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How To Write a Bibliography (Three Styles, Plus Examples)

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Writing a research paper involves a lot of work. Students need to consult a variety of sources to gather reliable information and ensure their points are well supported. Research papers include a bibliography, which can be a little tricky for students. Learn how to write a bibliography in multiple styles and find basic examples below.

IMPORTANT: Each style guide has its own very specific rules, and they often conflict with one another. Additionally, each type of reference material has many possible formats, depending on a variety of factors. The overviews shown here are meant to guide students in writing basic bibliographies, but this information is by no means complete. Students should always refer directly to the preferred style guide to ensure they’re using the most up-to-date formats and styles.

What is a bibliography?

When you’re researching a paper, you’ll likely consult a wide variety of sources. You may quote some of these directly in your work, summarize some of the points they make, or simply use them to further the knowledge you need to write your paper. Since these ideas are not your own, it’s vital to give credit to the authors who originally wrote them. This list of sources, organized alphabetically, is called a bibliography.

A bibliography should include all the materials you consulted in your research, even if you don’t quote directly from them in your paper. These resources could include (but aren’t limited to):

  • Books and e-books
  • Periodicals like magazines or newspapers
  • Online articles or websites
  • Primary source documents like letters or official records

Bibliography vs. References

These two terms are sometimes used interchangeably, but they actually have different meanings. As noted above, a bibliography includes all the materials you used while researching your paper, whether or not you quote from them or refer to them directly in your writing.

A list of references only includes the materials you cite throughout your work. You might use direct quotes or summarize the information for the reader. Either way, you must ensure you give credit to the original author or document. This section can be titled “List of Works Cited” or simply “References.”

Your teacher may specify whether you should include a bibliography or a reference list. If they don’t, consider choosing a bibliography, to show all the works you used in researching your paper. This can help the reader see that your points are well supported, and allow them to do further reading on their own if they’re interested.

Bibliography vs. Citations

Citations refer to direct quotations from a text, woven into your own writing. There are a variety of ways to write citations, including footnotes and endnotes. These are generally shorter than the entries in a reference list or bibliography. Learn more about writing citations here.

What does a bibliography entry include?

Depending on the reference material, bibliography entries include a variety of information intended to help a reader locate the material if they want to refer to it themselves. These entries are listed in alphabetical order, and may include:

  • Author/s or creator/s
  • Publication date
  • Volume and issue numbers
  • Publisher and publication city
  • Website URL

These entries don’t generally need to include specific page numbers or locations within the work (except for print magazine or journal articles). That type of information is usually only needed in a footnote or endnote citation.

What are the different bibliography styles?

In most cases, writers use one of three major style guides: APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), or The Chicago Manual of Style . There are many others as well, but these three are the most common choices for K–12 students.

Many teachers will state their preference for one style guide over another. If they don’t, you can choose your own preferred style. However, you should also use that guide for your entire paper, following their recommendations for punctuation, grammar, and more. This will ensure you are consistent throughout.

Below, you’ll learn how to write a simple bibliography using each of the three major style guides. We’ve included details for books and e-books, periodicals, and electronic sources like websites and videos. If the reference material type you need to include isn’t shown here, refer directly to the style guide you’re using.

APA Style Bibliography and Examples

APA style example of a References bibliography page

Source: Verywell Mind

Technically, APA style calls for a list of references instead of a bibliography. If your teacher requires you to use the APA style guide , you can limit your reference list only to items you cite throughout your work.

How To Write a Bibliography (References) Using APA Style

Here are some general notes on writing an APA reference list:

  • Title your bibliography section “References” and center the title on the top line of the page.
  • Do not center your references; they should be left-aligned. For longer items, subsequent lines should use a hanging indent of 1/2 inch.
  • Include all types of resources in the same list.
  • Alphabetize your list by author or creator, last name first.
  • Do not spell out the author/creator’s first or middle name; only use their initials.
  • If there are multiple authors/creators, use an ampersand (&) before the final author/creator.
  • Place the date in parentheses.
  • Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle, unless the word would otherwise be capitalized (proper names, etc.).
  • Italicize the titles of books, periodicals, or videos.
  • For websites, include the full site information, including the http:// or https:// at the beginning.

