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Overcoming Speech Impediment: Symptoms to Treatment

There are many causes and solutions for impaired speech

  • Types and Symptoms
  • Speech Therapy
  • Building Confidence

Speech impediments are conditions that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as an inability to understand language or speak with a stable sense of tone, speed, or fluidity. There are many different types of speech impediments, and they can begin during childhood or develop during adulthood.

Common causes include physical trauma, neurological disorders, or anxiety. If you or your child is experiencing signs of a speech impediment, you need to know that these conditions can be diagnosed and treated with professional speech therapy.

This article will discuss what you can do if you are concerned about a speech impediment and what you can expect during your diagnostic process and therapy.

FG Trade / Getty Images

Types and Symptoms of Speech Impediment

People can have speech problems due to developmental conditions that begin to show symptoms during early childhood or as a result of conditions that may occur during adulthood. 

The main classifications of speech impairment are aphasia (difficulty understanding or producing the correct words or phrases) or dysarthria (difficulty enunciating words).

Often, speech problems can be part of neurological or neurodevelopmental disorders that also cause other symptoms, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or autism spectrum disorder .

There are several different symptoms of speech impediments, and you may experience one or more.

Can Symptoms Worsen?

Most speech disorders cause persistent symptoms and can temporarily get worse when you are tired, anxious, or sick.

Symptoms of dysarthria can include:

  • Slurred speech
  • Slow speech
  • Choppy speech
  • Hesitant speech
  • Inability to control the volume of your speech
  • Shaking or tremulous speech pattern
  • Inability to pronounce certain sounds

Symptoms of aphasia may involve:

  • Speech apraxia (difficulty coordinating speech)
  • Difficulty understanding the meaning of what other people are saying
  • Inability to use the correct words
  • Inability to repeat words or phases
  • Speech that has an irregular rhythm

You can have one or more of these speech patterns as part of your speech impediment, and their combination and frequency will help determine the type and cause of your speech problem.

Causes of Speech Impediment

The conditions that cause speech impediments can include developmental problems that are present from birth, neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s disease , or sudden neurological events, such as a stroke .

Some people can also experience temporary speech impairment due to anxiety, intoxication, medication side effects, postictal state (the time immediately after a seizure), or a change of consciousness.

Speech Impairment in Children

Children can have speech disorders associated with neurodevelopmental problems, which can interfere with speech development. Some childhood neurological or neurodevelopmental disorders may cause a regression (backsliding) of speech skills.

Common causes of childhood speech impediments include:

  • Autism spectrum disorder : A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social and interactive development
  • Cerebral palsy :  A congenital (from birth) disorder that affects learning and control of physical movement
  • Hearing loss : Can affect the way children hear and imitate speech
  • Rett syndrome : A genetic neurodevelopmental condition that causes regression of physical and social skills beginning during the early school-age years.
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy : A genetic disorder that causes a decline in motor and cognitive skills beginning during early childhood
  • Childhood metabolic disorders : A group of conditions that affects the way children break down nutrients, often resulting in toxic damage to organs
  • Brain tumor : A growth that may damage areas of the brain, including those that control speech or language
  • Encephalitis : Brain inflammation or infection that may affect the way regions in the brain function
  • Hydrocephalus : Excess fluid within the skull, which may develop after brain surgery and can cause brain damage

Do Childhood Speech Disorders Persist?

Speech disorders during childhood can have persistent effects throughout life. Therapy can often help improve speech skills.

Speech Impairment in Adulthood

Adult speech disorders develop due to conditions that damage the speech areas of the brain.

Common causes of adult speech impairment include:

  • Head trauma 
  • Nerve injury
  • Throat tumor
  • Stroke 
  • Parkinson’s disease 
  • Essential tremor
  • Brain tumor
  • Brain infection

Additionally, people may develop changes in speech with advancing age, even without a specific neurological cause. This can happen due to presbyphonia , which is a change in the volume and control of speech due to declining hormone levels and reduced elasticity and movement of the vocal cords.

Do Speech Disorders Resolve on Their Own?

Children and adults who have persistent speech disorders are unlikely to experience spontaneous improvement without therapy and should seek professional attention.

Steps to Treating Speech Impediment 

If you or your child has a speech impediment, your healthcare providers will work to diagnose the type of speech impediment as well as the underlying condition that caused it. Defining the cause and type of speech impediment will help determine your prognosis and treatment plan.

Sometimes the cause is known before symptoms begin, as is the case with trauma or MS. Impaired speech may first be a symptom of a condition, such as a stroke that causes aphasia as the primary symptom.

The diagnosis will include a comprehensive medical history, physical examination, and a thorough evaluation of speech and language. Diagnostic testing is directed by the medical history and clinical evaluation.

Diagnostic testing may include:

  • Brain imaging , such as brain computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic residence imaging (MRI), if there’s concern about a disease process in the brain
  • Swallowing evaluation if there’s concern about dysfunction of the muscles in the throat
  • Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (aka nerve conduction velocity, or NCV) if there’s concern about nerve and muscle damage
  • Blood tests, which can help in diagnosing inflammatory disorders or infections

Your diagnostic tests will help pinpoint the cause of your speech problem. Your treatment will include specific therapy to help improve your speech, as well as medication or other interventions to treat the underlying disorder.

For example, if you are diagnosed with MS, you would likely receive disease-modifying therapy to help prevent MS progression. And if you are diagnosed with a brain tumor, you may need surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation to treat the tumor.

Therapy to Address Speech Impediment

Therapy for speech impairment is interactive and directed by a specialist who is experienced in treating speech problems . Sometimes, children receive speech therapy as part of a specialized learning program at school.

The duration and frequency of your speech therapy program depend on the underlying cause of your impediment, your improvement, and approval from your health insurance.

If you or your child has a serious speech problem, you may qualify for speech therapy. Working with your therapist can help you build confidence, particularly as you begin to see improvement.

Exercises during speech therapy may include:

  • Pronouncing individual sounds, such as la la la or da da da
  • Practicing pronunciation of words that you have trouble pronouncing
  • Adjusting the rate or volume of your speech
  • Mouth exercises
  • Practicing language skills by naming objects or repeating what the therapist is saying

These therapies are meant to help achieve more fluent and understandable speech as well as an increased comfort level with speech and language.

Building Confidence With Speech Problems 

Some types of speech impairment might not qualify for therapy. If you have speech difficulties due to anxiety or a social phobia or if you don’t have access to therapy, you might benefit from activities that can help you practice your speech. 

You might consider one or more of the following for you or your child:

  • Joining a local theater group
  • Volunteering in a school or community activity that involves interaction with the public
  • Signing up for a class that requires a significant amount of class participation
  • Joining a support group for people who have problems with speech

Activities that you do on your own to improve your confidence with speaking can be most beneficial when you are in a non-judgmental and safe space.

Many different types of speech problems can affect children and adults. Some of these are congenital (present from birth), while others are acquired due to health conditions, medication side effects, substances, or mood and anxiety disorders. Because there are so many different types of speech problems, seeking a medical diagnosis so you can get the right therapy for your specific disorder is crucial.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Language and speech disorders in children .

Han C, Tang J, Tang B, et al. The effectiveness and safety of noninvasive brain stimulation technology combined with speech training on aphasia after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Medicine (Baltimore). 2024;103(2):e36880. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000036880

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Quick statistics about voice, speech, language .

Mackey J, McCulloch H, Scheiner G, et al. Speech pathologists' perspectives on the use of augmentative and alternative communication devices with people with acquired brain injury and reflections from lived experience . Brain Impair. 2023;24(2):168-184. doi:10.1017/BrImp.2023.9

Allison KM, Doherty KM. Relation of speech-language profile and communication modality to participation of children with cerebral palsy . Am J Speech Lang Pathol . 2024:1-11. doi:10.1044/2023_AJSLP-23-00267

Saccente-Kennedy B, Gillies F, Desjardins M, et al. A systematic review of speech-language pathology interventions for presbyphonia using the rehabilitation treatment specification system . J Voice. 2024:S0892-1997(23)00396-X. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2023.12.010

By Heidi Moawad, MD Dr. Moawad is a neurologist and expert in brain health. She regularly writes and edits health content for medical books and publications.

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Home / Blog

Speech Impediment Guide: Definition, Causes, and Resources

December 8, 2020 

speech impediment test online

Tables of Contents

What Is a Speech Impediment?

Types of speech disorders, speech impediment causes, how to fix a speech impediment, making a difference in speech disorders.

Communication is a cornerstone of human relationships. When an individual struggles to verbalize information, thoughts, and feelings, it can cause major barriers in personal, learning, and business interactions.

Speech impediments, or speech disorders, can lead to feelings of insecurity and frustration. They can also cause worry for family members and friends who don’t know how to help their loved ones express themselves.

Fortunately, there are a number of ways that speech disorders can be treated, and in many cases, cured. Health professionals in fields including speech-language pathology and audiology can work with patients to overcome communication disorders, and individuals and families can learn techniques to help.

A woman struggles to communicate due to a speech disorder.

Commonly referred to as a speech disorder, a speech impediment is a condition that impacts an individual’s ability to speak fluently, correctly, or with clear resonance or tone. Individuals with speech disorders have problems creating understandable sounds or forming words, leading to communication difficulties.

Some 7.7% of U.S. children — or 1 in 12 youths between the ages of 3 and 17 — have speech, voice, language, or swallowing disorders, according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). About 70 million people worldwide, including some 3 million Americans, experience stuttering difficulties, according to the Stuttering Foundation.

Common signs of a speech disorder

There are several symptoms and indicators that can point to a speech disorder.

  • Unintelligible speech — A speech disorder may be present when others have difficulty understanding a person’s verbalizations.
  • Omitted sounds — This symptom can include the omission of part of a word, such as saying “bo” instead of “boat,” and may include omission of consonants or syllables.
  • Added sounds — This can involve adding extra sounds in a word, such as “buhlack” instead of “black,” or repeating sounds like “b-b-b-ball.”
  • Substituted sounds — When sounds are substituted or distorted, such as saying “wabbit” instead of “rabbit,” it may indicate a speech disorder.
  • Use of gestures — When individuals use gestures to communicate instead of words, a speech impediment may be the cause.
  • Inappropriate pitch — This symptom is characterized by speaking with a strange pitch or volume.

In children, signs might also include a lack of babbling or making limited sounds. Symptoms may also include the incorrect use of specific sounds in words, according to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). This may include the sounds p, m, b, w, and h among children aged 1-2, and k, f, g, d, n, and t for children aged 2-3.

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Signs of speech disorders include unintelligible speech and sound omissions, substitutions, and additions.

Categories of Speech Impediments

Speech impediments can range from speech sound disorders (articulation and phonological disorders) to voice disorders. Speech sound disorders may be organic — resulting from a motor or sensory cause — or may be functional with no known cause. Voice disorders deal with physical problems that limit speech. The main categories of speech impediments include the following:

Fluency disorders occur when a patient has trouble with speech timing or rhythms. This can lead to hesitations, repetitions, or prolonged sounds. Fluency disorders include stuttering (repetition of sounds) or   (rapid or irregular rate of speech).

Resonance disorders are related to voice quality that is impacted by the shape of the nose, throat, and/or mouth. Examples of resonance disorders include hyponasality and cul-de-sac resonance.

Articulation disorders occur when a patient has difficulty producing speech sounds. These disorders may stem from physical or anatomical limitations such as muscular, neuromuscular, or skeletal support. Examples of articulation speech impairments include sound omissions, substitutions, and distortions.

Phonological disorders result in the misuse of certain speech sounds to form words. Conditions include fronting, stopping, and the omission of final consonants.

Voice disorders are the result of problems in the larynx that harm the quality or use of an individual’s voice. This can impact pitch, resonance, and loudness.

Impact of Speech Disorders

Some speech disorders have little impact on socialization and daily activities, but other conditions can make some tasks difficult for individuals. Following are a few of the impacts of speech impediments.

  • Poor communication — Children may be unable to participate in certain learning activities, such as answering questions or reading out loud, due to communication difficulties. Adults may avoid work or social activities such as giving speeches or attending parties.
  • Mental health and confidence — Speech disorders may cause children or adults to feel different from peers, leading to a lack of self-confidence and, potentially, self-isolation.

