for present and future generations.

Here is a list of Major Landforms of the Earth !

Essay on Water Pollution in 500 Words

The term “water pollution” is employed when human or natural factors lead to contamination of bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. Responsible management is now imperative to address this significant environmental concern. The primary sources of water contamination are human-related activities like urbanization, industrialization, deforestation, improper waste disposal, and the establishment of landfills.

Reasons for Water Pollution

The availability of freshwater on our planet is limited, and pollution only increases this scarcity. Every year, a substantial amount of fresh water is lost due to industrial and various other types of pollution. Pollutants encompass visible waste items of varying sizes as well as intangible, hazardous, and lethal compounds.

Numerous factories are situated in proximity to water bodies, utilizing freshwater to transport their waste. This industrial waste carries inherent toxicity, jeopardizing the well-being of both plant and animal life. Individuals living close to polluted water sources frequently suffer from skin problems, respiratory ailments, and occasionally even life-threatening health conditions.

Water contamination is also intensified by urban waste and sewage, adding to the problem. Each household generates considerable waste annually, including plastic, chemicals, wood, and other materials. Inadequate waste disposal methods result in this refusal to infiltrate aquatic ecosystems like rivers, lakes, and streams, leading to pollution.

Methods of Water Pollution Management

Raising awareness about the causes and consequences of water pollution is crucial in significantly reducing its prevalence. Encouraging community or organizational clean-up initiatives on a weekly or monthly basis plays a pivotal role. 

To eradicate water contamination completely, stringent legislation needs to be formulated and diligently enforced. Rigorous oversight would promote accountability, potentially deterring individuals and groups from polluting. Each individual should recognize the impact of their daily actions and take steps to contribute to a better world for generations to come.

Real-Life Encounter

My affection for my town has always been heightened by its abundant lakes, rivers, and forests. During one of my walks alongside the river that flowed through my village, I was struck by the unusual hues swirling within the water. The once-familiar crystal-clear blue had been replaced by a murky brown shade, accompanied by a potent, unpleasant odour. Intrigued, I decided to investigate further, descending to the riverbank for a closer look at the source of the peculiar colours and smells. Upon closer inspection, I observed peculiar foam bubbles floating on the water’s surface.

Suddenly, a commotion behind me caught my attention, and I turned to witness a group of people hastening toward the river. Their frantic shouts and vigorous gestures conveyed their panic, prompting me to realize that a grave situation was unfolding. As the group reached the river, they were confronted with the distressing sight of numerous lifeless fish floating on the water’s surface. 

Following a comprehensive investigation, it was revealed that a local factory had been releasing toxic chemicals into the river, resulting in extensive pollution and the devastation of the ecosystem. This investigation left me stunned and disheartened, acknowledging the significant effort required to restore the river to its own form.

Related Reads:-     

A. Water pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater, due to the introduction of harmful substances. These substances can include chemicals, industrial waste, sewage, and pollutants that adversely affect the quality of water, making it unsafe for human consumption and harmful to aquatic life.

A. The primary sources of water pollution include city sewage and industrial waste discharge. Chemical contaminants from factories and agricultural runoff, as well as oil spills and plastic waste, contribute significantly to water pollution. Runoff from paved surfaces and improper waste disposal also play a role in introducing pollutants into water bodies.

A. Water pollution has far-reaching consequences. It poses a threat to aquatic ecosystems by harming marine life, disrupting food chains, and damaging habitats. Additionally, contaminated water can lead to the spread of waterborne diseases among humans. Toxic chemicals in polluted water can cause serious health issues, affecting the skin, and respiratory systems, and even leading to long-term illnesses. 

This brings us to the end of our blog on Essay on Water Pollution. Hope you find this information useful. For more information on such informative topics for your school, visit our  essay writing  and follow  Leverage Edu

' src=

Aditi Gupta

A bachelors in Journalism and Mass Communication graduate, I am an enthusiastic writer. I love to write about impactful content which can help others. I love to binge watch and listen to music during my free time.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Contact no. *

water pollution problem solution essay

Connect With Us

water pollution problem solution essay

25,000+ students realised their study abroad dream with us. Take the first step today.

water pollution problem solution essay

Resend OTP in

water pollution problem solution essay

Need help with?

Study abroad.

UK, Canada, US & More


Scholarship, Loans & Forex

Country Preference

New Zealand

Which English test are you planning to take?

Which academic test are you planning to take.

Not Sure yet

When are you planning to take the exam?

Already booked my exam slot

Within 2 Months

Want to learn about the test

Which Degree do you wish to pursue?

When do you want to start studying abroad.

January 2024

September 2024

What is your budget to study abroad?

water pollution problem solution essay

How would you describe this article ?

Please rate this article

We would like to hear more.

Have something on your mind?

water pollution problem solution essay

Make your study abroad dream a reality in January 2022 with

water pollution problem solution essay

India's Biggest Virtual University Fair

water pollution problem solution essay

Essex Direct Admission Day

Pollution in the Yellow River, Mongolia

Discharge from a Chinese fertilizer factory winds its way toward the Yellow River. Like many of the world's rivers, pollution remains an ongoing problem.

Water pollution is a rising global crisis. Here’s what you need to know.

The world's freshwater sources receive contaminants from a wide range of sectors, threatening human and wildlife health.

From big pieces of garbage to invisible chemicals, a wide range of pollutants ends up in our planet's lakes, rivers, streams, groundwater, and eventually the oceans. Water pollution—along with drought, inefficiency, and an exploding population—has contributed to a freshwater crisis , threatening the sources we rely on for drinking water and other critical needs.

Research has revealed that one pollutant in particular is more common in our tap water than anyone had previously thought: PFAS, short for poly and perfluoroalkyl substances. PFAS is used to make everyday items resistant to moisture, heat, and stains; some of these chemicals have such long half-lives that they are known as "the forever chemical."

Safeguarding water supplies is important because even though nearly 70 percent of the world is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. And just one percent of freshwater is easily accessible, with much of it trapped in remote glaciers and snowfields.

Water pollution causes

Water pollution can come from a variety of sources. Pollution can enter water directly, through both legal and illegal discharges from factories, for example, or imperfect water treatment plants. Spills and leaks from oil pipelines or hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations can degrade water supplies. Wind, storms, and littering—especially of plastic waste —can also send debris into waterways.