Books and E-Books APA Bibliography Examples

For books, APA reference list entries use this format (only include the publisher’s website for e-books).

Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Publication date). Title with only first word capitalized . Publisher. Publisher’s website

  • Wynn, S. (2020). City of London at war 1939–45 . Pen & Sword Military. https://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/City-of-London-at-War-193945-Paperback/p/17299

Periodical APA Bibliography Examples

For journal or magazine articles, use this format. If you viewed the article online, include the URL at the end of the citation.

Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Publication date). Title of article. Magazine or Journal Title (Volume number) Issue number, page numbers. URL

  • Bell, A. (2009). Landscapes of fear: Wartime London, 1939–1945. Journal of British Studies (48) 1, 153–175. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25482966

Here’s the format for newspapers. For print editions, include the page number/s. For online articles, include the full URL.

Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Date) Title of article. Newspaper title. Page number/s. URL

  • Blakemore, E. (2022, November 12) Researchers track down two copies of fossil destroyed by the Nazis.  The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2022/11/12/ichthyosaur-fossil-images-discovered/

Electronic APA Bibliography Examples

For articles with a specific author on a website, use this format.

Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title . Site name. URL

  • Wukovits, J. (2023, January 30). A World War II survivor recalls the London Blitz . British Heritage . https://britishheritage.com/history/world-war-ii-survivor-london-blitz

When an online article doesn’t include a specific author or date, list it like this:

Title . (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

  • Growing up in the Second World War . (n.d.). Imperial War Museums. Retrieved May 12, 2023, from https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/growing-up-in-the-second-world-war

When you need to list a YouTube video, use the name of the account that uploaded the video, and format it like this:

Name of Account. (Upload year, month day). Title [Video]. YouTube. URL

  • War Stories. (2023, January 15). How did London survive the Blitz during WW2? | Cities at war: London | War stories [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/uwY6JlCvbxc

For more information on writing APA bibliographies, see the APA Style Guide website.

APA Bibliography (Reference List) Example Pages

An APA-style Reference List bibliography example page

Source: Simply Psychology

More APA example pages:

  • Western Australia Library Services APA References Example Page
  • Ancilla College APA References Page Example
  • Scribbr APA References Page Example

MLA Style Bibliography Examples

Diagram of MLA style bibliography entries

Source: PressBooks

MLA style calls for a Works Cited section, which includes all materials quoted or referred to in your paper. You may also include a Works Consulted section, including other reference sources you reviewed but didn’t directly cite. Together, these constitute a bibliography. If your teacher requests an MLA Style Guide bibliography, ask if you should include Works Consulted as well as Works Cited.

How To Write a Bibliography (Works Cited and Works Consulted) in MLA Style

For both MLA Works Cited and Works Consulted sections, use these general guidelines:

  • Start your Works Cited list on a new page. If you include a Works Consulted list, start that on its own new page after the Works Cited section.
  • Center the title (Works Cited or Works Consulted) in the middle of the line at the top of the page.
  • Align the start of each source to the left margin, and use a hanging indent (1/2 inch) for the following lines of each source.
  • Alphabetize your sources using the first word of the citation, usually the author’s last name.
  • Include the author’s full name as listed, last name first.
  • Capitalize titles using the standard MLA format.
  • Leave off the http:// or https:// at the beginning of a URL.

Books and E-Books MLA Bibliography Examples

For books, MLA reference list entries use this format. Add the URL at the end for e-books.

Last Name, First Name Middle Name. Title . Publisher, Date. URL

  • Wynn, Stephen. City of London at War 1939–45 . Pen & Sword Military, 2020. www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/City-of-London-at-War-193945-Paperback/p/17299

Periodical MLA Bibliography Examples

Here’s the style format for magazines, journals, and newspapers. For online articles, add the URL at the end of the listing.