Resources on Speech Disorders

The following resources may help those who are seeking more information about speech impediments.

Health Information : Information and statistics on common voice and speech disorders from the NIDCD

Speech Disorders : Information on childhood speech disorders from Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center

Speech, Language, and Swallowing : Resources about speech and language development from the ASHA

Children and adults can suffer from a variety of speech impairments that may have mild to severe impacts on their ability to communicate. The following 10 conditions are examples of specific types of speech disorders and voice disorders.

1. Stuttering

This condition is one of the most common speech disorders. Stuttering is the repetition of syllables or words, interruptions in speech, or prolonged use of a sound.

This organic speech disorder is a result of damage to the neural pathways that connect the brain to speech-producing muscles. This results in a person knowing what they want to say, but being unable to speak the words.

This consists of the lost ability to speak, understand, or write languages. It is common in stroke, brain tumor, or traumatic brain injury patients.

4. Dysarthria

This condition is an organic speech sound disorder that involves difficulty expressing certain noises. This may involve slurring, or poor pronunciation, and rhythm differences related to nerve or brain disorders.

The condition of lisping is the replacing of sounds in words, including “th” for “s.” Lisping is a functional speech impediment.

6. Hyponasality

This condition is a resonance disorder related to limited sound coming through the nose, causing a “stopped up” quality to speech.

7. Cul-de-sac resonance

This speech disorder is the result of blockage in the mouth, throat, or nose that results in quiet or muffled speech.

8. Orofacial myofunctional disorders

These conditions involve abnormal patterns of mouth and face movement. Conditions include tongue thrusting (fronting), where individuals push out their tongue while eating or talking.

9. Spasmodic Dysphonia

This condition is a voice disorder in which spasms in the vocal cords produce speech that is hoarse, strained, or jittery.

10. Other voice disorders

These conditions can include having a voice that sounds breathy, hoarse, or scratchy. Some disorders deal with vocal folds closing when they should open (paradoxical vocal fold movement) or the presence of polyps or nodules in the vocal folds.

Speech Disorders vs. Language Disorders

Speech disorders deal with difficulty in creating sounds due to articulation, fluency, phonology, and voice problems. These problems are typically related to physical, motor, sensory, neurological, or mental health issues.

Language disorders, on the other hand, occur when individuals have difficulty communicating the meaning of what they want to express. Common in children, these disorders may result in low vocabulary and difficulty saying complex sentences. Such a disorder may reflect difficulty in comprehending school lessons or adopting new words, or it may be related to a learning disability such as dyslexia. Language disorders can also involve receptive language difficulties, where individuals have trouble understanding the messages that others are trying to convey.  

About 5% of children in the U.S. have a speech disorder such as stuttering, apraxia, dysarthria, and lisping.

Resources on Types of Speech Disorders

The following resources may provide additional information on the types of speech impediments.

Common Speech Disorders: A guide to the most common speech impediments from GreatSpeech

Speech impairment in adults: Descriptions of common adult speech issues from MedlinePlus

Stuttering Facts: Information on stuttering indications and causes from the Stuttering Foundation

Speech disorders may be caused by a variety of factors related to physical features, neurological ailments, or mental health conditions. In children, they may be related to developmental issues or unknown causes and may go away naturally over time.

Physical and neurological issues. Speech impediment causes related to physical characteristics may include:

  • Brain damage
  • Nervous system damage
  • Respiratory system damage
  • Hearing difficulties
  • Cancerous or noncancerous growths
  • Muscle and bone problems such as dental issues or cleft palate

Mental health issues. Some speech disorders are related to clinical conditions such as:

  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Down syndrome or other genetic syndromes
  • Cerebral palsy or other neurological disorders
  • Multiple sclerosis

Some speech impairments may also have to do with family history, such as when parents or siblings have experienced language or speech difficulties. Other causes may include premature birth, pregnancy complications, or delivery difficulties. Voice overuse and chronic coughs can also cause speech issues.

The most common way that speech disorders are treated involves seeking professional help. If patients and families feel that symptoms warrant therapy, health professionals can help determine how to fix a speech impediment. Early treatment is best to curb speech disorders, but impairments can also be treated later in life.

Professionals in the speech therapy field include speech-language pathologists (SLPs) . These practitioners assess, diagnose, and treat communication disorders including speech, language, social, cognitive, and swallowing disorders in both adults and children. They may have an SLP assistant to help with diagnostic and therapy activities.

Speech-language pathologists may also share a practice with audiologists and audiology assistants. Audiologists help identify and treat hearing, balance, and other auditory disorders.

How Are Speech Disorders Diagnosed?

Typically, a pediatrician, social worker, teacher, or other concerned party will recognize the symptoms of a speech disorder in children. These individuals, who frequently deal with speech and language conditions and are more familiar with symptoms, will recommend that parents have their child evaluated. Adults who struggle with speech problems may seek direct guidance from a physician or speech evaluation specialist.

When evaluating a patient for a potential speech impediment, a physician will:

  • Conduct hearing and vision tests
  • Evaluate patient records
  • Observe patient symptoms

A speech-language pathologist will conduct an initial screening that might include:

  • An evaluation of speech sounds in words and sentences
  • An evaluation of oral motor function
  • An orofacial examination
  • An assessment of language comprehension

The initial screening might result in no action if speech symptoms are determined to be developmentally appropriate. If a disorder is suspected, the initial screening might result in a referral for a comprehensive speech sound assessment, comprehensive language assessment, audiology evaluation, or other medical services.

Initial assessments and more in-depth screenings might occur in a private speech therapy practice, rehabilitation center, school, childcare program, or early intervention center. For older adults, skilled nursing centers and nursing homes may assess patients for speech, hearing, and language disorders.

How Are Speech Impediments Treated?

Once an evaluation determines precisely what type of speech sound disorder is present, patients can begin treatment. Speech-language pathologists use a combination of therapy, exercise, and assistive devices to treat speech disorders.

Speech therapy might focus on motor production (articulation) or linguistic (phonological or language-based) elements of speech, according to ASHA. There are various types of speech therapy available to patients.

Contextual Utilization  — This therapeutic approach teaches methods for producing sounds consistently in different syllable-based contexts, such as phonemic or phonetic contexts. These methods are helpful for patients who produce sounds inconsistently.

Phonological Contrast — This approach focuses on improving speech through emphasis of phonemic contrasts that serve to differentiate words. Examples might include minimal opposition words (pot vs. spot) or maximal oppositions (mall vs. call). These therapy methods can help patients who use phonological error patterns.

Distinctive Feature — In this category of therapy, SLPs focus on elements that are missing in speech, such as articulation or nasality. This helps patients who substitute sounds by teaching them to distinguish target sounds from substituted sounds.

Core Vocabulary — This therapeutic approach involves practicing whole words that are commonly used in a specific patient’s communications. It is effective for patients with inconsistent sound production.

Metaphon — In this type of therapy, patients are taught to identify phonological language structures. The technique focuses on contrasting sound elements, such as loud vs. quiet, and helps patients with unintelligible speech issues.

Oral-Motor — This approach uses non-speech exercises to supplement sound therapies. This helps patients gain oral-motor strength and control to improve articulation.

Other methods professionals may use to help fix speech impediments include relaxation, breathing, muscle strengthening, and voice exercises. They may also recommend assistive devices, which may include:

  • Radio transmission systems
  • Personal amplifiers
  • Picture boards
  • Touch screens
  • Text displays
  • Speech-generating devices
  • Hearing aids
  • Cochlear implants

Resources for Professionals on How to Fix a Speech Impediment

The following resources provide information for speech therapists and other health professionals.

Assistive Devices: Information on hearing and speech aids from the NIDCD

Information for Audiologists: Publications, news, and practice aids for audiologists from ASHA

Information for Speech-Language Pathologists: Publications, news, and practice aids for SLPs from ASHA

Speech Disorder Tips for Families

For parents who are concerned that their child might have a speech disorder — or who want to prevent the development of a disorder — there are a number of activities that can help. The following are tasks that parents can engage in on a regular basis to develop literacy and speech skills.

  • Introducing new vocabulary words
  • Reading picture and story books with various sounds and patterns
  • Talking to children about objects and events
  • Answering children’s questions during routine activities
  • Encouraging drawing and scribbling
  • Pointing to words while reading books
  • Pointing out words and sentences in objects and signs

Parents can take the following steps to make sure that potential speech impediments are identified early on.

  • Discussing concerns with physicians
  • Asking for hearing, vision, and speech screenings from doctors
  • Requesting special education assessments from school officials
  • Requesting a referral to a speech-language pathologist, audiologist, or other specialist

When a child is engaged in speech therapy, speech-language pathologists will typically establish collaborative relationships with families, sharing information and encouraging parents to participate in therapy decisions and practices.

SLPs will work with patients and their families to set goals for therapy outcomes. In addition to therapy sessions, they may develop activities and exercises for families to work on at home. It is important that caregivers are encouraging and patient with children during therapy.  

Resources for Parents on How to Fix a Speech Impediment

The following resources provide additional information on treatment options for speech disorders.

Speech, Language, and Swallowing Disorders Groups: Listing of self-help groups from ASHA

ProFind: Search tool for finding certified SLPs and audiologists from ASHA

Baby’s Hearing and Communication Development Checklist: Listing of milestones that children should meet by certain ages from the NIDCD

If identified during childhood, speech disorders can be corrected efficiently, giving children greater communication opportunities. If left untreated, speech impediments can cause a variety of problems in adulthood, and may be more difficult to diagnose and treat.

Parents, teachers, doctors, speech and language professionals, and other concerned parties all have unique responsibilities in recognizing and treating speech disorders. Through professional therapy, family engagement, positive encouragement and a strong support network, individuals with speech impediments can overcome their challenges and develop essential communication skills.

Additional Sources

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Speech Sound Disorders

Identify the Signs, Signs of Speech and Language Disorders

Intermountain Healthcare, Phonological Disorders

MedlinePlus, Speech disorders – children

National Institutes of Health, National Institutes on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, “Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language”

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Types of Speech Impediments

Sanjana is a health writer and editor. Her work spans various health-related topics, including mental health, fitness, nutrition, and wellness.

speech impediment test online

Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

speech impediment test online

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Articulation Errors

Ankyloglossia, treating speech disorders.

A speech impediment, also known as a speech disorder , is a condition that can affect a person’s ability to form sounds and words, making their speech difficult to understand.

Speech disorders generally become evident in early childhood, as children start speaking and learning language. While many children initially have trouble with certain sounds and words, most are able to speak easily by the time they are five years old. However, some speech disorders persist. Approximately 5% of children aged three to 17 in the United States experience speech disorders.

There are many different types of speech impediments, including:

  • Articulation errors

This article explores the causes, symptoms, and treatment of the different types of speech disorders.

Speech impediments that break the flow of speech are known as disfluencies. Stuttering is the most common form of disfluency, however there are other types as well.

Symptoms and Characteristics of Disfluencies

These are some of the characteristics of disfluencies:

  • Repeating certain phrases, words, or sounds after the age of 4 (For example: “O…orange,” “I like…like orange juice,” “I want…I want orange juice”)
  • Adding in extra sounds or words into sentences (For example: “We…uh…went to buy…um…orange juice”)
  • Elongating words (For example: Saying “orange joooose” instead of "orange juice")
  • Replacing words (For example: “What…Where is the orange juice?”)
  • Hesitating while speaking (For example: A long pause while thinking)
  • Pausing mid-speech (For example: Stopping abruptly mid-speech, due to lack of airflow, causing no sounds to come out, leading to a tense pause)

In addition, someone with disfluencies may also experience the following symptoms while speaking:

  • Vocal tension and strain
  • Head jerking
  • Eye blinking
  • Lip trembling

Causes of Disfluencies

People with disfluencies tend to have neurological differences in areas of the brain that control language processing and coordinate speech, which may be caused by:

  • Genetic factors
  • Trauma or infection to the brain
  • Environmental stressors that cause anxiety or emotional distress
  • Neurodevelopmental conditions like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Articulation disorders occur when a person has trouble placing their tongue in the correct position to form certain speech sounds. Lisping is the most common type of articulation disorder.