Thanks largely to decades of regulation and legal action against big polluters, the main cause of U.S. water quality problems is now " nonpoint source pollution ," when pollutants are carried across or through the ground by rain or melted snow. Such runoff can contain fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides from farms and homes; oil and toxic chemicals from roads and industry; sediment; bacteria from livestock; pet waste; and other pollutants .

Finally, drinking water pollution can happen via the pipes themselves if the water is not properly treated, as happened in the case of lead contamination in Flint, Michigan , and other towns. Another drinking water contaminant, arsenic , can come from naturally occurring deposits but also from industrial waste.

Freshwater pollution effects

the dry riverbed of the Colorado River

Water pollution can result in human health problems, poisoned wildlife, and long-term ecosystem damage. When agricultural and industrial runoff floods waterways with excess nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, these nutrients often fuel algae blooms that then create dead zones , or low-oxygen areas where fish and other aquatic life can no longer thrive.

Algae blooms can create health and economic effects for humans, causing rashes and other ailments, while eroding tourism revenue for popular lake destinations thanks to their unpleasant looks and odors. High levels of nitrates in water from nutrient pollution can also be particularly harmful to infants , interfering with their ability to deliver oxygen to tissues and potentially causing " blue baby syndrome ." The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 38 percent of the European Union's water bodies are under pressure from agricultural pollution.

Globally, unsanitary water supplies also exact a health toll in the form of disease. At least 2 billion people drink water from sources contaminated by feces, according to the World Health Organization , and that water may transmit dangerous diseases such as cholera and typhoid.

Freshwater pollution solutions

In many countries, regulations have restricted industry and agricultural operations from pouring pollutants into lakes, streams, and rivers, while treatment plants make our drinking water safe to consume. Researchers are working on a variety of other ways to prevent and clean up pollution. National Geographic grantee Africa Flores , for example, has created an artificial intelligence algorithm to better predict when algae blooms will happen. A number of scientists are looking at ways to reduce and cleanup plastic pollution .

There have been setbacks, however. Regulation of pollutants is subject to changing political winds, as has been the case in the United States with the loosening of environmental protections that prevented landowners from polluting the country’s waterways.

Anyone can help protect watersheds by disposing of motor oil, paints, and other toxic products properly , keeping them off pavement and out of the drain. Be careful about what you flush or pour down the sink, as it may find its way into the water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends using phosphate-free detergents and washing your car at a commercial car wash, which is required to properly dispose of wastewater. Green roofs and rain gardens can be another way for people in built environments to help restore some of the natural filtering that forests and plants usually provide.


Related topics.


You May Also Like

water pollution problem solution essay

Here’s what worries engineers the most about U.S. infrastructure

water pollution problem solution essay

Are you drinking water all wrong? Here’s what you need to know about hydrating.

water pollution problem solution essay

Is tap water safe to drink? Here’s what you really need to know.

water pollution problem solution essay

Japan releases nuclear wastewater into the Pacific. How worried should we be?

water pollution problem solution essay

These cities are sinking into the ground

  • Environment
  • Paid Content

History & Culture

  • History & Culture
  • History Magazine
  • Gory Details
  • 2023 in Review
  • Mind, Body, Wonder
  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Your US State Privacy Rights
  • Children's Online Privacy Policy
  • Interest-Based Ads
  • About Nielsen Measurement
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Personal Information
  • Nat Geo Home
  • Attend a Live Event
  • Book a Trip
  • Inspire Your Kids
  • Shop Nat Geo
  • Visit the D.C. Museum
  • Learn About Our Impact
  • Support Our Mission
  • Advertise With Us
  • Customer Service
  • Renew Subscription
  • Manage Your Subscription
  • Work at Nat Geo
  • Sign Up for Our Newsletters
  • Contribute to Protect the Planet

Copyright © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society Copyright © 2015-2024 National Geographic Partners, LLC. All rights reserved

Essay on Water Pollution

Here we have shared the Essay on Water Pollution in detail so you can use it in your exam or assignment of 150, 250, 400, 500, or 1000 words.

You can use this Essay on Water Pollution in any assignment or project whether you are in school (class 10th or 12th), college, or preparing for answer writing in competitive exams. 

Topics covered in this article.

Essay on Water Pollution in 150-250 words

Essay on water pollution in 300-400 words, essay on water pollution in 500-1000 words.

Water pollution is a pressing environmental issue that poses a significant threat to ecosystems and human health. It occurs when harmful substances, such as chemicals, industrial waste, or sewage, contaminate water bodies, including rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater sources.

Water pollution has devastating consequences on aquatic life. Toxic pollutants can disrupt the balance of ecosystems, leading to the decline of fish and other marine species. Additionally, contaminated water can spread diseases to animals and humans who depend on these water sources for drinking, irrigation, and recreation.

Industrial activities, improper waste disposal, agricultural runoff, and urbanization contribute to water pollution. Efforts to reduce water pollution include stricter regulations on waste disposal, the promotion of sustainable agricultural practices, and the development of advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

Awareness and individual responsibility are crucial in combating water pollution. Simple actions like properly disposing of waste, conserving water, and avoiding the use of harmful chemicals can make a significant difference. Education and advocacy are essential to raising public awareness about the importance of protecting water resources and implementing sustainable practices.

In conclusion, water pollution is a grave environmental issue that threatens aquatic ecosystems and human well-being. It is a global challenge that requires collective action and responsible behavior. By implementing effective regulations, adopting sustainable practices, and promoting awareness, we can safeguard our water resources and ensure a healthier and more sustainable future for all.

Title: Water Pollution – A Growing Threat to Ecosystems and Human Well-being

Introduction :

Water pollution is a grave environmental issue that arises from the contamination of water bodies by harmful substances. It poses a significant threat to aquatic ecosystems and human health. This essay explores the causes and consequences of water pollution, as well as the measures required to address and prevent it.

Causes of Water Pollution

Water pollution can be attributed to various human activities and natural factors. Industrial discharge, improper waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage, and chemical pollutants are among the leading causes. Rapid urbanization, population growth, and inadequate infrastructure for waste management contribute to the problem. Additionally, natural phenomena like sedimentation and erosion can exacerbate water pollution.