For magazines and journals:

Last Name, First Name. “Title: Subtitle.” Name of Journal , volume number, issue number, Date of Publication, First Page Number–Last Page Number.

  • Bell, Amy. “Landscapes of Fear: Wartime London, 1939–1945.” Journal of British Studies , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 153–175. www.jstor.org/stable/25482966

When citing newspapers, include the page number/s for print editions or the URL for online articles.

Last Name, First Name. “Title of article.” Newspaper title. Page number/s. Year, month day. Page number or URL

  • Blakemore, Erin. “Researchers Track Down Two Copies of Fossil Destroyed by the Nazis.” The Washington Post. 2022, Nov. 12. www.washingtonpost.com/science/2022/11/12/ichthyosaur-fossil-images-discovered/

Electronic MLA Bibliography Examples

Last Name, First Name. Year. “Title.” Month Day, Year published. URL

  • Wukovits, John. 2023. “A World War II Survivor Recalls the London Blitz.” January 30,   2023. https://britishheritage.com/history/world-war-ii-survivor-london-blitz

Website. n.d. “Title.” Accessed Day Month Year. URL.

  • Imperial War Museum. n.d. “Growing Up in the Second World War.” Accessed May 9, 2023. https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/growing-up-in-the-second-world-war.

Here’s how to list YouTube and other online videos.

Creator, if available. “Title of Video.” Website. Uploaded by Username, Day Month Year. URL.

  • “How did London survive the Blitz during WW2? | Cities at war: London | War stories.” YouTube . Uploaded by War Stories, 15 Jan. 2023. youtu.be/uwY6JlCvbxc.

For more information on writing MLA style bibliographies, see the MLA Style website.

MLA Bibliography (Works Cited) Example Pages

A bibliography example page with notes, written in MLA style

Source: The Visual Communication Guy

More MLA example pages:

  • Writing Commons Sample Works Cited Page
  • Scribbr MLA Works Cited Sample Page
  • Montana State University MLA Works Cited Page

Chicago Manual of Style Bibliography Examples

The Chicago Manual of Style (sometimes called “Turabian”) actually has two options for citing reference material : Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date. Regardless of which you use, you’ll need a complete detailed list of reference items at the end of your paper. The examples below demonstrate how to write that list.

How To Write a Bibliography Using The Chicago Manual of Style

A diagram of a book bibliography entry for the Chicago Manual of Style

Source: South Texas College

Here are some general notes on writing a Chicago -style bibliography:

  • You may title it “Bibliography” or “References.” Center this title at the top of the page and add two blank lines before the first entry.
  • Left-align each entry, with a hanging half-inch indent for subsequent lines of each entry.
  • Single-space each entry, with a blank line between entries.
  • Include the “http://” or “https://” at the beginning of URLs.

Books and E-Books Chicago Manual of Style Bibliography Examples

For books, Chicago -style reference list entries use this format. (For print books, leave off the information about how the book was accessed.)

Last Name, First Name Middle Name. Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Date. How e-book was accessed.

  • Wynn, Stephen. City of London at War 1939–45 . Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military, 2020. Kindle edition.

Periodical Chicago Manual of Style Bibliography Examples

For journal and magazine articles, use this format.

Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. “Title: Subtitle.” Name of Journal , Volume Number, issue number, First Page Number–Last Page Number. URL.

  • Bell, Amy. 2009. “Landscapes of Fear: Wartime London, 1939–1945.” Journal of British Studies, 48 no. 1, 153–175. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25482966.

When citing newspapers, include the URL for online articles.

Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. “Title: Subtitle.” Name of Newspaper , Month day, year. URL.

  • Blakemore, Erin. 2022. “Researchers Track Down Two Copies of Fossil Destroyed by the Nazis.” The Washington Post , November 12, 2022. https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2022/11/12/ichthyosaur-fossil-images-discovered/.