Symptoms and Characteristics of Articulation Errors

These are some of the characteristics of articulation disorders:

  • Substituting one sound for another . People typically have trouble with ‘r’ and ‘l’ sounds. (For example: Being unable to say “rabbit” and saying “wabbit” instead)
  • Lisping , which refers specifically to difficulty with ‘s’ and ‘z’ sounds. (For example: Saying “thugar” instead of “sugar” or producing a whistling sound while trying to pronounce these letters)
  • Omitting sounds (For example: Saying “coo” instead of “school”)
  • Adding sounds (For example: Saying “pinanio” instead of “piano”)
  • Making other speech errors that can make it difficult to decipher what the person is saying. For instance, only family members may be able to understand what they’re trying to say.

Causes of Articulation Errors

Articulation errors may be caused by:

  • Genetic factors, as it can run in families
  • Hearing loss , as mishearing sounds can affect the person’s ability to reproduce the sound
  • Changes in the bones or muscles that are needed for speech, including a cleft palate (a hole in the roof of the mouth) and tooth problems
  • Damage to the nerves or parts of the brain that coordinate speech, caused by conditions such as cerebral palsy , for instance

Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a condition where the person’s tongue is attached to the bottom of their mouth. This can restrict the tongue’s movement and make it hard for the person to move their tongue.

Symptoms and Characteristics of Ankyloglossia

Ankyloglossia is characterized by difficulty pronouncing ‘d,’ ‘n,’ ‘s,’ ‘t,’ ‘th,’ and ‘z’ sounds that require the person’s tongue to touch the roof of their mouth or their upper teeth, as their tongue may not be able to reach there.

Apart from speech impediments, people with ankyloglossia may also experience other symptoms as a result of their tongue-tie. These symptoms include:

  • Difficulty breastfeeding in newborns
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Limited ability to move the tongue from side to side or stick it out
  • Difficulty with activities like playing wind instruments, licking ice cream, or kissing
  • Mouth breathing

Causes of Ankyloglossia

Ankyloglossia is a congenital condition, which means it is present from birth. A tissue known as the lingual frenulum attaches the tongue to the base of the mouth. People with ankyloglossia have a shorter lingual frenulum, or it is attached further along their tongue than most people’s.

Dysarthria is a condition where people slur their words because they cannot control the muscles that are required for speech, due to brain, nerve, or organ damage.

Symptoms and Characteristics of Dysarthria

Dysarthria is characterized by:

  • Slurred, choppy, or robotic speech
  • Rapid, slow, or soft speech
  • Breathy, hoarse, or nasal voice

Additionally, someone with dysarthria may also have other symptoms such as difficulty swallowing and inability to move their tongue, lips, or jaw easily.

Causes of Dysarthria

Dysarthria is caused by paralysis or weakness of the speech muscles. The causes of the weakness can vary depending on the type of dysarthria the person has:

  • Central dysarthria is caused by brain damage. It may be the result of neuromuscular diseases, such as cerebral palsy, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, or Lou Gehrig’s disease. Central dysarthria may also be caused by injuries or illnesses that damage the brain, such as dementia, stroke, brain tumor, or traumatic brain injury .
  • Peripheral dysarthria is caused by damage to the organs involved in speech. It may be caused by congenital structural problems, trauma to the mouth or face, or surgery to the tongue, mouth, head, neck, or voice box.

Apraxia, also known as dyspraxia, verbal apraxia, or apraxia of speech, is a neurological condition that can cause a person to have trouble moving the muscles they need to create sounds or words. The person’s brain knows what they want to say, but is unable to plan and sequence the words accordingly.

Symptoms and Characteristics of Apraxia

These are some of the characteristics of apraxia:

  • Distorting sounds: The person may have trouble pronouncing certain sounds, particularly vowels, because they may be unable to move their tongue or jaw in the manner required to produce the right sound. Longer or more complex words may be especially harder to manage.
  • Being inconsistent in their speech: For instance, the person may be able to pronounce a word correctly once, but may not be able to repeat it. Or, they may pronounce it correctly today and differently on another day.
  • Grasping for words: The person may appear to be searching for the right word or sound, or attempt the pronunciation several times before getting it right.
  • Making errors with the rhythm or tone of speech: The person may struggle with using tone and inflection to communicate meaning. For instance, they may not stress any of the words in a sentence, have trouble going from one syllable in a word to another, or pause at an inappropriate part of a sentence.

Causes of Apraxia

Apraxia occurs when nerve pathways in the brain are interrupted, which can make it difficult for the brain to send messages to the organs involved in speaking. The causes of these neurological disturbances can vary depending on the type of apraxia the person has:

  • Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS): This condition is present from birth and is often hereditary. A person may be more likely to have it if a biological relative has a learning disability or communication disorder.
  • Acquired apraxia of speech (AOS): This condition can occur in adults, due to brain damage as a result of a tumor, head injury , stroke, or other illness that affects the parts of the brain involved in speech.

If you have a speech impediment, or suspect your child might have one, it can be helpful to visit your healthcare provider. Your primary care physician can refer you to a speech-language pathologist, who can evaluate speech, diagnose speech disorders, and recommend treatment options.

The diagnostic process may involve a physical examination as well as psychological, neurological, or hearing tests, in order to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other causes.

Treatment for speech disorders often involves speech therapy, which can help you learn how to move your muscles and position your tongue correctly in order to create specific sounds. It can be quite effective in improving your speech.

Children often grow out of milder speech disorders; however, special education and speech therapy can help with more serious ones.

For ankyloglossia, or tongue-tie, a minor surgery known as a frenectomy can help detach the tongue from the bottom of the mouth.

A Word From Verywell

A speech impediment can make it difficult to pronounce certain sounds, speak clearly, or communicate fluently. 

Living with a speech disorder can be frustrating because people may cut you off while you’re speaking, try to finish your sentences, or treat you differently. It can be helpful to talk to your healthcare providers about how to cope with these situations.

You may also benefit from joining a support group, where you can connect with others living with speech disorders.

National Library of Medicine. Speech disorders . Medline Plus.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Language and speech disorders .

Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Stuttering .

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Quick statistics about voice, speech, and language .

Cleveland Clinic. Speech impediment .

Lee H, Sim H, Lee E, Choi D. Disfluency characteristics of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms . J Commun Disord . 2017;65:54-64. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2016.12.001

Nemours Foundation. Speech problems .

Penn Medicine. Speech and language disorders .

Cleveland Clinic. Tongue-tie .

University of Rochester Medical Center. Ankyloglossia .

Cleveland Clinic. Dysarthria .

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Apraxia of speech .

Cleveland Clinic. Childhood apraxia of speech .

Stanford Children’s Hospital. Speech sound disorders in children .

Abbastabar H, Alizadeh A, Darparesh M, Mohseni S, Roozbeh N. Spatial distribution and the prevalence of speech disorders in the provinces of Iran . J Med Life . 2015;8(Spec Iss 2):99-104.

By Sanjana Gupta Sanjana is a health writer and editor. Her work spans various health-related topics, including mental health, fitness, nutrition, and wellness.

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Am Fam Physician. 2015;92(4):online

Summary of Recommendation and Evidence

The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for speech and language delay and disorders in children aged 5 years or younger ( Table 1 ) . I statement .

See the Clinical Considerations section for suggestions for practice regarding the I statement.

Speech and language delays and disorders can pose significant problems for children and their families. Children with speech and language delays develop speech or language in the correct sequence but at a slower rate than expected, whereas children with speech and language disorders develop speech or language that is qualitatively different from typical development. Differentiating between delays and disorders can be complicated. First, screening instruments have difficulty distinguishing between the two. Second, although the majority of school-aged children with language disorders present with language delays as toddlers, some children outgrow their language delay. 1

Information about the prevalence of speech and language delays and disorders in young children in the United States is limited. In 2007, about 2.6% of children ages 3 to 5 years received services for speech and language disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). 2 In 1 population-based study in 8-year-olds in Utah, the prevalence of children with communication disorders (speech or language) on the basis of special education or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision , classifications was 63.4 cases per 1,000 children. 3 The prevalence of isolated communication disorders (i.e., children without a concomitant diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability) was 59.1 cases per 1,000 children.

Information on the natural history of speech and language delays and disorders, including how outcomes may change as a result of screening or treatment, is also limited.

The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on the accuracy of screening instruments for speech and language delay for use in primary care settings. Several factors limited the applicability of the evidence to routine screening in primary care settings.

The USPSTF also found inadequate evidence on the accuracy of surveillance (active monitoring) by primary care clinicians to identify children for further evaluation for speech and language delays and disorders.


The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on the benefits of screening and early intervention for speech and language delay and disorders in primary care settings.

The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on the effectiveness of screening in primary care settings for speech and language delay and disorders on improving speech, language, or other outcomes. Although the USPSTF found evidence that interventions improve some measures of speech and language for some children, there is inadequate evidence on the effectiveness of interventions in children detected by screening in a primary care setting.

The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for speech and language delay and disorders on outcomes not specific to speech (e.g., academic achievement, behavioral competence, socio-emotional development, and quality of life).


The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on the harms of screening in primary care settings and interventions for speech and language delay and disorders in children aged 5 years or younger.


The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient, and that the balance of benefits and harms of screening and interventions for speech and language delay and disorders in young children in primary care settings cannot be determined.

Clinical Considerations

Patient population under consideration.

This recommendation applies only to asymptomatic children whose parents or clinicians do not have specific concerns about their speech, language, hearing, or development. It does not apply to children whose parents or clinicians raise those concerns; these children should undergo evaluation and, if needed, treatment.

This recommendation discusses the identification and treatment of “primary” speech and language delays and disorders (i.e., in children who have not been previously identified with another disorder or disability that may cause speech or language impairment).


Potential Preventable Burden . Information about the prevalence of speech and language delays and disorders in young children in the United States is limited. In 2007, about 2.6% of children ages 3 to 5 years received services for speech and language disabilities under IDEA. 2

Childhood speech and language disorders include a broad set of disorders with heterogeneous outcomes. Information about the natural history of these disorders is limited, because most affected children receive at least some type of intervention. However, there is some evidence that young children with speech and language delay may be at increased risk of language-based learning disabilities. 4

Potential Harms . The potential harms of screening and interventions for speech and language disorders in young children in primary care include the time, effort, and anxiety associated with further testing after a positive screen, as well as the potential detriments associated with diagnostic labeling. However, the USPSTF found no studies on these harms.

Current Practice . Surveillance or screening for speech and language disorders is commonly recommended as part of routine developmental surveillance and screening in primary care settings (i.e., during well-child visits). 5 In practice, however, such screening is not universal. The previous evidence review 6 found that 55% of parents reported that their toddler did not receive any type of developmental assessment at their well-child visit, and 30% of parents reported that their child's health care provider had not discussed with them how their child communicates. 7 In a 2009 study, approximately half of responding pediatricians reported that they “always or almost always” use a standardized screening tool to detect developmental problems in young children; about 40% of respondents reported using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). 8 The USPSTF distinguishes between screening in primary care settings and diagnostic testing, which may occur in other settings.


Based on a review of 31 cohort studies, several risk factors have been reported to be associated with speech and language delay and disorders, including male sex, family history of speech and language impairment, low parental education level, and perinatal risk factors (e.g., prematurity, low birth weight, and birth difficulties). 9


The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on specific screening tests for use in primary care. Widely used screening tests in the United States include the ASQ, the Language Development Survey (LDS), and the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI).


Interventions for childhood speech and language disorders vary widely and can include speech-language therapy sessions and assistive technology (if indicated). Interventions are commonly individualized to each child's specific pattern of symptoms, needs, interests, personality, and learning style. Treatment plans also incorporate the priorities of the child, parents, and/or teachers. Speech-language therapy may take place in various settings, such as speech and language specialty clinics, the school or classroom, and the home. Therapy may be administered on an individual basis and/or in groups, and may be child-centered and/or include peer and family components. Therapists may be speech-language pathologists, educators, or parents. The duration and intensity of the intervention depend on the severity of the speech or language disorder and the child's progress in meeting therapy goals.