Consequences of Water Pollution

Water pollution has far-reaching ecological and human health implications. Contaminated water disrupts aquatic ecosystems, leading to the decline of fish and other marine species. It affects biodiversity, disrupts food chains, and damages habitats. Moreover, polluted water sources pose significant health risks to humans. Consuming or coming into contact with contaminated water can lead to waterborne diseases, gastrointestinal issues, skin problems, and even long-term health impacts.

Prevention and Remediation

Addressing water pollution requires a multi-faceted approach. Stricter regulations and enforcement regarding industrial discharge and waste management are essential. Promoting sustainable agricultural practices, such as reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and implementing proper irrigation techniques, can minimize agricultural runoff. Developing and implementing advanced wastewater treatment technologies is crucial to ensure that domestic and industrial effluents are properly treated before being discharged into water bodies.

Individual and Collective Responsibility:

Preventing water pollution is a shared responsibility. Individuals can contribute by practicing responsible waste disposal, conserving water, and avoiding the use of harmful chemicals. Public awareness campaigns and education programs play a vital role in promoting responsible behavior and fostering a culture of environmental stewardship.

Conclusion :

Water pollution is a critical environmental issue that jeopardizes the health of ecosystems and humans. It demands collective action and responsible behavior. By addressing the root causes of water pollution, implementing effective regulations, and promoting individual and collective responsibility, we can safeguard water resources and ensure a sustainable future for generations to come.

Title: Water Pollution – A Looming Crisis Threatening Ecosystems and Human Well-being

Water pollution is a pressing environmental issue that poses a significant threat to ecosystems, biodiversity, and human health. It occurs when harmful substances contaminate water bodies, making them unfit for their intended uses. This essay delves into the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to water pollution, emphasizing the urgent need for collective action to address this global crisis.

Water pollution arises from various sources, both human-induced and natural. Human activities play a significant role in polluting water bodies. Industrial discharge, untreated sewage, agricultural runoff, oil spills, mining activities, and improper waste disposal are among the leading causes. Industrial wastewater often contains heavy metals, toxic chemicals, and organic pollutants, which can have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Agricultural runoff, laden with pesticides, fertilizers, and animal waste, contaminates water bodies and contributes to eutrophication, depleting oxygen levels and harming aquatic life.

The consequences of water pollution are far-reaching and encompass ecological, economic, and health impacts. Aquatic ecosystems bear the brunt of pollution, with devastating consequences for biodiversity and food chains. Pollutants disrupt aquatic habitats, decrease water quality, and lead to the decline of fish and other marine species. This ecological imbalance has ripple effects throughout the ecosystem, affecting the entire food web.

Water pollution also has severe implications for human health. Contaminated water sources pose significant risks, as they can transmit waterborne diseases, including cholera, typhoid, dysentery, and hepatitis. Communities that rely on polluted water for drinking, cooking, and bathing are particularly vulnerable. Prolonged exposure to polluted water can lead to various health issues, such as gastrointestinal problems, skin irritations, respiratory illnesses, and even long-term health effects like cancer.

Furthermore, water pollution has economic ramifications. Polluted water bodies reduce the availability of clean water for agriculture, industry, and domestic use. This leads to increased costs for water treatment, agricultural productivity losses, and economic disruptions in sectors that rely heavily on water resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

Solutions and Mitigation Strategies

Addressing water pollution requires comprehensive strategies and collaborative efforts. Governments, industries, communities, and individuals all have a role to play in mitigating pollution and safeguarding water resources.

a. Regulatory Measures

B. wastewater treatment, c. sustainable agriculture, d. waste management, e. education and awareness.

Effective regulations and enforcement mechanisms are essential to control and prevent water pollution. Governments should establish stringent standards for industrial effluents and enforce penalties for non-compliance. Laws should be enacted to ensure proper waste disposal and treatment practices. Additionally, zoning regulations can help prevent pollution by restricting industrial activities near sensitive water bodies.

Investing in advanced wastewater treatment infrastructure is crucial. Industries should implement appropriate treatment technologies to remove pollutants from their effluents before discharge. Municipalities must prioritize the treatment of domestic sewage to prevent contamination of water bodies. Developing countries, in particular, need support and resources to build and upgrade their wastewater treatment facilities.

Adopting sustainable agricultural practices can significantly reduce pollution from agricultural activities. Encouraging the use of organic farming methods, integrated pest management, and precision irrigation can minimize the reliance on harmful pesticides and fertilizers. Proper manure management and implementing buffer zones along water bodies can also mitigate nutrient runoff and protect water quality.

Improper waste disposal is a major contributor to water pollution. Implementing comprehensive waste management systems that include recycling, proper landfill management, and promotion of waste reduction strategies is crucial. Communities should have access to adequate waste collection services, and educational campaigns can raise awareness about the importance of responsible waste disposal.

Public education and awareness programs play a vital role in addressing water pollution. Promoting water conservation practices, encouraging responsible behavior, and highlighting the link between water pollution and human health can empower individuals to take action. Educational campaigns should target schools, communities, and industries to foster a culture of environmental stewardship.

Water pollution is a critical global issue that poses severe threats to ecosystems, biodiversity, and human well-being. It demands collective action and sustainable practices to safeguard water resources. Through stringent regulations, advanced wastewater treatment, sustainable agriculture, proper waste management, and education, we can mitigate water pollution and preserve this vital resource for future generations. By recognizing the urgency of this crisis and working collaboratively, we can ensure a healthier, cleaner, and more sustainable water future.

Related Posts

Essential Elements of Valid Contract

Essential Elements of Valid Contract (Explained With Examples)

what is world population

What is World Population? Main Causes, Effects, Top 20 Countries

Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution Problem Solution Essay

Source of pollution, categories of water pollution.


Water is a special substance because through its natural form it can replenish and purify itself by allowing impurities to clear up through the process known as sedimentation. It can also dilute the impurities to a position where they contain harmless elements. Conversely, this natural process takes a lot of time, and therefore becomes impossible when there are excessive impurities that have contaminated the water.

Human beings contribute greatly towards polluting the water that they use. Prolonged pollution of water has even caused some plants to grow in the water, which pose danger to the living entities that have their inhabitants in the water. This paper shall succinctly explore on causes of water pollution and the present environmental solution towards the ongoing pollution of water.

The term pollution can be defined in various ways. Water pollution happens when energy and varying materials are set free, thus debasing the value of water for users. In another perspective, water pollution comprises of all the waste products that the water cannot break down in its natural form.