Electronic Chicago Manual of Style Bibliography Examples

Last Name, First Name Middle Name. “Title.” Site Name . Year, Month Day. URL.

  • Wukovits, John. “A World War II Survivor Recalls the London Blitz.” British Heritage. 2023, Jan. 30. britishheritage.com/history/world-war-ii-survivor-london-blitz.

“Title.” Site Name . URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

  • “Growing Up in the Second World War.” Imperial War Museums . www.iwm.org.uk/history/growing-up-in-the-second-world-war. Accessed May 9, 2023.

Creator or Username. “Title of Video.” Website video, length. Month Day, Year. URL.

  • War Stories. “How Did London Survive the Blitz During WW2? | Cities at War: London | War Stories.” YouTube video, 51:25. January 15, 2023. https://youtu.be/uwY6JlCvbxc.

For more information on writing Chicago -style bibliographies, see the Chicago Manual of Style website.

Chicago Manual of Style Bibliography Example Pages

A page showing an example of a bibliography using the Chicago Manual of Style

Source: Chicago Manual of Style

More Chicago example pages:

  • Scribbr Chicago Style Bibliography Example
  • Purdue Online Writing Lab CMOS Bibliography Page
  • Bibcitation Sample Chicago Bibliography

Now that you know how to write a bibliography, take a look at the Best Websites for Teaching & Learning Writing .

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Learn how to write a bibliography using MLA, ALA, and Chicago Manual of Style, plus see examples for each style and more.

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  • Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples

Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples

Published on 19 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.

To reference a website in Harvard style , include the name of the author or organization, the year of publication, the title of the page, the URL, and the date on which you accessed the website.

Different formats are used for other kinds of online source, such as articles, social media posts and multimedia content. You can generate accurate Harvard references for all kinds of sources with our free reference generator:

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Table of contents

Online articles, social media posts, images, videos and podcasts, referencing websites with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard website references.

Blog posts and online newspaper articles are both referenced in the same format: include the title of the article in quotation marks, the name of the blog or newspaper in italics, and the date of publication.

The format for a magazine article is slightly different. Instead of a precise date, include the month, season, or volume and issue number, depending on what the magazine uses to identify its issues.

The URL and access date information are included only when the article is online-exclusive.

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To reference posts from social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, include the username and the platform in square brackets. Write usernames the way they appear on the platform, with the same capitalization and symbols.

If the post has a title, use it (in quotation marks). If the post is untitled, use the text of the post instead. Do not use italics. If the text is long, you can replace some of it with an ellipsis.

Online content is referenced differently if it is in video, audio or image form.

To cite an image found online, such as an artwork, photograph, or infographic, include the image format (e.g. ‘Photograph’, ‘Oil on canvas’) in square brackets.

Online videos, such as those on YouTube, Instagram, Vimeo and Dailymotion, are cited similarly to general web pages. Where a video is uploaded under the name of an individual, write the name in the usual format. Otherwise, write the username of the uploader as it appears on the site.

If you want to locate a specific point in a video in an in-text citation, you can do so using a timestamp.

For a podcast reference, you just need the name of the individual episode, not of the whole series. The word ‘Podcast’ is always included in square brackets. As with videos, you can use a timestamp to locate a specific point in the in-text citation.

Online sources are often missing information you would usually need for a citation: author, title or date. Here’s what to do when these details are not available.

When a website doesn’t list a specific individual author, you can usually find a corporate author to list instead. This is the organisation responsible for the source:

In cases where there’s no suitable corporate author (such as online dictionaries or Wikis), use the title of the source in the author position instead:

In Harvard style, when a source doesn’t list a specific date of publication, replace it with the words ‘no date’ in both the in-text citation and the reference list. You should still include an access date:

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

It’s important to assess the reliability of information found online. Look for sources from established publications and institutions with expertise (e.g. peer-reviewed journals and government agencies).