The USPSTF recommends screening for hearing loss in all newborn infants (B recommendation). The USPSTF is developing a recommendation on screening for autism spectrum disorder in young children. These recommendations are available on the USPSTF Web site ( http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org ).


All states have designated programs that offer evaluation and intervention services to children ages 0 to 5 years. IDEA is a law that ensures early intervention, special education, and related services for children with disabilities in the United States. Infants and toddlers (birth to age 2 years) with disabilities and their families may receive early intervention services under IDEA part C, whereas children and adolescents (ages 3 to 21 years) may receive special education and related services under IDEA part B. 10

Ellis EM, Thal DJ. Early language delay and risk for language impairment. Perspect Lang Learn Educ. 2008;15(3):93-100.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs. 31st annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 2009. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education; 2012.

Pinborough-Zimmerman J, Satterfield R, Miller J, Bilder D, Hossain S, McMahon W. Communication disorders: prevalence and comorbid intellectual disability, autism, and emotional/behavioral disorders. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2007;16(4):359-367.

Bashir AS, Scavuzzo A. Children with language disorders: natural history and academic success. J Learn Disabil. 1992;25(1):53-65.

Hagan JF Jr, Shaw JS, Duncan P, eds. Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents . 3rd ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2008.

Nelson HD, Nygren P, Walker M, Panoscha R. Screening for speech and language delay in preschool children: systematic evidence review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics. 2006;117(2):e298-e319.

Halfon N, Olson L, Inkelas M, et al. Summary statistics from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health, 2000. Vital Health Stat 15. 2002;3:1-27.

Radecki L, Sand-Loud N, O'Connor KG, Sharp S, Olson LM. Trends in the use of standardized tools for developmental screening in early childhood: 2002–2009. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):14-19.

Berkman ND, Wallace IF, Watson L, et al. Screening for speech and language delay and disorders in children age 5 years or younger: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Evidence synthesis no. 120. AHRQ publication no. 13-05197-EF-1. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2015.

U.S. Department of Education. Building the legacy: IDEA 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education; 2014. http://idea.ed.gov/ . Accessed October 29, 2014.

This series is coordinated by Joanna Drowos, DO, contributing editor.

A collection of USPSTF recommendation statements published in AFP is available at https://www.aafp.org/afp/uspstf .

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Speech Impediment: Definition, Causes, Types and Treatment

02 may speech impediment: definition, causes, types and treatment.

One of life’s joys as a parent is watching your kids grow and change. You see them learn new things, meet new friends, and explore the world around them. But sometimes, you also witness them struggle – like when they have their first fight with a friend or don’t do as well as they wanted to on a test. And while it’s never easy to see your child suffer, one of the hardest things to watch is when your child has difficulty communicating. If your child has a speech impediment, you know that feeling all too well. It can be frustrating and heartbreaking to see your little one struggling to be understood. But take heart – you’re not alone. Many children have difficulties with speech, and with the right pediatric speech therapist in Chicago , your child can learn to overcome their impediment. This blog post will define a speech impediment, discuss some of the most common types and causes, and provide information on treatment options.

What is a speech impediment?

A speech impediment is a condition that affects a person’s ability to produce sound correctly. The term can refer to any difficulties that impede a person’s speech, from mild sound errors to severe problems with articulation. All individuals with speech impediments have difficulty producing certain sounds, depending on one sound. Some people may only have trouble with one sound, while others may have difficulty producing multiple sounds.

What causes speech impediments?

Some people are born with speech impediments, while others develop them later in life. There are many different causes of speech impediment, as you will see below.

1. Congenital defects Congenital defects are abnormalities that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the body, including the mouth and vocal cords. In some cases, congenital defects can cause problems with the tongue moving or the formation of teeth. Many different types of congenital defects can cause a speech impediment, including : Cleft lip and palate is a condition where there is an opening in the lip and/or roof of the mouth. This opening can cause problems with the way the mouth forms words, as well as with eating and drinking. Cleft lip and palate can also cause hearing problems. Vocal cord paralysis is a condition where the vocal cords are unable to move correctly. This can make it difficult to produce sound, as well as to breathe properly. Tongue-tie is a condition where the tongue is tethered to the floor of the mouth. This can make it difficult to move the tongue and can cause problems with eating, drinking, and speaking.

2. Neurological disorders Neurological disorders are conditions that affect the nervous system. These disorders can cause problems with the way the brain sends signals to the muscles, which can lead to difficulties with movement and speech. Some of the more common neurological disorders include: Cerebral palsy is a condition that affects movement and muscle coordination. It is caused by damage to the brain, usually before or during birth. Cerebral palsy can cause problems with the way a person walks, talks, and eats. Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the nervous system that causes the immune system to attack the nerves. This can lead to problems with muscle control and vision, hearing, and speech.

3. Hearing loss Hearing loss can be caused by many different things, including exposure to loud noise, certain medications, and aging. Hearing loss can make it difficult to understand what other people are saying, which can lead to problems with speech. There are many different types of hearing loss, and the severity can vary from person to person. Some people with hearing loss may only have trouble hearing certain sounds, while others may not be able to hear anything at all. Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent. Temporary hearing loss can be caused by things like earwax buildup or infection. Permanent hearing loss can be caused by things like damage to the inner ear or a genetic disorder.

4. Language disorders Language disorders are conditions that affect a person’s ability to understand or use language. These disorders can make it difficult to produce or comprehend speech. Some of the more common language disorders include dyslexia and aphasia.

5. Emotional disorders Emotional disorders are conditions that affect a person’s emotions or mood. These disorders can cause problems with speech due to anxiety or stress. Some of the more common emotional disorders include anxiety disorders and depression. lip

Types of speech disorder

There are many different types of speech disorders, and the symptoms can vary from person to person. Some of the more common types of speech disorders include:

1. Articulation disorder An articulation disorder is a problem with the way the mouth, teeth, or tongue move to make sounds. This can make it difficult to produce certain sounds correctly. People with articulation disorders may have trouble saying certain words correctly, or they may leave out parts of words when they speak.

2. Fluency disorder A fluency disorder is a problem with the flow of speech. People with fluency disorders may have trouble putting their thoughts into words, and they may stutter when they speak. Stuttering is a type of fluency disorder that is characterized by pauses, repetitions, or prolongations of sounds.

3. Resonance disorder A resonance disorder is a problem with the way sound resonates in the mouth and throat. This can make it difficult to produce certain sounds correctly. People with resonance disorders may have trouble producing vowel sounds, or they may speak with a nasal tone.

4. Voice disorder A voice disorder is a problem with the way the voice sounds. This can be caused by things like vocal cord damage or misuse of the voice. People with voice disorders may have trouble speaking loudly or speaking in a hoarse or breathy voice.

Treatment of speech impediments

There are many different treatments for speech disorders, and the best treatment will depend on the individual and the cause of the disorder. Some of the more common treatments include:

1. Speech therapy Speech therapy is a type of treatment that helps people with speech disorders improve their abilities. Speech therapists can help people with articulation disorders learn to produce sounds correctly, people with fluency disorders reduce their stuttering, and people with resonance disorders improve their vowel production.

2. Surgery Surgery can be used to correct some anatomical defects that cause speech disorders. For example, surgery can be used to correct cleft lip and palate, vocal cord paralysis, and tongue tie.

3. Medication Medication can be used to treat some neurological disorders that cause speech disorders. For example, medication can be used to treat conditions like cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis.

4. Hearing aids Hearing aids can be used to treat hearing loss that causes speech disorders. Hearing aids amplify sound so that people with hearing loss can better understand what other people are saying.

5. Communication devices Communication devices can be used to help people with language disorders or severe speech disorders communicate. These devices can include things like picture boards and computer software that helps people generate speech.

6. Counseling Counseling can be used to treat emotional disorders that cause speech disorders. Counseling can help people manage their anxiety and stress and learn coping mechanisms to deal with their disorders.

7. Alternative treatments There are many different alternative treatments for speech disorders. Some of these treatments include acupuncture, aromatherapy, and massage therapy. It is important to speak with a doctor before starting any alternative treatment.

Speech disorders can cause a variety of problems for people, ranging from difficulty understanding what other people are saying to difficulty producing speech. There are many different causes of speech disorders, and the best treatment will depend on the individual and the cause of the disorder. Visit https://functionalspeechtherapy.com/ to learn more about pediatric speech disorders and treatment options.

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Great Speech

How Virtual Speech Therapy Works: A Complete Guide

40 million Americans suffer from communication and speech disorders. Unfortunately, not every city or town has speech therapy readily available to help.

The good news is, through the use of online speech therapy, patients can get the help they need when they need it and from the comfort of their own home.

If you or someone you know is looking for the right form of speech therapy to help, read on for more information on online speech therapy options.

Do I Need Online Speech Therapy?

Before taking a closer look at online speech therapy, it’s important to know whether or not you suffer from a speech impediment and if therapy is the right choice for you.

Typically, a speech impediment can be diagnosed by age 5. However, if the child is more on the shy side or was a late developer, it could go unrecognized.

Unfortunately, the long a speech impediment goes without treatment, the more difficult it is to treat.

Some  common symptoms  to be on the lookout for include:

  • Repetition of specific sounds
  • Adding on additional words
  • Dragging out specific words or sounds
  • Ticks such as jerking, blinking, or making sudden movements while speaking

It’s important to remember that not all speech impediments can be cured. Some issues caused by strokes, facial or vocal cord paralysis or nodules may not benefit from speech therapy.

The Benefits of Online Speech Therapy

There are a number of benefits that come from choosing online speech therapy over traditional speech therapy. These benefits include:

Being Part of Something Bigger

For many people suffering from a speech impediment, it’s easy to feel alone in the struggle.

Through online speech therapy platforms, you can be part of a larger community of people that know exactly what you’re going through. Many of whom have been through the same thing themselves.

Your Life, Your Schedule

Kids, work schedules, school commitments. It can be difficult to dedicate yourself to the same time every week to attend speech therapy.

Fortunately, with online speech therapy, you can work on your speech impediment in your own time without having to worry about commuting or getting it all in.

You no longer have to worry about traveling for work or relocating and having to find a new therapist in a new town. You have the support you need wherever you go.

You Choose Your Therapist

You’re no longer limited to what’s in your area, or stuck with a therapist that doesn’t seem to be working for you.

With online speech therapy, you have a much larger pool of speech therapists available so you can find one that specializes in your unique need.

This also means you won’t have to skip a beat if your current therapist is unavailable or you’re transitioning to a new one.

Better for Your Wallet

Speech therapy costs can add up, but through online therapy sessions, you’ll save money on gas, fees, and will be able to find a speech therapist that fits your budget.

You can also choose a package size the best suits your needs and spread out sessions over time. Just remember, consistency is key.

Additional Benefits

If you are shy or suffer from a social disorder, online speech therapy can provide you the help you need without pushing you too far out of your comfort zone.

You’ll also be able to find online speech therapy for any age group, so you can work towards ending your speech impediment no matter how long you may have had it.

Giving Your Students Your All

If you’re working as a teacher or educational professional, chances are you are dedicated to giving your students every opportunity and advantage they need to succeed.

Unfortunately, school budgets don’t always allow for a speech therapy program, especially when it’s the minority of the children at school that suffer from a speech impediment.

Online speech therapy offers a budget-friendly tool that can provide your students with the help they need without having to bring on a full-time therapist or teacher.

The computer set up is also more engaging and can better motivate children to focus on their sessions. Most importantly, your students can easily access their sessions and practices no matter where they are.

How it Works

There are  a number of ways  that online speech therapy can be performed, and the style of practice will often depend on the age level.

Often a headset and microphone are used to practice reading out loud and dictation. The speech therapist joins the patient through live video calls, and may even provide additional work or practices for them to do on their own time.

Similar to your favorite video conference platform, the patient only needs a meeting ID to be able to jump onto their session from the comfort of their computer.

Tools and payment methods will vary from speech therapist to speech therapist, but will often involve paying for sessions in packages that can be scheduled ahead of time according to your availability.