In simpler terms, any substance that is added to water and cannot be broken is referred as Pollution. In certain instances, the root cause of pollution may be through nature itself, for instance, when water runs all the way through soils containing acidic components. Human beings are however, the greater causes of water pollution (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation).

Water pollution has two major sources: the point and the non-point sources. The point sources include those sources that visibly discharge pollutants into the sources of water. For example, sewerage treatment and discharge from factories among others. Similarly, the non-point source becomes very difficult to discover because their sources cannot be traced with ease. Examples of non-point sources include fertilizers, animal and chemical wastes, wastes from mining factories among others (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation).

The first category of pollution is based mainly on human and the animal waste. Such kind of wastes is called the environmental waste. They are capable of producing a source of energy, which enhances growth of bacteria. The source of energy produced (organic compound) is transformed into carbon dioxide and water, which when in large components can lead to atmospheric pollution and acidic rain. The type of pollution that is formed here is widespread and very difficult to control than any other type of pollution.

The second category is the type of pollution that results from sewerage treatment. Such water contains components of phosphates and nitrates and these are directly discharged into water. Such pollution is very hazardous to both the human and aquatic life.

Heat is the third category of water pollution. When the temperature of water increases, the amount of the oxygen gas that is dissolved in water tends to lower. In some instances, such kind of pollution may be said to be natural. Mostly, the industrial equipments and other plants may be cleaned and cooled respectively by use hot springs and shallow ponds, then the used water is discharged into water body without being treated. Consequently, these tend to decrease the aquatic life since the oxygen component is also affected.

The fourth and most common source of water pollution is sediment pollution. The organic particles and other minerals from the land are washed and blown into water sources. Such source of pollution is very difficult to identify since it emanates from the non-point sources.

The fifth and most widespread source of water pollution is the discharge of chemicals into water, which mainly comes from the industrial wastes. Controlling this source of water pollution has proven difficult since industries are still discharging waste products into water sources; farmers are still using agro-chemicals.

The last category is water pollution through radioactive pollutants. These comprise of discharges from production industries, from hospitals and Uranium Mines. Radioactive pollutants are considered hazardous to both human and aquatic life since they take a long period before they become inactive and harmless (Environment Canada).

Environmental Solutions to Water pollution

Water pollution is an issue that has been present in our midst for ages. It has been there since time immemorial, despite the fact that its relentless has lately struck environmentalists all over the world. Implementation of strict laws concerning the way forward to prevent water pollution have been amended year in year out, but they have always lacked a follow up since they have always fallen on deaf ears.

In fact, the problem has become adverse and this has compelled the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to declare most of the lake, some streams, and even rivers as being dangerous for both swimming and fishing.

Therefore, besides implementing ways on how this issue can be prevented, there is also a need to put to a stop this problem. In that connection, the following are some of the present water pollution solutions that we can implement and make this world a better place to be (Environment Canada).

Charity Begins at Home

Before we start pointing fingers to those we think have greatly contributed towards polluting water, it is advisable to have a look on the inside. Each one of us has contributed in one way or another in polluting the environment. Having done this, therefore, puts us into a better position of implementing some changes within ourselves, which may turn into a revolution: ensuring that the discharge of the wastes from whichever sources is directed towards the right places and they are treated.

Setting up programs to ensure that the septic tanks are periodically cleaned might also be a step ahead that one ought to implement within his or her locality and in this case everyone within the neighborhood should be involved. Above all, kids should also be educated on the importance of saving water, as this is one of the major solutions in saving water.

This will help in maintaining the old septic systems. In addition, refraining from using plastic equipments saves life when it comes to water pollution. Plastics are said to be non-biodegradable and therefore when dumped they tend to release chemicals and products that becomes hazardous to life.

Amending On Present Laws

Amending and making Water protection laws more stringent is the only possible way in fighting with those that cause water pollution. Any person found breaking the laid down rules and regulations concerning preservation of water should be highly penalized. Likewise, it may prove to be the most difficult solution to implement since most of those people involved in polluting the environment are those in power. This will only become efficient and effective to all, if there is a genuine concern for human and aquatic life (Environment Canada)

Prevent Deforestation

There is a linking point between the causes of environmental pollution. For instance, a forest plays the major part as main source of rainwater and infuses it up. Conversely, due to the extensive expansion of emerging companies and residential premises, that occurs at the costs of forests, and thus resulting into widespread deforestation, the role of the forests comes into a standstill. The resultant is that rainwater flows into streams carrying sediments and other particles into water bodies. The only way to stop this is practicing a forestation (Terra Daily).

Stopping Oil Spills

For ages, the oil discharged from the industries has affected the marine life. The only possible and best way to evade from this problem is to increase the rate at which the vessels that carry this oil moves. Government interventions through inspecting the way ships moves, and also provide civic education about the repercussions of such problems (Environment Canada).

Water is a natural substance that is essential for living things, and requires protection from any pollution. The points discussed in this paper are just few of the possible solutions for water pollution. If we fail to implement water pollution solutions and analyze this major environmental issue, human life and the natural environment may experience difficulties coexisting in the world.

Prevention of water pollution is one of the major steps in having a sustainable “green” environment. Governments need to set up laws that protect the environment from pollutions. Having international laws that are driven to educate and guide people on environmental protection will benefit all things that depend on water. It is therefore important to focus on preserving water sources and ensure that natural resources are used wisely, be it for production or for business services.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Annual Checkup . 2004. Web.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Down on the Farm: Water Laws . 2004. Web.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. On the Nutrient Trail. 2004. Web.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Up the Creek. 2004. Web.

City of Saskatoon. Wastewater Treatment Process . 2007. Web.

Environment Canada. Clean Water – Life depends on. 2004. Web.

Environment Canada. Quick Facts. 2006. Web.

Environment Canada. The State of Canada’s Environment – 1996 . 1996. Web.

Environment Canada. Water Pollution . 2004. Web.

Terra Daily. Canada Will Not Buy Pollution Rights . 2006. Web.

  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2024, February 13). Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution.

"Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution." IvyPanda , 13 Feb. 2024,

IvyPanda . (2024) 'Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution'. 13 February.

IvyPanda . 2024. "Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution." February 13, 2024.

1. IvyPanda . "Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution." February 13, 2024.

IvyPanda . "Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution." February 13, 2024.