The CRAAP test (currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, purpose) can aid you in assessing sources, as can our list of credible sources . You should generally avoid citing websites like Wikipedia that can be edited by anyone – instead, look for the original source of the information in the “References” section.

You can generally omit page numbers in your in-text citations of online sources which don’t have them. But when you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a particularly long online source, it’s useful to find an alternate location marker.

For text-based sources, you can use paragraph numbers (e.g. ‘para. 4’) or headings (e.g. ‘under “Methodology”’). With video or audio sources, use a timestamp (e.g. ‘10:15’).

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 15 April 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-website-reference/

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How to Write a Bibliography for Assignments

Bibliography for Assignment

Every written assignment must include a bibliography, which is just as important as the material itself. This phrase refers to a list of all the resources you used to complete a particular assignment.

These resources primarily fall under two categories:

Written down, such as in books, articles, reports, etc.

The majority of digital sources are found on the web.

Many students  find it difficult to finish the first, second, and third pages of their bibliography. Continue reading if you want to learn how to effectively compose a  Bibliography for a project  on any subject.

Every written assignment must include a bibliography, which is just as important as the material itself. This phrase refers to a list of all the resources you used to complete a particular assignment. These resources primarily fall under two categories:

The majority of digital sources are found on the web

Things to be noted while writing a Bibliography

A work's author should be credited using their full name;

Title in its entirety (for magazines, be sure to note the volume and number);

Date, location, and publication company (often, the city will suffice);

The name of the publishing house;

The page's border.

When using web sources, the following information is necessary

If there is a clear title, 

The name of the business that designed the website;

The date that you last used this source; 

Copy the URL in its entirety.

What is the Meaning of Bibliography 

A research paper may be required for several academic assignments. The chore of writing a paper for a school project can be challenging. You must keep track of the sources you utilize, whether you are writing for a college or high school audience, and cite them at the end of your paper. Your professor or you will determine the style of a reference list or bibliography you use for your academic project.

Better use end-to-end numbering when compiling a bibliographic list. Before you hit the submit button on your work, go over the basics and double-check that no sources were consulted. All sources must be cited in this manner.

Not sure about the proper order in which to list your sources? Generally, follow the accepted procedure. 

The official literature is the first to be cited in an academic publication. Therefore, the works by foreign authors ought to be removed. You should continue immediately to the native works in the other language.

The alphabet is your best buddy if one author uses a lot of sources.

Theses and term papers have no place in a bibliography. These are instructional pieces. The specific guidelines of a journal govern the sequence of links in a bibliography for academic articles. As a result, before turning in a paper, you should thoroughly research how to create a bibliography for an assignment using, for example, the MLA style.

Last but not least, remember that the bibliographic description includes crucial details about the document. Its presentation often adheres to a set of guidelines. Typically, the goal is the same: to identify and describe the document's general features in the bibliographic record.

Despite the intricacy, adhering to following general guidelines will help you succeed while creating bibliographies for your assignments. 

Understand the Bibliography Format 

You have completed your essay. Make an alphabetical list of all the books, magazines, and websites you used right now. This list is sometimes referred to as the bibliography. Get a sample of a bibliography in the MLA, APA, or Chicago styles because a bibliography example can be more persuasive than words. Then, educate yourself on the many kinds of bibliographies that are available and that you might utilize.

It can be complicated when it comes to bibliography examples. This is due to the fact that, in terms of writing styles, the word "bibliography" can have two different meanings.

A general term for all source listings in all writing styles is "bibliography." It also serves as the heading for the end citation in Chicago/Turabian. However, MLA and APA styles use reference lists rather than bibliographies in actuality. Following are the differences between each style: 

All the sources utilized to construct a piece of literature are included in the bibliography. Even if you didn't cite something in the writing itself, everything you used to create the work falls under this category. This may comprise background materials but need not be confined to them.