The Right Choice for You

Whether you are a parent looking into online speech therapy for your child or are looking for sessions yourself, this is one option that can make a major impact in your life.

Finding a platform like greatspeech.com is essential to working with passionate and dedicated speech therapists from around the world.

Ready to take control of your speech impediment? Try online speech therapy for yourself by clicking the button below!

Contact us today  for more information.

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Speech Impediment Test for Kids

Home » Parent Press » Products » Printables » Speech Impediment Test for Kids

speech impediment test

As a licensed practitioner working with children, I understand parents’ concerns about their kids’ speech development. If you’re worried your child might have a speech impediment, you’re not alone. Many parents find themselves in the same situation, questioning whether their child’s speech is developing typically or if there’s cause for concern. In this blog post, I’ll guide you through identifying potential speech impediments and what steps you can take to support your child’s speech development .

Table of Contents

What is a Speech Impediment?

A speech impediment, also known as a speech disorder , is a condition that affects an individual’s ability to produce sounds correctly or fluently, or to use spoken language effectively to communicate. Speech impediments can range from mild to severe and can impact a child’s ability to be understood by others.

Some common types of speech impediments in children include:

  • Articulation disorders : Difficulty producing specific sounds or syllables correctly
  • Fluency disorders : Interruptions in the flow of speech, such as stuttering or cluttering
  • Voice disorders : Problems with pitch, volume, or quality of the voice
  • Language disorders : Difficulty understanding or using spoken language effectively

According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), approximately 5% of children in the United States have noticeable speech disorders by first grade. Early identification and intervention can significantly affect a child’s speech development and overall communication skills.

speech impediment test online

Signs of a Potential Speech Impediment

As a parent, you are best positioned to observe your child’s speech development. While every child develops at their own pace, some signs may indicate a potential speech impediment. Keep an eye out for the following:

  • Difficulty producing specific sounds consistently (e.g., substituting “w” for “r” or “t” for “k”)
  • Omitting sounds or syllables in words (e.g., saying “ba” for “ball” or “poon” for “spoon”)
  • Struggling to be understood by others, especially unfamiliar listeners
  • Repeating sounds, words, or phrases (stuttering)
  • Using a strained or hoarse voice consistently
  • Limited vocabulary compared to peers of the same age
  • Frustration or reluctance to communicate due to speech difficulties

If you notice any of these signs consistently in your child’s speech, it may be time to consider a speech impediment test or evaluation by a qualified speech-language pathologist (SLP) .

Goally’s Speech Impediment Test

If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess your child’s speech development, Goally offers a speech impediment test that can help identify potential areas of concern. While this test is not a substitute for a professional evaluation and cannot provide an official diagnosis , it can be a useful tool for parents who want to better understand their child’s speech abilities.

Keep in mind that if the test indicates a potential speech impediment, it’s essential to follow up with a licensed speech-language pathologist for a comprehensive evaluation and appropriate treatment plan.

Please Note: This information is not meant to diagnose or treat and should not take the place of personal consultation, as needed, with a qualified healthcare provider and/or BCBA.

Do you often find your child avoiding situations where they have to speak out loud?

Has your child been teased or bullied because of the way they speak?

Does your child show signs of frustration or distress when trying to communicate verbally?

Have you noticed inconsistencies in your child’s ability to pronounce the same word correctly?

Is your child particularly quiet or less verbally interactive compared to their peers?

Have teachers or caregivers expressed concerns about your child’s speech clarity or fluency?

Does your child repeat sounds, syllables, or words when they speak?

Have you observed your child altering their speech or using different words to avoid difficulty pronouncing certain sounds?

Are there specific sounds or letters that your child consistently has trouble pronouncing?

Have you sought or are you considering seeking professional advice or therapy for your child’s speech impediment?

Restart quiz

Supporting Your Child’s Speech Development at Home

While professional intervention is crucial for children with speech impediments, you can support your child’s speech development at home in many ways. Here are some tips:

Remember, every child develops at their own pace, and speech development is no exception. By providing a supportive and language-rich environment at home, you can help your child build the foundation for effective communication skills.

speech impediment test online

When to Seek Professional Help

If you suspect your child may have a speech impediment, it’s essential to seek professional help sooner rather than later. Early intervention can significantly affect your child’s speech development and overall communication skills. According to a study published in Pediatrics, children who receive early speech therapy have better language outcomes than those who start therapy later.

Don’t hesitate to talk to your child’s pediatrician or contact a licensed speech-language pathologist if you have concerns about your child’s speech development. They can guide you through the process of a speech impediment test and provide the necessary support and resources for your child’s unique needs.

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Goally | Apps that Teach Kids AAC & Core Words

Is your child facing challenges in expressing themselves or communicating effectively? Goally has one of the best language language learning apps for kids to support their journey in building essential communication skills!

Goally's AAC Talker app and Word Lab app displayed on 2 Goallys. There's text that reads "Teach AAC and Core Words."

The Word Lab and AAC Talker apps provide a simple, engaging platform for your child to learn core words and become a functional communicator right from the start. Customize the experience with a voice that suits them, and watch as their confidence grows in expressing their thoughts and needs!

As a parent, it’s natural to worry about your child’s development, including their speech. By understanding the signs of potential speech impediments and the importance of early intervention, you can take proactive steps to support your child’s speech development. Remember, a speech impediment test conducted by a qualified professional is the first step in identifying and addressing speech concerns. Your child can build the communication skills they need to thrive with the right support and resources.

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) – A comprehensive overview of speech and language disorders in children.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – Information on language disorders and tips for encouraging language development.
  • Understood.org – A guide to understanding speech impairments and strategies for supporting children with speech difficulties.

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Common Speech Impediments: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Support

Speech impediments include a variety of both language and speech disorders, some of which can be addressed through  online speech therapy  with speech-language pathologists. They can arise because of heredity and genetics, developmental delays, or even damage to Broca’s area—the part of the brain that’s involved in language skills and speech skills. They may also be linked to other conditions like autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, dyslexia, or even hearing loss. It depends on the type and the cause, but most speech impediments and speech impairments can be treated through speech therapy.

That said, recognizing when a speech impediment may be present can help you get yourself or your child the treatment and support they may need for improved academic and/or social functioning and self-confidence.

A girl in a white blouse sits at her desk at school and smiles softly while looking at the camera.

Common symptoms of a speech impediment

There are many different types of speech impediments a person can have, so the symptoms can vary. That said, those listed below are common symptoms that could be initial indicators that you or your child may be experiencing speech problems or challenges:

  • Elongating words
  • Quiet or muffled speech
  • Blinking frequently
  • Distorted sounds while talking
  • Frequent changes in pitch
  • Poor voice quality
  • Visible frustration when trying to communicate
  • Overall difficulty communicating and expressing thoughts and ideas
  • Inability to repeat words
  • Inability to pronounce words the same way twice
  • A phobia of speaking in public
  • Speaking slowly and carefully
  • Speech delay
  • Frequent pauses when talking
  • Limited vocabulary over several years, delayed language development

Some speech and language disorders are consistent with underlying mental health conditions such as autism. You can visit licensed health professionals or speech therapists to receive an accurate diagnosis and find out how to treat a speech impediment or language disorder, and its underlying cause, if applicable.

Key categories of speech impediments

Speech impediments or communication disorders can take many forms, from speech sound disorders to voice-related disorders. While speech sound disorders mostly result from sensory or motor causes, voice-related disorders deal with physical problems regarding speech. Read on for a list of some of the most common categories of speech impediments.

Voice disorders

Voice disorders  primarily arise due to issues regarding the health and structure of the larynx or the voice box. They can impact pitch, resonance, volume, and voice quality. Symptoms of a voice disorder may include having a hoarse, quivering, strained, choppy, or weak and whispery voice, which can make it difficult to produce speech sounds.

The root cause of these disorders can be either organic, like alterations to respiratory, laryngeal, or vocal tract mechanisms, or functional, like improper use of the voice. Some risk factors that may contribute to vocal health challenges include allergies, psychological stress, age, excessive alcohol or drug use, screaming, scarring from neck surgery, or even gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Examples of voice disorders include laryngitis, vocal cord paralysis/weakness, polyps or nodes present on the vocal cords, leukoplakia, or muscle tension dysphonia.

Fluency disorders

A person may be diagnosed with a fluency disorder if they have trouble with speech timing and rhythm which makes it difficult to create a normal speech pattern. These disorders are characterized by interruptions in the typical flow of speaking, including abnormal repetitions, hesitation, and prolongations. Their cause is unknown, but it may be genetic. Symptoms can also be exacerbated by stress and anxiety. Stuttering is the most common example of fluency disorders. 

Symptoms of a fluency disorder may include dragging out syllables, speaking breathlessly, repetition of words, speaking slowly, and being tense while speaking. Secondary symptoms may include fidgeting, mumbling, saying “um” or “uh” often, not using certain problematic words, rearranging words in sentences, and anxiety around speaking. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder. With stuttering, for example, slowing down, practicing, using speech monitors, attending speech therapy, and receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are all potential treatment options.

Articulation disorders and phonological disorders

Articulation and phonological disorders are two types of speech disorders classified as speech sound disorders that may impact communication. An articulation disorder includes speech that commonly exhibits errors such as substitution, omission, distortion, and/or addition (SODA). Although the actual causes of articulation disorders aren’t well understood, contributing factors may include brain injuries, a cleft palate/cleft lip, or nerve damage. Phonological disorders typically involve producing sounds correctly but using them in the wrong place and are more predictable than articulation errors. There may also be a genetic factor that contributes to both disorders and other families may be impacted as well. A licensed speech-language pathologist (SLP) can determine if an individual may have an articulation disorder or a phonological disorder. Ongoing speech therapy is typically the recommended treatment method.

Speech impediments versus language impairments

A speech impediment is typically characterized by difficulty creating sound due to factors like fluency disorders or other voice problems. These disorders may arise from underlying mental health issues, neurological problems, or physical factors or conditions impacting speech muscles.

Language impairments, on the other hand, are more about difficulty processing, reading, and writing and can be connected to an issue processing receptive language. They’re common in children, especially when they first start school. Language impairments relate to meaning, whereas speech impediments relate to sound. It’s also very common for a language impairment disorder to present alongside a learning disability like dyslexia.

A teen girl sits on the couch with a green pillow in her lap as she looks at the phone in her hand with a worried expression.

Examples of speech impediments

Below is a brief overview of a few of the most common speech disorders and speech impediments, along with symptoms and potential treatment options.

Apraxia  of speech is a speech sound disorder that affects the pathways of the brain. It’s characterized by a person having difficulty expressing their thoughts accurately and consistently. It involves the brain being able to form the words and knowing exactly what to say, but the person then being unable to properly execute the required speech movements to deliver accurate sounds. In mild cases, a person will only have small limitations in their ability to form speech sounds. In severe cases, alternate communication methods may need to be used.

An SLP is the type of provider who can diagnose apraxia. To diagnose speech disorders, including both childhood apraxia (sometimes called verbal apraxia) and acquired apraxia, they may ask the individual to perform simple speech tasks like repeating a particular word several times or repeating a list of words that increase in length. Apraxia generally needs to be monitored by both parents and an SLP over time for an accurate diagnosis to be possible.

There are various treatment options for apraxia, the most common being one-on-one meetings with a speech pathologist. They’ll likely help you or your child build helpful strategies and skills to help strengthen problem areas and communicate more clearly. Some other treatment methods include improving speech intelligibility or using alternate forms of communication, like electronic speech or manual signs and gestures.

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders describes aphasia as a communication disorder that results in a person’s inability to speak, write, and/or understand language. Like other communication disorders, it may occur because of damage to the portions of the brain that are involved in language, which is common in those who have experienced a stroke. It may also come on gradually in those who have a tumor or a progressive neurological disease like Alzheimer’s. Symptoms may include saying or writing sentences that don’t make sense, a reduction in a person’s ability to understand a conversation, and substituting certain sounds and words for others.

Since this disorder is usually caused by damage to parts of the brain, it will typically first be recognized in an MRI or CT scan that can confirm the presence of a brain injury. The extent and type of aphasia can generally only be determined by observing the affected part of the brain and determining how extensively it has been damaged, which is often done with the help of an SLP.