  • Issues in Non-Point Source Pollution
  • The Nature of Nonpoint Pollution Control Problem
  • Point vs. Non-Point Air Pollution
  • The Negative Impact of Soil Pollution
  • Cashion Water Quality: Spatial Distribution of Water Pollution Incidents
  • Smog, Its Harm and Pollution Reduction Progress
  • Top 500 Polluting Companies
  • Environmental Pollution and Contamination
  • Pollution and Illegal Dumping in Chilliwack River
  • Water Pollution and Its Challenges
  • Climate Changes: Human Activities and Global Warming
  • Drilling in the Alaskan Wilderness
  • The Bamako Convention: Management of Hazardous Waste Materials Movement
  • Global Warming: Causes, Effects and the Future
  • Water Pollution & Diseases (Undeveloped Nations)
  • Share full article


Supported by

PFAS ‘Forever Chemicals’ Are Pervasive in Water Worldwide, Study Finds

A global survey found harmful levels even in water samples taken far any obvious source of contamination.

A person wearing purple protective gloves and a lab coat pours water into a brown vial.

By Delger Erdenesanaa

They’re in makeup, dental floss and menstrual products. They’re in nonstick pans and takeout food wrappers . Same with rain jackets and firefighting equipment, as well as pesticides and artificial turf on sports fields.

They’re PFAS: a class of man-made chemicals called per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. They are also called “forever chemicals” because the bonds in their chemical compounds are so strong they don’t break down for hundreds to thousands of years, if at all.

They’re also in our water.

A new study of more than 45,000 water samples around the world found that about 31 percent of groundwater samples tested that weren’t near any obvious source of contamination had PFAS levels considered harmful to human health by the Environmental Protection Agency.

About 16 percent of surface water samples tested, which were also not near any known source, had similarly hazardous PFAS levels.

This finding “sets off alarm bells,” said Denis O’Carroll, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of New South Wales and one of the authors of the study, which was published on Monday in Nature Geoscience . “Not just for PFAS, but also for all the other chemicals that we put out into the environment. We don’t necessarily know their long-term impacts to us or the ecosystem.”

High levels of exposure to some PFAS chemicals have been linked to higher cholesterol, liver and immune system damage, hypertension and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy, as well as kidney and testicular cancer.

The E.P.A. has proposed strict new drinking water limits for six types of PFAS and could announce its final rule as early as this week.

For their research, Dr. O’Carroll and his colleagues gathered nearly 300 previously published studies on PFAS in the environment. Together, these studies included 12,000 samples from surface water — streams, rivers, ponds and lakes — and 33,900 samples from groundwater wells, collected over the past 20 years. These samples don’t cover the whole planet: they are concentrated in places with more environmental researchers, like the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia and the Pacific Coast of Asia.

The samples are probably also concentrated in places where people were already concerned about PFAS contamination, Dr. O’Carroll said. He cautioned that, as a result, the findings of this new study might be skewed to show higher levels of contamination than a true global average would. There’s reason to believe, however, that there’s some level of PFAS contamination nearly everywhere on the planet, he said.

Of the countries where studies had been done, the United States and Australia had particularly high concentrations of PFAS in their water samples.

Among the available samples, the highest levels of contamination were generally found near places like airports and military bases, which routinely use PFAS-containing foam to practice fighting fires. About 60 to 70 percent of both groundwater and surface water samples near these types of facilities had PFAS levels exceeding the E.P.A. Hazard Index , which measures how hazardous mixtures of certain chemicals might be to human health, and also exceeded limits in the E.P.A.’s proposed new drinking water regulations.

This research does an admirable job of collecting the available data and highlighting the extent of global contamination from PFAS chemicals, said David Andrews, a senior scientist at the Environmental Working Group, a research and advocacy organization, who was not involved in this study.

Scientific research on the health effects of PFAS has evolved significantly in the past 10 to 20 years, he said, and what are considered safe exposure levels now are a tiny fraction of what they were a few decades ago.

The proposed E.P.A. drinking water rules, depending on their final language, will be a big step forward, he said.

Michael Regan, the E.P.A. administrator, has said his agency intends to require utilities to treat their water so that levels of some PFAS are near zero . This requirement would make the United States one of the strictest countries in terms of regulating PFAS in water.

Dr. Andrews added, however, that while treating drinking water is important, it doesn’t solve the whole problem. His own research has shown that PFAS chemicals are pervasive in wildlife , too.

“Once they’re released into the environment, it’s incredibly difficult to clean them up, if not impossible in many cases,” he said. “They can be removed from drinking water, but the ultimate solution is to not use them in the first place, especially in places where there are clear alternatives.”

For example, some outdoor clothing brands are moving away from PFAS for waterproofing their products and toward alternatives like silicones. Fast food restaurants can wrap their burgers in paper that’s been treated with heat to make it grease-resistant, or coated in a PFAS-free plastic instead. The Department of Defense is beginning to replace traditional firefighting foam with an alternative called fluorine-free foam, or F3.

In the meantime, Dr. O’Carroll said, “I’m not in any way trying to say that we should not be drinking water.” He added, “It’s more that I’m trying to say, from a societal point of view, we need to be careful what we put into the environment.”

Delger Erdenesanaa is a reporter covering climate and the environment and a member of the 2023-24 Times Fellowship class, a program for journalists early in their careers. More about Delger Erdenesanaa

The Proliferation of ‘Forever Chemicals’

Pfas, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are hazardous compounds that pose a global threat to human health..

For the first time, the U.S. government is requiring municipal water systems to detect and remove PFAS from drinking water .

A global study found harmful levels of PFAS  in water samples taken far from any obvious source of contamination.

Virtually indestructible, PFAS are used in fast-food packaging and countless household items .

PFAS lurk in much of what we eat, drink and use, but scientists are only beginning to understand how they affect our health .

Though no one can avoid forever chemicals entirely, Wirecutter offers tips on how to limit your exposure .

Scientists have spent years searching for ways to destroy forever chemicals. In 2022, a team of chemists found a cheap, effective method to break them down .

News from the Columbia Climate School

Protecting Our Planet: 5 Strategies for Reducing Plastic Waste

Olga Rukovets

Microplastics in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

Plastics are ubiquitous in our world, and given that plastic waste can take thousands of years to break down , there’s more of it to be found on Earth every single day. Worse yet is the fact that the stuff doesn’t easily decompose —it mostly just disintegrates into smaller and smaller pieces.