Only the sources that were specifically cited in the text of the essay or paper are listed in the references. These are genuine quotations and concepts that have been applied by other authors or materials.

Step-by-step Bibliography Writing

We have put together a thorough, step-by-step guide to help you better understand how to construct a bibliography for an assignment.

Choose your sources:     There aren't many things more crucial when it comes to academic tasks than sources. As a result, college students must become adept at conducting research and locating reliable sources. Here's an illustration for you. Let's say you are political science, security studies, or international relations major. On the other hand, the best strategy would be to search Scopus or Web of Science for the most reliable sources, such as the academic journals listed below: -   Security on a global scale; -   The world's affairs; -   Journal of American Political Science

Analyse Every Source:  Beyond having some seemingly excellent sources available, your primary duty while completing a bibliography goes beyond that. The task includes evaluating each and every one of them. Let's examine some typical traits of reliable sources: -   -  Find current publications, such as those that were released no earlier than 2011; -  The texts should, of course, be authored by reputable authors; -   Whenever a website is required, look for those of governmental and educational institutions; -   If you haven't already, look into the Google Scholar database as well as other academic databases.

Here are some indications that a source is not reliable for you:

Unqualified authors (those without academic degrees or institutional ties) have published texts;   avoid commercial websites to avoid blatantly biassed promotional content;

It is best to omit any texts that lack appropriate references;

Blog posts lack sufficient authority.

Examine the author's experience and credentials.

Lastly, you must be selective while choosing sources and writers if you want to create a stellar bibliography. Before adding a resource, please respond to the following questions at least twice:

Is the author authority in the subject matter of your research questions?

Are you and a certain researcher on any similar intellectual wavelengths? What school of thinking does this scientist represent?

Not everything will always function properly. However, these straightforward responses will enable you to select the appropriate writers to mention.

How to Cite Various Sources

You must follow specific guidelines while working on a variety of sources in order to create a stellar bibliography. You can learn how to cite someone for an assignment, regardless of the subject.

The bibliography item will closely mirror the one for a book if you use the one from the journal. Normally, mention the author's name and the article's title.

Name of the journal, volume, issue (sometimes, the year of publication is included), page range.

When you use evidence from one of your sources in your assignment, you will typically need to include a citation in the text of your paper (references). When you discuss or summarise an idea or piece of information in your either in your own words or a direct quote from that source.

Avoid using a lot of in-depth direct quotes. For direct quotations, even if your in-text citations are exact, these mostly indicate. You are able to point out a pertinent quotation to the reader. 

It is necessary to confirm the significance and intent of the quote after it has been used. transparent to your reader. How does the quotation help to make your point or support it?

The information you provide in your in-text reference must be sufficient for your reader to locate the complete specifics of the source of your evidence in your "List of References" (or "Bibliography").

The extent to which the information in your in-text citation will replicate the detail provided in the ‘List of References’ depends on the referencing system. Systems that use endnotes or footnotes typically provide more information about the entire source than Harvard in-text references that are enclosed in brackets. If a "brief direct quotation is given," Harvard often simply wants the author's last name and the date of publication, with page numbers provided. 

If you keep track of each book, encyclopedia, or article you use as you read and make notes, it will be simpler for you to create your final bibliography. Start a preliminary or draft bibliography by making a list of all your sources on a separate piece of paper. For each source, make a note of the whole title, author, publication location, publisher, and publication date.

List your sources (texts, articles, interviews, etc.) in alphabetical order by the last names of the writers when creating a final bibliography. Encyclopedias and movies are examples of sources without writers that should be arranged alphabetically by title. Use the format that your teacher likes if there are multiple options for bibliographies.

Final Take : 

You must include a specific list called a  bibliography for assignments  or in your essay whenever you refer to a book, magazine, or website. Even if you are only using the source to further your understanding of the subject without really quoting it, you still need to include it. You would just need to include the author's name and the source's publication date when citing the source in the text.