Treatment options for aphasia can be restorative (aimed at restoring impaired function) or compensatory (aimed at compensating for deficits).


Dysarthria is usually caused by brain damage or facial paralysis that affects the muscles of the jaw, tongue, or throat, which may result in deficits in a person’s speech. It may also be caused by other conditions like Lou Gehrig’s disease, Parkinson’s, or a stroke. It’s considered a nervous system disorder, subclassified as a motor speech disorder. It’s commonly seen in those who already have other speech disorders, such as aphasia or apraxia. Symptoms of dysarthria include slurred speech, speaking too slowly, speaking too quickly, speaking very softly, being unable to move one’s lips or jaw, and having monotonous speech.

Dysarthria can be diagnosed by an expert in speech-language pathology through an exam and tests like MRI, CT, electromyography, or the Denver articulation screening examination. Treatment depends upon the severity and rate of progression of the disorder. Some potential examples include tactics like slowing down while talking, doing exercises to help strengthen jaw muscles, moving the lips and tongue more, and learning strategies for speaking more loudly. Hand gestures and speech machines may also help. 

The importance of treatment

It is important to treat speech disorders; the consequences of an untreated speech or language impediment can vary widely depending on the type, symptoms, and severity, as well as the age and life situation of the individual. In general, it’s usually helpful to seek professional advice on treating speech disorders as soon as you notice or suspect an impediment present in yours or your child’s speech. Especially for moderate to severe cases, some potential effects of leaving these common speech disorders untreated can include:

  • Poor academic performance/dropping out of school
  • Decrease in quality of life
  • Social anxiety and an inability to connect with people
  • Damaged relationships
  • Social isolation
  • Hospitalization

A teen boy in a green shirt sits on a windowsill in his room and smiles while writting in a notebook.

Seeking professional support

Meeting with an SLP is usually the recommended first step for someone who believes they or their child may have a speech impediment. If you have a teenager with dyslexia, there are  resources for dyslexic teens  that can give supportive information about the condition. Healthcare providers may also provide helpful insights and ask about your family members’ history when it comes to speech and language-related issues as they can be hereditary. While these professionals can help with the physical aspects of a variety of speech and language impediments, you or your child may also benefit from emotional support in relation to the mental health effects of having an impediment. A therapist may be able to provide this type of guidance. If your child is experiencing a speech impediment, a counselor may be able to work with them to process their feelings of frustration and learn healthy coping mechanisms for stress. They can help you manage the same feelings if you receive a speech or language impediment diagnosis, or may be able to support you in your journey of parenting a child with a speech or language impediment diagnosis.

In addition to support at home, teenagers with a diagnosed speech impairment or impediment can receive special education services at school. The Centers for Disease Control notes that under the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) and Section 504, schools must provide support and accommodations for students with speech disorders. For some children, support groups can provide outlets for social connections and advice for coping. 

Meeting with a therapist in person is an option if there are providers in your area. That said, many people find it less intimidating or more comfortable to meet with a therapist virtually. For example, a teen who is experiencing a speech or language impediment may feel better interacting with a counselor through the online chat feature that virtual therapy platforms like TeenCounseling provide. It may allow them to express themselves more clearly than they could face-to-face or over the phone. Parents who need support in caring for a child with a speech or language impediment may find the availability and convenience of meeting with a therapist through an online therapy service like BetterHelp to be most beneficial. Research suggests that online and in-person therapy offer similar benefits for a variety of conditions, so you can choose the format that’s best for you.

Counselor reviews

See below for reviews of TeenCounseling therapists written by parents who sought help for their children through this service. 

“Kathleen has been good for my daughter to talk to. I am thankful for her to give my daughter someone else's perspective other than her parents. Thank you.”

“I love Ms. Jones. She doesn’t over-talk or judge you. She gives really good advice and if you're confused she knows how to break it down or explain whatever it is so you can understand. If you need to talk about anything, she’s always an open ear and responds quickly. Not only does she give you points from others' perspectives but she steps into yours so she can understand why certain things are the way they are. In my first session, I was nervous and I think she could tell. She’ll crack a joke every now and then to make me feel more comfortable. She’s just such a bundle of joy and a good counselor to have.”

Speech and language impediments can vary widely in terms of types, causes, symptoms, and severity. These are diagnosed by professionals in the field of speech and language pathology or by a medical doctor. A therapist can provide emotional support for those who are having difficulty coping with their own or their child’s diagnosis or other related challenges. 

What are the 3 speech impediments?

Speech impediments can manifest in a variety of ways. Three of the most common are listed below: 

  • Voice disorders affect the tone, pitch, quality, and volume of a person’s voice. A person with a voice disorder may have difficulty speaking or being heard clearly by others. Voice disorders can be either functional or organic. Functional disorders occur due to improper use of the parts of the throat that produce speech, such as overuse of the voice leading to vocal fatigue. Organic voice disorders result from physical anatomical changes, such as nodules on the vocal cords. 
  • Fluency disorders affect the rate, rhythm, and cadence of speech. Those with fluency disorders may speak in a disjointed, choppy, or prolonged fashion, making them difficult for others to understand clearly. While many types of fluency disorders exist, stuttering is likely the best-known. Speech often requires precise timing to convey a message accurately, which fluency disorders can disrupt. 
  • Speech sound disorders are a broad category of disorders that interferes with a person’s ability to produce sounds and words correctly. Speech sound disorders can present very differently from person to person. Sometimes word sounds are omitted or added where not appropriate, and sometimes word sounds are distorted or substituted completely. A typical example of a speech sound disorder is the substitution of “r” for “w” in words like “rabbit” (becoming “wabbit”). Many children experience that substitution, but it does not become a disorder until the child does not outgrow it. 

Other types of disorders can cause problems with expressive communication or tongue-tie those experiencing them, such as developmental language disorder . Language disorders also cause concerns related to expressive communication, but the concerns are due to a lack of understanding of one or more components of language , not an inability to produce or use word sounds. 

What do you call a speech impediment?

Speech impediments are typically referred to as speech disorders . Speech refers to the ability to form speech sounds using the vocal cords, mouth, lips, and tongue. Speech also requires that a rhythm and cadence be maintained. Speech disorders indicate a problem producing intelligible speech; word sounds may be omitted or misplaced, the rhythm of the speech may be difficult to follow, or a person’s voice might be strangely pitched or too soft to hear clearly. 

It is important not to confuse speech disorders with language disorders . Language disorders arise due to difficulty understanding what words mean, how word sounds fit together, or how to use spoken language to communicate. Language problems may affect how a person speaks, but the root cause of the concern is linked to their understanding of language, not their ability to produce intelligible speech. 

How do I know if I have a speech impediment?

If you’re experiencing a sudden onset of impaired speech with no apparent cause, seek medical attention immediately. Strokes, traumatic brain injuries, and other serious medical conditions can cause sudden changes in speaking ability. Gradual changes in speaking ability may also indicate an underlying medical problem. If you’re concerned that your speaking ability has been gradually deteriorating, consider making an appointment with a healthcare provider in the near future. 

Most people with a speech disorder are diagnosed in childhood. Parents often identify speech-related concerns in early childhood based on their child’s speech patterns. The child’s pediatrician may also refer the child to a speech-language pathologist, a professional specializing in evaluating and treating speech disorders. If problems persist until the child is in school, teachers and other school officials might initiate a referral for an evaluation if they believe speech concerns are present. Children often receive speech and language therapy that resolves or improves their speech problems. 

Speech disorders also appear in adulthood, often due to injury or illness. It is also possible, although rare, for speech problems to be misdiagnosed or missed outright during a person’s childhood. In that case, the speech disorder may have been present since childhood and symptoms persisted into adulthood.

If you’re finding it difficult to communicate verbally with others, have an easily identifiable speech problem (like stuttering), or receive feedback that others have trouble understanding you, consider making an appointment with your doctor for an evaluation and referral to the appropriate healthcare providers. 

What are 5 causes of speech impairment?

Speech and language disorders can result from conditions that interfere with the development of perceptual, structural, motor, cognitive, or socioemotional functions. The cause of many speech disorders is unknown, but research has indicated several underlying factors that may be responsible: 

  • Pre-existing genetic conditions, like Down’s syndrome or Fragile X syndrome. Evidence suggests that genes may play a role even if genetic abnormalities do not result in a diagnosable genetic condition. 
  • Physical abnormalities, such as damage or improper development of the respiratory system, facial muscles, or cranial nerves. 
  • Hearing problems, which can delay a child’s acquisition of speech. 
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, may interfere with speech development. There is also evidence to suggest that those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may have a more challenging time acquiring speech skills. 
  • Neurological conditions such as cerebral palsy. 

Mental health concerns can also cause problems communicating with others. For example, an underlying anxiety disorder may lead to selective mutism , wherein a child speaks only under certain circumstances. 

Is speech impediment a disability?

A speech-language disorder is considered a “ communication disability ” under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA requires government and businesses to establish “effective communication” with people who have communication disabilities. Effective communication can be established in several ways. For those with a speech disorder, accommodation may be as simple as ensuring the person can get hold of writing materials if they need to express themselves quickly. In some cases, organizations may use a transliterator, or person trained to recognize unclear speech and repeat it clearly. 

Because speech disorders are known to lead to academic struggles in K-12 and higher education settings, they are categorized as a disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) . The IDEIA sets guidelines for all schools in the United States, public or not public, guaranteeing each child a right to accommodations and interventions for their speech disorder. 

Can I fix my speech impediment?

Whether or not a speech disorder can be completely eliminated depends heavily on individual factors. The cause of the disorder, its severity, and the type of speech dysfunction all play a role in determining whether a particular disorder can be completely resolved. While it is not possible to guarantee that a speech disorder can be “cured,” nearly all disorders are treatable, and improvement is likely possible. 

Can you treat a speech impediment?

Yes, many speech disorders are highly treatable. Most people receive treatment as children when most speech disorders become apparent. For children, speech-language pathologists will identify the specific speech disorder, search for an underlying cause, and design an intervention that targets that child’s speech problem. For example, a child who struggles with articulation errors and producing word sounds consistently may benefit from a contextual utilization approach . Contextual utilization leverages the fact that one sound is easier or more difficult to pronounce depending on which other sounds surround it. 

Speech disorders that emerge in adulthood may be more challenging to treat due to underlying factors, such as brain injury. Suppose an adult experiences a traumatic brain injury that affects their speaking ability. In that case, a speech-language pathologist may help them find alternative communication methods, such as using a computer. They may also help them directly restore some of their speaking ability by leading them through exercises that improve nerve function and muscle control.  

Is a speech impediment mental?

Speech disorders can be caused by various factors, many of which have nothing to do with the brain. However, there is a relationship between psychiatric mental health concerns and difficulty with spoken communication . Although researchers are still unsure of the exact cause, studies have identified a significant link between speech disorders and mental health disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. 

Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, are also associated with an increased risk of developing a speech disorder. Although the link between neurodevelopmental disorders and speech disorders is not fully understood, evidence suggests that treating the speech disorder is still possible. 

Finally, speech disorders can also be caused by illness or injury in the brain, such as cancer, an infection, or traumatic brain injury. Although these are not considered mental or developmental disorders, they may affect brain function and mental acuity. Speaking is a complex process, and there are many ways it can be affected. 

Is autism a speech impediment?

Autism spectrum disorder is not a speech disorder, but it is heavily associated with communication problems. Those on the autism spectrum often use repetitive or rigid language and may not follow communication norms. They may repeat phrases continuously, use a modified tone of voice, or introduce information that has little to do with the conversation at hand. 

Those on the autism spectrum are often able to form word sounds properly. The communication deficits of autism spectrum disorder are more closely related to language disorders than speech disorders. Speech disorders are associated with difficulty producing or using word sounds correctly, whereas language disorders are associated with a lack of understanding of one or more language components.

Autism spectrum disorder is also characterized by difficulties using pragmatic communication , or communication that is appropriate to a specific social situation. Although not a disorder of speech, a limited ability to recognize the socioemotional content of speech can significantly impact interpersonal communication and social interactions. 