These tiny particles, called microplastics , have found their way to all parts of our globe , no matter how remote. They’re also increasingly detected in our food and drinking water. A recent study by Columbia researchers found that water bottles contain even more—10 to 100 times more—of these minute plastic bits (dubbed “nanoplastics”) than we previously believed. The health effects and downstream repercussions of microplastics are not fully understood, but researchers are concerned about the long-term impacts of ingesting all this plastic.

Meaningful change to clean up this mess will undoubtedly need to happen on a very large scale. Accordingly, , an organization that originates from the first Earth Day back in 1970, has designated this year’s theme as Planet vs. Plastics , with a goal of achieving a 60% reduction in plastics production by 2040. Organizations like Ocean Cleanup have been working on technologies to clean up the plastic floating in our oceans and polluting our waterways. And in 2022, 175 UN member nations signed on to a global agreement that promises to produce a binding treaty to overcome the scourge of plastic by the end of this year (though it has not been without setbacks ).

What are some actions individuals can take on a regular basis to reduce plastics consumption?

1. Embrace the circular economy

Increasingly, advocates are calling for a circular approach to production and consumption as one important way to reduce the burden of plastic waste. Sandra Goldmark , senior assistant dean of interdisciplinary engagement at the Columbia Climate School, reminds us that circularity is very much in use in the modern world—we have public libraries, neighborhood swaps and traditional and regenerative agricultural practices that demonstrate the success of the concept. But it does need to be harnessed on a global scale for the benefits to be palpable. “Currently [our economy] is just 8.6% circular,” Goldmark said. “Over 90% of the resources extracted from the earth are manufactured into goods that are used, usually once, and then sent to landfill or incinerated, often within a year.” By encouraging greater reuse, repurposing and exchange of these goods, we can keep more plastic out of our oceans and reduce global greenhouse gas emissions substantively.

Fast fashion, for example, may be appealing for its convenience and low prices—but what are the true costs? With 100 billion garments being produced every year, 87% end up as waste ( 40 million tons ) in a landfill or incinerator. The average person is now buying 60 percent more clothing than they did 15 years ago, but they’re only keeping them for  half as long as they used to, according to . 

Instead, the UN Environment Programme recommends re-wearing clothes more frequently and washing them less often. Look for neighborhood swaps and Buy Nothing groups, where you can trade items with your local community. Consider repairing items before trading them in for new ones. See additional tips for healthier consumption of “stuff” here .

2. Reduce your reliance on single-use plastics

Considering the fact that Americans currently purchase about 50 billion water bottles per year, switching to a reusable water bottle could save an average of 156 plastic bottles annually. Start bringing reusable shopping bags and containers when you go to the grocery store or coffee shop.

Many cities and states have already implemented plastic bag bans as one step toward decreasing our use of these plastics. Some local businesses even offer discounts for bringing your own coffee cup or bags with you.

3. If all else fails, recycle (responsibly)

When it can’t be avoided, recycle your plastic correctly . If you try to recycle the wrong items—sometimes called “ wishcycling ”—it can slow down an already constrained sorting process. One rule to remember, Keefe Harrison, CEO of the Recycling Partnership , told NPR: “When in doubt, leave it out.”

Recycling programs vary between communities and states, so it’s important to get to know your symbols and research what they mean in your own zip code . For example , plastic bags and plastic wrap or film cannot be placed in your household recycling bin, but some stores have special collections for those items. The symbol on the bottom of a plastic container can tell you what the plastic is made from, which can help guide your decision to recycle it or not, but it doesn’t necessarily mean it can be picked up by your local recycling program. Local websites, like New York City’s 311 , can provide a more detailed breakdown of the types of items that can and cannot be recycled—e.g., rigid plastic packaging including “clamshells”: yes; tubes from cosmetics and toothpaste: no.

Still, reports of how much (or how little) of our plastic waste is actually recycled are alarming—with some estimates ranging from 10% to as low as 5% —so it is still best to opt for other alternatives whenever possible.

4. Get involved with local actions and clean-ups

There are many local movements doing their part to mitigate the environmental contamination caused by plastics pollution. Take a look at what’s happening locally in your neighborhood and globally. Check with your parks department for organized community efforts or consider starting your own . As part of, you can register your initiative with the Great Global Cleanup , where you can find helpful tips on all stages of this process and connect with a worldwide community.

5. Stay informed about new legislation

As the world grapples with the growing plastics crisis, some states are trying to take matters into their own hands. In California, the Plastic Pollution Prevention and Packaging Producer Responsibility Act (known as SB 54 ), mandates the switch to compostable packaging for all single-use utensils, containers and other receptacles by 2032, with steep fines for companies that don’t comply. New York is currently moving ahead with a bill called Packaging Reduction and Recycling Infrastructure Act , with the goal of cutting down plastic packaging by 50% in the next 12 years; if it is signed into law, this legislation would also mandate charging fees for noncompliant brands.

Pay attention to what’s happening in your own county, state or country and get involved with efforts to advocate for causes you support. Send messages to your representatives, educate your neighbors and friends, and join a larger contingent of people trying to make the world a better and more sustainable place for current and future generations.

Related Posts

Quiz: Plastics 101

Quiz: Plastics 101

Was It an Alien Spacecraft—Or a Delivery Truck?

Was It an Alien Spacecraft—Or a Delivery Truck?

A Virtual Reality Film That Makes the Climate Crisis Feel “Real”

A Virtual Reality Film That Makes the Climate Crisis Feel “Real”

Earth Month 2024 Banner

Celebrate over 50 years of Earth Day with us all month long! Visit our Earth Day website for ideas, resources, and inspiration.


Get the Columbia Climate School Newsletter →

Home — Essay Samples — Environment — Human Impact — Water Pollution

one px

Essays on Water Pollution

Hook examples for water pollution essays, "the hidden peril: unveiling the depths of water pollution" hook.

"Beneath the serene surface of water lies a hidden peril. Dive into the depths of water pollution, uncovering the threats to our environment, wildlife, and health."

"From Crystal Clear to Murky: The Transformation of Water Bodies" Hook

"Once-pristine water bodies now bear scars of pollution. Explore the transformation of lakes, rivers, and oceans from crystal clear to murky, and the factors responsible."