Additional information is required in your bibliography, where the citation about it will appear. The citation style and source type, though, would be important factors. Check out our guide if you're not familiar with the standards and the various citation formats.

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How to Write a Bibliography (MLA, APA Examples)

TeacherVision Staff

Learn how to easily write a bibliography by following the format outlined in this article.

This resource will help your students properly cite different resources in the bibliography of a research paper, and how to format those citations, for books, encyclopedias, films, websites, and people.

What is a bibliography?

According to Infoplease.com, A bibliography is a list of the types of sources you used to get information for your report. It is included at the end of your report, on the last page (or last few pages).

What are the types of bibliography styles (MLA, APA, etc.)?

The 3 most common bibliography/citation styles are:

  • MLA Style: The Modern Language Association works cited page style
  • APA Style: The American Psychological Association style
  • Chicago Style: The bibliography style defined by the Chicago Manual of Style

We’ll give examples of how to create bibliography entries in various styles further down in this article. 

What sources do you put in a bibliography?

An annotated bibliography should include a reference list of any sources you use in writing a research paper. Any printed sources from which you use a text citation, including books, websites, newspaper articles, journal articles, academic writing, online sources (such as PDFs), and magazines should be included in a reference list. In some cases, you may need or want to cite conversations or interviews, works of art, visual works such as movies, television shows, or documentaries - these (and many others) can also be included in a reference list.

How to get started writing your bibliography

You will find it easier to prepare your MLA, APA, or Chicago annotated bibliography if you keep track of each book, encyclopedia, journal article, webpage or online source you use as you are reading and taking notes. Start a preliminary, or draft, bibliography by listing on a separate sheet of paper all your sources. Note down the full title, author’s last name, place of publication, web address, publisher, and date of publication for each source.

Haven't started your paper yet and need an outline? These sample essay outlines include a research paper outline from an actual student paper.

How to write a bibliography step-by-step (with examples)

General Format: Author (last name first). Title of the book. Publisher, Date of publication.

MLA Style: Sibley, David Allen. What It’s Like to Be a Bird. From Flying to Nesting, Eating to Singing, What Birds Are Doing, and Why. Alfred A. Knopf, 2020.

APA Style: Sibley, D.A. (2020). What It’s Like to Be a Bird. From Flying to Nesting, Eating to Singing, What Birds Are Doing, and Why . Alfred A. Knopf.

Notes: Use periods, not commas, to separate the data in the entry. Use a hanging indent if the entry is longer than one line. For APA style, do not use the full author’s first name.

Websites or webpages:

  MLA Style: The SB Nation Family of Sites. Pension Plan Puppets: A Toronto Maple Leafs Blog, 2022, www.pensionplanpuppets.com. Accessed 15 Feb. 2022.

APA Style: American Heart Association. (2022, April 11). How to keep your dog’s heart healthy. https://www.heart.org/en/news/2022/04/11/how-to-keep-your-dogs-heart-healthy

Online news article from a newspaper site:

APA Style: Duehren, A. (2022, April 9). Janet Yellen faces challenge to keep pressure on Russia. Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/janet-yellen-faces-challenge-to-keep-pressure-on-russia-while-addressing-global-consequences-11650366000

Print journal articles:

MLA Style: Booch, Grady. "Patterns in Object-Oriented Design." IEEE Software Engineering, vol. 6, no. 6, 2006, pp. 31-50.

APA Style: Booch, G. (2006). Patterns in object-oriented design. IEEE Software Engineering, 6(6), 31–50.

Note: It is suggested that you include a DOI and a webpage address when referencing either a printed journal article, and electronic journal article, or an journal article that appears in both formats. 

MLA Style: Gamma, Eric, and Peter A. Coad. “Exceptions to the Unified Modeling Language in Python Patterns.” IEEE Software Engineering, vol. 2, no. 6, 8 Mar. 2006, pp. 190-194. O’Reilly Software Engineering Library, https://doi.org/10.1006/se.20061. Accessed 26 May 2009.