  • Recognizing and navigating teen depression Medically reviewed by Elizabeth Erban , LMFT, IMH-E
  • ADHD signs in women, men, and children Medically reviewed by Julie Dodson , MA
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[Self-Test] Auditory Processing Disorder Symptoms in Adults

Adults with auditory processing disorder may struggle to understand and communicate with the world. though most symptoms are diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, these lingering signs at home and work could point to apd, particularly in adults with adhd / add..

“Garbled.” That’s how many adults describe communicating and living with auditory processing disorder (APD). APD makes it difficult to understand and interpret information presented orally. This may manifest as poor listening skills, poor reading comprehension, or miscommunication that causes trouble with coworkers, partners, family and friends. For many people, living with APD is like trying to listen on a cell phone with the signal cutting in and out.

This test was adapted from the symptoms of auditory processing disorder (APD) as described by the  American Speech-Language-Hearing Association . This is not a diagnostic tool. An accurate diagnosis can only be made through clinical evaluation. For personal use only.

Do you fail to understand why people like live concerts, or singing karaoke?

At work, are you distracted and do you have trouble focusing, especially when working in an open floor plan or cubicle without a door?

When you go out with friends at a noisy bar, do you have trouble following what’s going on?

Is spell-check is your best friend?

Do you listen to the TV at high volume, but still have trouble understanding what’s going on, especially if anyone talks during the program?

Do everyday noises like the vacuum cleaner or blender bother you or “hurt” your ears? 

Though most people consider them logistically easier than face –to-face meetings, do conference calls at work really stress you out?

Do you fail to notice your cell phone ringing and miss important calls?

In school, did you struggle through language arts and other lecture-intensive classes? 

In conversations, do you feel like you’re missing something?

Do you mis-hear words that rhyme or sound alike, leading to confusion and frustration?

Would you rather express yourself in an email or essay, and avoid phone calls and presentations?

If you’ve been tested for hearing problems, did the results show no abnormal hearing problems?


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Auditory Processing Disorder in Adults: Next Steps

1. Take This Test: Sensory Processing Disorder in Adults 2. Read   How to Treat Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) 3. Find Treatment Options in   Auditory Processing Disorder: Where to Go for Help 4. Take This Test : Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Adults 5. Take This Test :  Executive Function Deficits in Adults 6. Take This Test: Autism in Adults 8. Find : Specialists or Clinics Near You

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Home » Health Conditions » Lisp

Last Updated December 20th, 2021

What are the main causes of lisp?

Can lisp be cured, is lisp a disability, what are the causes of lisp in adults.

Among humans, speech and spoken language are the powerful and effective tools of communication. The acquisition of speech is a highly complex process that we begin in infancy and continue to master throughout our lives. Some individuals take longer than others to develop speech skills. Certain others may be completely unable to speak as a result of muteness. There also exists a group of individuals who are able to communicate through speech but they may have certain defects or impediments.

What Is A ‘Speech Impediment’?

LISP correction

What Is A Lisp?

A lisp is an example of a functional speech disorder . It is a condition in which the person is unable to produce certain sounds necessary for speech. Hence, those who lisp are unable to achieve clear and correct articulation. Often, this involves difficulty in correctly pronouncing the sounds ‘s’, ‘z’ and ‘r’, among others. The most common form of lisp involves distorted pronunciation of sibilant sounds.

Why Do Some People Lisp?

Generally, a lisp is caused by the inability to achieve correct placement of the tongue within the mouth when attempting to produce certain sounds. The specifics are discussed further on in the section dealing with different types of lisps.

The true cause for lisping is not as yet clear. Yet, there may also be certain other factors that contribute to the lisp. For instance:

  • Tongue thrust is a common muscular imbalance that most of us display in infancy. If this persists as one grows older, it tends to give rise to lisping speech. Thumb sucking and use of pacifiers can encourage tongue thrust.
  • Having an underbite or an overbite can also be responsible for lisping.
  • A birth defect known as tongue-tie, which impairs the mobility of the tongue can also give rise to a lisp.
  • Having frequent upper respiratory illnesses in early childhood encourage breathing through the mouth and this can affect the normal development of speech.
  • Emotional or psychological stress.

Are There Different Kinds of Lisps?

Yes, there are a few different varieties of lisps. These are differentiated as follows:

  • Interdental lisp: A person with an interdental lisp will pronounce the sound ‘s’ and ‘z’ incorrectly as ‘th’. Hence, the word ‘lisp’ itself will be pronounced as ‘lithp’. This is normal for children up until the age of 4-4.5. This happens because the tongue pushes forward between the front teeth, causing air to flow forward. Hence, this is also called a frontal lisp.
  • Dental lisp: Here, too, air gets pushed forwards when speaking. In this case, the tongue rests against the front teeth when articulating sibilants. As a result, the sound is somewhat muted as compared to an interdental lisp.
  • Lateral lisp: This is called so because air is pushed out through the sides of the mouth. The resultant sound is often described as ‘wet’, making it seem as if the person’s mouth is full of saliva when speaking.
  • Palatal lisp: Here, the speaker attempts to articulate a sibilant but it becomes distorted because the middle of the tongue is in contact with the soft palate.

How Can The Specific Type Be Identified?

Visiting a doctor can help to make a preliminary assessment. The child will be examined for any structural abnormalities in the mouth. In order to determine the nature of the lisp and the most suitable mode of treatment, it is recommended to seek the opinion of a specialist such as a speech and a language therapist.

Can A Lisp Be Improved Or Corrected?

LISP speech therapy

  • Treat cold, sinus, and allergies so that the child doesn’t have to breathe through the mouth.
  • Reduce thumb-sucking as much as possible.
  • Let the child drink fluids through straws.

Can A Lisp Give Rise To Additional Problems?

Most people who lisp can still be understood well by others. Their speech impediment does not cause any significant problems in their day to day lives. Yet, a person who speaks with a lisp can sometimes become the target of ridicule and humiliation. This can cause them to feel embarrassed, self-conscious or anxious in situations involving public speaking. This can give rise to a severe phobia or even depression.

  • https://medlineplus.gov/speechandcommunicationdisorders.html
  • https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/statistics-voice-speech-and-language
  • http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/what-are-speech-and-language-disorders
  • https://www.sa.gov.au/topics/education-and-learning/disability-and-special-needs/speech-and-language-impairments
  • https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-perspectives-of-children-and-young-people-who-have-speech-language-and-communication-needs-and-their-parents

Dos and Don'ts

  • Get the condition corrected with the help of a licensed speech therapist.
  • If the child suffers from any developmental problem or cleft palate, see that lisping is treated as soon as possible.
  • Let the child feel that he/she is dumb or stupid for not being able to talk properly.
  • Force the child to get better fast with speech therapy. Every individual has a different speed of showing improvements.
  • Ignore the symptoms of communication disorders especially if an individual has experienced emotional/mental trauma.



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Speech Blubs

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100+ fun activities for kids that will keep them entertained for hours! Target speech development through play and games. They won’t even know they are learning!

Learn about your baby and toddler developmental milestones! Check if you are on track, when to worry, and how to work on skills like language, potty training, and feeding!

Every child is different! Here are speech and language tips and tools for kids with learning differences, alongside information for parents provided by speech therapists.

Parenting starts with your well-being! Here is some advice on how to teach life skills, work from home, distance learning, along with tips for developing parenting coping skills.

We help kids speak no matter their speech challenges! Speech therapists advise parents about late talkers, speech delay, stuttering, apraxia, articulation, and other speech impediments.

From your first worry to your first appointment, and your last speech therapy session – find the information you need to help your child thrive and gain necessary speech skills.

Parent's Academy › Speech Therapy › Speech Therapy for Kids › Testing for Speech and Language Therapy

Testing for Speech and Language Therapy

Stacie bennett.

Speech-Language Pathologist , Trenton , New Jersey

Feb 5, 2022 What is the Test of Preschool Vocabulary? How, when and why should I get my child tested?


When getting a child evaluated for speech and language services, most parents want to know what sort of tests will their child be exposed to, when should they look into testing and how do you go about looking for an SLP ? This blog will go into detail about different batteries of tests that your child might be exposed to and will culminate in how and when testing should be completed. 

Test of Preschool Vocabulary (TOPV)

The Test of Preschool Vocabulary (TOPV) measures a child’s ability to recognize and use single words that represent all parts of speech and a variety of basic concepts, including things, events, and experiences. The words are presented in order of difficulty, progressing from familiar words and concepts to less familiar ones (wbspublish.com). 

The TOPV is divided into an expressive (what your child can produce verbally and written) vocabulary and receptive vocabulary (what words your child can understand). You would use the TOPV on children who are 2 years of age to 5 years and 11 months of age. This testing will help with:

  • Identifying children with oral language disorders
  • Diagnosing early semantic ability
  • Comparing receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge
  • Monitoring language intervention progress
  • Conducting research

Test of Preschool Vocabulary

Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF)

There are several different versions of the CELF, depending on the age of your child. No matter what age bracket your child is in, the format of the testing is basically the same. Directions may change and the complexity of the subtests will adjust accordingly. As a speech pathologist, this is one of my favorite tests to administer because it truly looks at every aspect of a child’s language skills . The CELF includes a variety of subtests that provide in-depth assessment of a child’s language skills: Concepts and Following Directions, Word Structure, Expressive Vocabulary, Recalling Sentences, Sentence Structure, Basic Concepts, Recalling Sentences in Context, Word Classes and Phonological Awareness.

The CELF tests begin at preschool age and continue all the way into adulthood. The test will be administered to a child/adolescent if there are issues with formulating sentences , recalling verbal information, following multi-step directions or vocabulary.

Comprehension Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL)

The CASL looks at language processing skills and knowledge . It can be used on children as young as three and can be administered to adults up until the age of 21. What is really nice about this test is that it answers a variety of referral questions including eligibility for speech services, placement in special education, determining if a language delay or disorder is present, or measuring language abilities in English language learners.

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Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA-3)

The GFTA is a test that looks at articulation skills or, in other words, how your child produces sounds , syllables, words, sentences and conversations. It can be used on a child as young as 2 and up until age 21.

The great thing about the GFTA is that it only takes between 15-20 minutes to complete so it’s perfect for young kids who may not have the attention span to sit for longer tests. The GFTA will, most likely, be included in your evaluation if your child is school aged and not speaking clearly.

Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS)

The OWLS looks at how well your child can write language and formulate sentences verbally . Depending on your child’s ability level, it could take 40 minutes or 2 hours and can be given to children as young as 3, although I would not recommend it be given to children until they can formulate language and can start writing letters.

The OWLS will ask your child to complete a story based on a picture prompt that the speech pathologist will show him/her. Their story will be assessed to see if it has a logical flow, good vocabulary usage, punctuation/capitalization errors and age-appropriate grammar. Sentences will also be formulated based on vocabulary words given (definitions).

Oral and Written Language Scales

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, revised edition (PPVT-R) “measures an individual’s receptive (hearing) vocabulary for Standard American English and provides, at the same time, a quick estimate of verbal ability or scholastic aptitude ” (Dunn and Dunn, 1981). The PPVT-R was designed for use with individuals aged 2½ to 40 years. The English language version of the PPVT-R consists of 175 vocabulary items of generally increasing difficulty. The child listens to a word uttered by the interviewer and then selects one of four pictures that best describes the word’s meaning.

The PPVT also has an expressive component where the child has to name a picture that is shown to them. These words also grow in complexity as the testing progresses.

Screening Test for Developmental Apraxia of Speech (STDAS)

The STDAS is an evaluation tool that is administered to determine if a child’s receptive language scores are higher than their expressive language . If a child can understand more than what they are expressing, that is a key sign that the child may have apraxia of speech . If this discrepancy is shown, a speech-language pathologist will complete further testing on your child to get a definitive diagnosis. Apraxia is an acquired oral motor speech disorder affecting an individual’s ability to translate conscious speech plans into motor plans, which results in limited and difficult speech ability. Basically, they can’t formulate the words that they are thinking in their heads. 

The STDAS takes about 15 minutes to complete and is acceptable to use on children 4-12 years of age. 