"A Taste of Contamination: The Effects of Polluted Water on Health" Hook

"What we drink and consume affects our health. Discuss the alarming consequences of consuming contaminated water, from diseases to long-term health issues."

"Industrial Giants and the Price of Progress: Pollution's Impact" Hook

"Industrialization has brought progress, but at a cost. Analyze the role of industries in water pollution and their responsibility in mitigating environmental damage."

"The Ripple Effect: How Water Pollution Impacts Ecosystems" Hook

"Water pollution's effects ripple through ecosystems, disrupting fragile balances. Explore its impact on aquatic life, biodiversity, and the delicate web of life."

"Turning the Tide: Solutions for Combatting Water Pollution" Hook

"It's not too late to turn the tide against water pollution. Discuss innovative solutions, policies, and individual actions aimed at safeguarding our water resources."

"Guardians of the Waters: Inspiring Stories of Environmental Activism" Hook

"Meet the guardians of our waters—environmental activists who dedicate their lives to fighting pollution. Share their inspiring stories of dedication and change."

Examining The Causes, Effects, and Prevention of Water Pollution

Water pollution: causes, consequences, solutions, made-to-order essay as fast as you need it.

Each essay is customized to cater to your unique preferences

+ experts online

Water Pollution: a Global Imperative for Health and Environment

Water pollution: problem and solution, water pollution as a global environmental problem, causes and effects of water pollution, let us write you an essay from scratch.

  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours

Conserving Water and Controlling Water Pollution

The effects of water pollution on people and animals, water pollution, its factors, and ways to reduce, steps of the wastewater treatment process, get a personalized essay in under 3 hours.

Expert-written essays crafted with your exact needs in mind

The Crucial Importance of Clean Drinking Water Access

One drop for one life to save the future, water pollution: what we can expect, clean water and sanitation: review of the issue of water pollution, water pollution: the causes of trash in the ocean, the issue of water pollution in the drinking water in brisbane, tragic effects of water pollution, the causes of ocean pollution and the need for humans to save marine life, a study of plastic pollution in the pacific ocean, the importance of keeping water from contamination, informative pollutions, their types, causes, impacts, and solutions, the urgent problem of pollution in modern world, how ocean pollution impacts earth, the effects of water pollution on kzn citizens, water quality assessment of five southern maine beaches: comparing ​escherichia coli​ levels, the actions p.u.f.f will be taking to clean the oceans, e-coli outbreak and the significance of drinking water safety management, the issues of managing water resources in india, a water crisis in india and its impact on women and children, the struggle for water at plachimada, kerala.

Water pollution is the release of substances into subsurface groundwater or into lakes, streams, rivers, estuaries, and oceans to the point where the substances interfere with beneficial use of the water or with the natural functioning of ecosystems.

Some of the primary sources water pollution are: domestic sewage, solid waste, toxic waste, sediment, thermal pollution, petroleum (oil) pollution.

Water pollution can result in the degradation of aquatic ecosystems, spread of gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic infections, eutrophication, and ocean acidification.

Around 70% of industrial waste is dumped to water. 80% of the water pollution is caused due to domestic sewage. More than 6 billion pounds of garbage, mainly plastic end up in the oceans every year. 15 million children under the age of five years die every year from diseases caused by drinking contaminated water. The Ganges river in India is considered the most polluted river in the world.

Relevant topics

  • Deforestation
  • Fast Fashion
  • Ocean Pollution
  • Air Pollution
  • Climate Change
  • Global Warming
  • Natural Disasters

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy . We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

No need to pay just yet!

We use cookies to personalyze your web-site experience. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy .

  • Instructions Followed To The Letter
  • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
  • Unique And Plagiarism Free

water pollution problem solution essay


  1. Essay on Water Pollution in Environment

    water pollution problem solution essay

  2. How To Solve Water Pollution Essay

    water pollution problem solution essay

  3. SOLUTION: write Essay on pollution

    water pollution problem solution essay

  4. Essay on Water Pollution In English

    water pollution problem solution essay

  5. Water Pollution Essay In English (350 Words)

    water pollution problem solution essay

  6. Effects of Water Pollution Environmental Sciences

    water pollution problem solution essay


  1. Class 3 English Unit 7 Lesson 1 Water pollution

  2. Eassy Problem Of Pollution / English handwriting /simple essay problem of pollution/Essay Pollution

  3. Essay on Enviromental pollution ||Pollution in cities essay in English || Environment pollution

  4. Essay on Water Pollution in english//Water pollution essay/200 words essay on water pollution

  5. Essay on water pollution || Water Pollution Essay #essay #shorts

  6. 10 lines on water pollution in english/essay on water pollution in english/jal pradushan par nibandh


  1. Water Pollution Essay for Students in English

    Water contamination occurs when pollutants pollute water sources and make the water unfit for use in drinking, cooking, cleaning, swimming, and other activities. Chemicals, garbage, bacteria, and parasites are examples of pollutants. Water is eventually damaged by all types of pollution. Lakes and oceans become contaminated by air pollution.

  2. Water Pollution: Causes, Consequences, Solutions

    This essay aims to explore the causes, types, consequences, and current efforts to address water pollution. It will also address counterarguments, propose solutions, and highlight the importance of public awareness and education.Water pollution is primarily caused by industrial activities, agricultural practices, and household waste.

  3. Water Pollution: Problem and Solution

    Water, the essence of life itself, becomes a dire threat when tainted. The causative factors of water pollution span from the reckless discharge of hazardous chemicals to the insidious effects of acid rain, an offshoot of air pollution. This contamination of water reserves precipitates a dual crisis: a staggering loss of biodiversity and the ...

  4. Water Pollution Causes, Effects and Solutions

    Effects of Water Pollution. Groundwater polluted through the use of chemicals in farming causes destruction to plants, which in turn affect human beings and animals that feed on them (Go Green Academy, 2013). Secondly, polluted water causes skin rashes and even cancer to swimmers.

  5. Water pollution

    Water pollutants come from either point sources or dispersed sources. A point source is a pipe or channel, such as those used for discharge from an industrial facility or a city sewerage system.A dispersed (or nonpoint) source is a very broad unconfined area from which a variety of pollutants enter the water body, such as the runoff from an agricultural area.