Speech Services

Test of Language Development (TOLD)

The TOLD is similar to the CELF. It’s a test that looks at a child’s ability to understand and formulate language . TOLD tests are also geared towards certain ages. For example, there is a TOLD-Primary, which looks at young children. There is also a version of the TOLD that can be used for students who are adolescents and young adults. 

The TOLD testing can take anywhere from 40 minutes to 2 hours. Testing lengths are really dependent on your child’s ability level and if there are any other cognitive or attention issues that may make testing more difficult. 

When To See A Speech-Language Pathologist

We at Speech Blubs have written several blogs about when to get help for your child’s speech. Instead of going to a lengthy discussion where I repeat the information that’s already been told, the biggest piece of advice I tell people who contact me about speech and language services is to go with your gut. You know your child the best. If you think there is a problem, get help. If a professional looks at him/her and tells you that they are “on target,” it will at least give you peace of mind. If they qualify for services, then they get the help that they need. 

Go with your gut. You know your child the best!

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Why Speech Services?

A parent asked us why a child should be enrolled in therapy. There are several reasons why a child should receive services:

  • Delayed speaking/communicating
  • Speech is unclear or unintelligible to peers, family members and friends
  • Child does not gesture or babble to communicate
  • Limited eye contact or lacking social skills
  • Poor written language skills
  • Difficulty with processing information – it can be written or verbal
  • Trouble with memory

If your child is exhibiting any of the above mentioned issues, I highly suggest getting a referral for speech services from your pediatrician. 

Most likely, there will be a waitlist to get into a speech therapist’s office. Please download the Speech Blubs app to work on speech and language skills. It’s great screen time that will allow your child to work on rhyming, vocabulary, articulation, social skills and oral motor activities. It doesn’t matter your child’s diagnosis – this app will assist in the refining and learning of speech!

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The author’s views are entirely his or her own and may not necessarily reflect the views of Blub Blub Inc. All content provided on this website is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for independent professional medical judgement, advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

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Treating a lisp can improve communication and confidence

The most common form of a lisp occurs when someone makes a “th” sound when trying to say an “s” or “z” sound. Speech therapists are communication experts and the most qualified professionals to assess, evaluate, and treat children and adults with lisps. The earlier treatment starts, the quicker a lisp can be corrected to improve a person's overall communication and well-being.

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"Robin is amazing! She has made my daughter feel comfortable throughout the entire process! She was always open to try new techniques and adjust the process to find what clicked with my daughter."

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Robin helped this client improve their sound production and overall conversational speech.
"We had the most perfect therapist, Fabine. She was joyful, patient, encouraging and always enthusiastic. Our daughter quickly mastered the work and was discharged months earlier than we expected! We liked the twice a week format. It was clearly more beneficial than once a week, in person. Additionally, the homework helped us support her new sounds at home."

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Fabine helped this client reach age-appropriate sound production to effectively communicate their thoughts and ideas.
"Inga gave me hope in a world of false diagnoses. She was beyond sweet and caring with my son. The screen did not make the session feel distant or dry, it felt very familiar and every week we looked forward to it."

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Inga helped this client improve their language abilities and increase vocabulary so he could express his wants and needs with ease.
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Amanita helped this client improve their lisp by producing clear articulation of speech sounds like "r," "s," and more.
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Fabine helped this client use targeted strategies to reduce their stutter and build confidence talking in different settings.
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Any questions?

Communication is one of our most vital, life-long skills. Speech therapy can help children reach communication milestones appropriate for their age; clearly articulate their thoughts, feelings, and ideas; comprehend the language of others; and develop socially. It also contributes to their academic success and emotional well-being. Plus so much more!

The first step is to schedule an evaluation with a speech therapist. They’ll assess your child’s communication development and make a professional recommendation as to whether your child could benefit from speech therapy.

There is no minimum age. Communication skills begin developing in infancy. Building strong language skills in very young children can set the foundation for strong communication and literacy skills later on. Speech therapy is particularly important for children who aren’t reaching age-appropriate communication milestones, or who are experiencing difficulties such as stuttering or a lisp. Because speech and language patterns become more ingrained over time, the earlier speech errors can be corrected, the better the outcomes are likely to be.

The duration of speech therapy is different for everyone, and it depends on several factors. This includes the type of speech disorder or communication challenge, the frequency of speech therapy sessions, how often you and your child practice the skills taught in speech therapy at home, your child’s age, any underlying medical conditions, and more.

Most children love online speech therapy! Many become more attentive with online learning, and they prefer the interactivity of online exercises and communication. Plus, there are many effective strategies that speech therapists use to engage children online. Expressable’s model of care also focuses on the most important component of improving children’s speech and language skills: the involvement of their parent or caregiver. When parents are actively involved in their child’s care, that leads to faster progress. Our therapists work directly with caregivers to teach them techniques and strategies they can use in their child’s everyday life.

Speech therapy sessions are focused on each client’s care plan, and the activities done during sessions always relate to those goals. So, if a person is in speech therapy to better pronounce the /s/ sound, they’ll begin by learning how to make the sound by itself and work up to practicing it in conversation. Or if someone wants to improve the quality of their voice, their speech therapist will teach them appropriate breathing and vocal exercises. The therapist will aim to do as many trials of each exercise as possible, in order to make the most of each session.

Your speech therapist will constantly be measuring and assessing your response to these exercises. When needed, they’ll make changes to your treatment plan to help you make progress as quickly as possible. Regardless of your goals, your speech therapist will always provide practice activities to complete at home between sessions.

Expressable currently accepts many of the largest insurance companies, and we’re actively working on contracting with new plans across the country. We also offer affordable private pay options and accept HSAs/FSAs for those who do not have insurance coverage or prefer to pay out-of-pocket.

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Learn more about All topics


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  3. 6 Types of Speech Impediments

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  1. Developmental Language Disorder Test Online

    Our Developmental Language Disorder quiz helps to see if you have any traits of Developmental Language Disorder. The questions look to see if you have any difficulty dealing with common challenges faced by people with Developmental Language Disorder. Please note that the quiz is just to see if you have any traits of Developmental Language ...

  2. Speech Impediment: Definition, Causes, Types & Treatment

    Speech impediment, or speech disorder, happens when your child can't speak or can't speak so people understand what they're saying. In some cases, a speech impediment is a sign of physical or developmental differences. Left untreated, a speech impediment can make it difficult for children to learn to read and write.

  3. Speech Impediment: Types in Children and Adults

    Common causes of childhood speech impediments include: Autism spectrum disorder: A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social and interactive development. Cerebral palsy: A congenital (from birth) disorder that affects learning and control of physical movement. Hearing loss: Can affect the way children hear and imitate speech.

  4. Speech Impediment Guide: Definition, Causes & Resources

    Use of gestures — When individuals use gestures to communicate instead of words, a speech impediment may be the cause. Inappropriate pitch — This symptom is characterized by speaking with a strange pitch or volume. In children, signs might also include a lack of babbling or making limited sounds.

  5. Types of Speech Impediments

    However, some speech disorders persist. Approximately 5% of children aged three to 17 in the United States experience speech disorders. There are many different types of speech impediments, including: Disfluency. Articulation errors. Ankyloglossia. Dysarthria. Apraxia. This article explores the causes, symptoms, and treatment of the different ...

  6. Speech disorders: Types, symptoms, causes, and treatment

    Types of speech disorder include stuttering, apraxia, and dysarthria. Learn more about speech disorders here. ... SLPs use this test to examine multiple aspects of a person's speech, including ...

  7. Dysarthria

    Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder. This happens when brain or nerve damage changes the way your muscles work. It can be mild to severe. Children and adults can have dysarthria. There are many reasons people have trouble talking. Dysarthria can happen with other speech and language problems.

  8. Adult Speech and Language

    There are many reasons why you might have a speech or language problem. Some problems start in childhood. Others happen after an illness or injury. Speech-language pathologists, or SLPs, can help. To find an SLP near you, visit ProFind. Find out more about adult speech and language….

  9. Comprehensive Assessment for Disorders of Reading and Writing ...

    Observe the student as they attempt curricular activities without assistance. Identify gaps between the demands of the task and the abilities of the student. Literacy assessment. This includes basic and higher-level reading, writing, and spelling skills, listed roughly in developmental order. Reading.

  10. Do I Have Speech Impediment Quiz

    Speech impediment affects around 5% of the population in various degrees and forms. Speaking confidently is not as easy as it seems, which is why many of us might be concerned about whether or not we have speech impediment. This speech impediment quiz is mainly aimed at adults, but can also be used for children as well. Question 1: Do you ...

  11. Screening for Speech and Language Delay and Disorders in ...

    In 2007, about 2.6% of children ages 3 to 5 years received services for speech and language disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). 2 In 1 population-based study ...

  12. Speech Impediment: Definition, Causes, Types and Treatment

    1. Speech therapy. Speech therapy is a type of treatment that helps people with speech disorders improve their abilities. Speech therapists can help people with articulation disorders learn to produce sounds correctly, people with fluency disorders reduce their stuttering, and people with resonance disorders improve their vowel production. 2.

  13. How Online Speech Therapy Works

    The Benefits of Online Speech Therapy. There are a number of benefits that come from choosing online speech therapy over traditional speech therapy. These benefits include: Being Part of Something Bigger. For many people suffering from a speech impediment, it's easy to feel alone in the struggle.

  14. Speech Impediment Test for Kids

    This speech impediment test is designed for children between the ages of 2 and 10 years old. However, if you have concerns about your child's speech development at any age, it's always best to consult with your child's pediatrician or a speech-language pathologist. 3.

  15. Common Speech Impediments: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment ...

    Overall difficulty communicating and expressing thoughts and ideas. Inability to repeat words. Inability to pronounce words the same way twice. A phobia of speaking in public. Speaking slowly and carefully. Speech delay. Frequent pauses when talking. Limited vocabulary over several years, delayed language development.

  16. Auditory Processing Disorder: APD Symptom Test for Adult

    1. Take This Test: Sensory Processing Disorder in Adults 2. Read How to Treat Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) 3. Find Treatment Options in Auditory Processing Disorder: Where to Go for Help 4. Take This Test: Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Adults 5. Take This Test : Executive Function Deficits in Adults 6. Take This Test: Autism in Adults 8.

  17. Lisp: Overview, facts, symptoms, complications, & correction

    Examples of speech impediments include stuttering, cluttering, and lisping. What Is A Lisp? A lisp is an example of a functional speech disorder. It is a condition in which the person is unable to produce certain sounds necessary for speech. ... Rubella IgG Test The rubella IgG test is a blood test that checks for the rubella virus IgG ...

  18. Testing for Speech and Language Therapy

    The Test of Preschool Vocabulary (TOPV) measures a child's ability to recognize and use single words that represent all parts of speech and a variety of basic concepts, including things, events, and experiences. The words are presented in order of difficulty, progressing from familiar words and concepts to less familiar ones (wbspublish.com).

  19. Self-Assessment

    Well Said: Toronto Speech Therapy has been providing clients with evidence-based speech-language pathology and communication coaching services since 2012. Operating out of downtown Toronto, our speech therapists deliver functional programs designed exclusively for adults across three core areas: speech, social, and communication skills.

  20. Speaking test

    Free instant assessment of your spoken English abilities. • Take a free test from our versatile test bank. • Complete the test in as little as 10 minutes. • Get a free detailed report on your spoken English proficiency including pronunciation, fluency, vocabulary and grammar. • Share your report with schools, colleges and employers.

  21. Correct Your Lisp l 1-on-1 Online Speech Therapy

    Meet our super talented speech therapists. With 60+ speech therapists on our team, we'll find you the perfect match. Average 9+ years of clinical experience. Licensed and certified with a master's degree. Trained in online delivery and parent coaching. W2 employees (not contractors) Meet our Care Team. 4.9 / 5 avg.

  22. Speech assessment tool methods for speech impaired children: a

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is the most common speech disorder in children, with 1 out of 12 children diagnosed globally. Significant advancements in speech assessment tools have been reported to assist speech-language pathologists diagnosis speech impairment. ... (6-17 years), referred for a speech and oral motor test. Parents ...