  6. Essay on Water Pollution for Students and Children

    500+ Words Essay on Water Pollution. Water is the most important resource for survival on a planet. It is the essence of life on our planet - Earth. Yet if you ever see a river or lake around your city, it would be evident to you that we are facing a very serious problem of Water pollution. Let us educate ourselves about water and water ...

  7. 102 Water Pollution Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    102 Water Pollution Essay Topic Ideas & Examples. Updated: Mar 2nd, 2024. 9 min. Water pollution essays are an excellent way to demonstrate your awareness of the topic and your position on the solutions to the issue. To help you ease the writing process, we prepared some tips, essay topics, and research questions about water pollution.

  8. Pollution of Water: Causes, Effects, and Solutions

    Water pollution is a grave environmental issue with widespread ramifications for ecosystems and human well-being. This essay will delve into the causes and effects of water pollution, emphasizing the importance of addressing this critical problem through comprehensive solutions involving policy measures, educational initiatives, and community-based interventions.

  9. Water pollution: An introduction to causes, effects, solutions

    Water pollution: an introduction. by Chris Woodford . Last updated: October 1, 2023. Over two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water; less than a third is taken up by land. As Earth's population continues to grow, people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet's water resources. In a sense, our oceans, rivers, and other inland ...

  10. Water Pollution: Causes, Effects and Possible Solutions Expository Essay

    Water pollution cases have been increasing in the contemporary world, despite all the efforts to reduce it. Despite all these efforts, the question remains as to what steps the world should take to end this problem of water pollution. Causes and effects of Water Pollution. Harmful and toxic pollutants cause most cases of water pollution.

  11. Water Pollution: Causes and Solutions

    6 Most Common Causes of Water Pollution. 1. Sewage and Wastewater. According to the UN, more than 80% of the world's wastewater flows back into the environment without being treated or reused; in some least-developed countries, this figure tops 95%. Harmful chemicals and bacteria can be found in sewage and wastewater even after it's been ...

  12. Essay on Water Pollution : Causes, Effects & Solutions

    Water pollution is actually a two-fold issue raising global concerns today. The first issue, the most common one as we know is of the contamination of water by toxins and measures to reduce the contamination and improve the quality of water. The second one is more serious and pertains to the availability of potable water on earth after some ...

  13. Solution on Water Pollution: Argumentative Essay

    2. This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples. Cite this essay. Download. Water pollution is one of the biggest ecological problems. Water is one of a human being's basic needs in daily activity. Over the years, the population started to rise ...

  14. Essay on Water Pollution: Samples in 200, 500 Words

    Essay on Water Pollution: Samples in 200, 500 Words. Essay on Water Pollution: Water pollution occurs when human activities introduce toxic substances into freshwater ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater, leading to the degradation of water quality. The combination of harmful chemicals with water has a negative impact on ...

  15. Water Pollution in the US: Causes and Control Essay

    Landfill leakage. The problem of land pollution and the following contamination of groundwater is a major problem for the United States. According to the 2015 statistics, 56% of trash in the USA is transported to landfills (BRADFORD, 2010). The leakage from the latter, in its turn, poisons the groundwater in the vicinity with detritus from ...

  16. Water pollution facts and information

    Pollution can enter water directly, through both legal and illegal discharges from factories, for example, or imperfect water treatment plants. Spills and leaks from oil pipelines or hydraulic ...

  17. Essay on Water Pollution: 150-250, 500-1000 words for Students

    Essay on Water Pollution in 150-250 words. Water pollution is a pressing environmental issue that poses a significant threat to ecosystems and human health. It occurs when harmful substances, such as chemicals, industrial waste, or sewage, contaminate water bodies, including rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater sources.

  18. Essay Solution To Water Pollution

    Essay Solution To Water Pollution. 765 Words4 Pages. Solutions of Water Pollution Water they said is life, indeed they were right. Over 70% of earth surface is covered by water. It do not need to mention how important it is. However, water pollution is one of the most serious ecological threats that everyone face today.

  19. Water Pollution: A Global Imperative for Health and Environment: [Essay

    The lack of proper infrastructure for waste management in many developing countries exacerbates the problem, further highlighting the need for global action to address water pollution. ... Consequences, Solutions Essay. Water pollution is a pressing issue that poses a significant threat to the quality of our water resources and the health of ...

  20. How to Prevent Water Pollution: Problem-Solving Essay

    Using energy-saving light bulbs, washing machines, and energy-saving programs. Another way of preventing water pollution is by using fuel-efficient cars. Reducing the amount of car exhaust can help a lot. So what I'm trying to say is that the world isn't perfect and we're slowly killing it with a plethora of things.

  21. Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution

    This problem solution essay, "Causes of Water Pollution and the Present Environmental Solution" is published exclusively on IvyPanda's free essay examples database. You can use it for research and reference purposes to write your own paper. However, you must cite it accordingly.

  22. Water Shortage Problem and Solution Free Essay Example

    Essay, Pages 7 (1747 words) Views. 5. Nowadays, the world's population is facing a huge crisis which is the water shortage. People's access to clean or freshwater is becoming very limited. Thus, many problems occur due to this serious issue as water is one of the essential aspects and needs to a living thing's life.

  23. PFAS 'Forever Chemicals' Are Pervasive in Water Worldwide, Study Finds

    A new study of more than 45,000 water samples around the world found that about 31 percent of groundwater samples tested that weren't near any obvious source of contamination had PFAS levels ...

  24. Protecting Our Planet: 5 Strategies for Reducing Plastic Waste

    Microplastics in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Photo: Chesapeake Bay Program. Plastics are ubiquitous in our world, and given that plastic waste can take thousands of years to break down, there's more of it to be found on Earth every single day.Worse yet is the fact that the stuff doesn't easily decompose—it mostly just disintegrates into smaller and smaller pieces.

  25. Free Water Pollution Essays and Papers

    Essay grade: Good. 1 page / 749 words. Addressing the pressing issue of water pollution is essential in today's world, and finding a viable solution to water pollution is a matter of utmost significance, given its pervasive impact on humanity. Water, the essence of life itself, becomes a dire threat when tainted.

  26. A review of interconnected challenges in the water-energy-food nexus

    The swift growth of cities worldwide poses significant challenges in ensuring a sufficient water, energy, and food supply. The Nexus has innovated valuable systems to address these challenges. However, a crucial issue is the potential for pollution resulting from these systems, which directly and indirectly impacts public health and the overall quality of urban living.