APA Style: Masters, H., Barron, J., & Chanda, L. (2017). Motivational interviewing techniques for adolescent populations in substance abuse counseling. NAADAC Notes, 7(8), 7–13. https://www.naadac.com/notes/adolescent-techniques

ML:A Style: @Grady_Booch. “That’s a bold leap over plain old battery power cars.” Twitter, 13 Mar. 2013, 12:06 p.m., https://twitter.com/Grady_Booch/status/1516379006727188483.

APA Style: Westborough Library [@WestboroughLib]. (2022, April 12). Calling all 3rd through 5th grade kids! Join us for the Epic Writing Showdown! Winner receives a prize! Space is limited so register, today. loom.ly/ypaTG9Q [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/WestboroughLib/status/1516373550415896588.

Print magazine articles:

General format: Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name of magazine. Volume number, (Date): page numbers.

MLA Style: Stiteler, Sharon. "Tracking Red-Breasted Grosbeak Migration." Minnesota Bird Journal, 7 Sept. 2019, pp. 7-11.

APA Style: Jordan, Jennifer, "Filming at the Top of the World." Museum of Science Magazine. Volume 47, No. 1, (Winter 1998): p. 11.

Print newspaper articles:

General format: Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name of newspaper, city, state of publication. (date): edition if available, section, page number(s).

MLA Style: Adelman, Martin. "Augustus Announces Departure from City Manager Post." New York Times, late ed., 15 February 2020, p. A1

APA Style: Adelman, M. (2020, February 15). Augustus announced departure from city manager post. New York Times, A1.

Encyclopedias:

General Format: Encyclopedia Title, Edition Date. Volume Number, "Article Title," page numbers.

MLA Style: “Gorillas.” The Encyclopedia Brittanica. 15th ed. 2010.

APA Style: Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc. (1997.) Gorillas. In The Encyclopedia Brittanica (15th ed., pp. 50-51). Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc.

Personal interviews:

General format: Full name (last name first). Personal Interview. (Occupation.) Date of interview.

MLA Style: Smithfield, Joseph. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.

APA Style: APA does not require a formal citation for a personal interview. Published interviews from other sources should be cited accordingly.

Films and movies:

General format: Title, Director, Distributor, Year.

MLA Style: Fury. Directed by David Ayer, performances by Brad Pitt, Shia LaBeouf, Jon Bernthal, Sony Pictures, 2014.

APA Style: Ayer, D. (Director). (2014). Fury [Film]. Sony Pictures.

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How to Write a Bibliography in APA Format

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

how to write bibliography for assignment website

Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

how to write bibliography for assignment website

  • APA Bibliography
  • How to Create One
  • Why You Need It

Sample Bibliography

An APA format bibliography lists all of the sources that might be used in a paper. A bibliography can be a great tool to help you keep track of information during the research and writing process. In some cases, your instructor may require you to include a bibliography as part of your assignment.

At a Glance

A well-written APA format bibliography can help you keep track of information and sources as you research and write your psychology paper. To create a bibliography, gather up all of the sources that you might use in your paper. Create an APA format reference for each source and then write a brief annotation. Your annotation should be a brief summary of what each reference is about. You can quickly refer to these annotations When writing your paper and determine which to include.

What Is an APA Format Bibliography?

An APA format bibliography is an alphabetical listing of all sources that might be used to write an academic paper, essay, article, or research paper—particularly work that is covering psychology or psychology-related topics. APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association (APA). This format is used by many psychology professors, students, and researchers.

Even if it is not a required part of your assignment, writing a bibliography can help you keep track of your sources and make it much easier to create your final reference page in proper APA format.

Creating an APA Bibliography

A bibliography is similar in many ways to a reference section , but there are some important differences. While a reference section includes every source that was actually used in your paper, a bibliography may include sources that you considered using but may have dismissed because they were irrelevant or outdated.

Bibliographies can be a great way to keep track of information you might want to use in your paper and to organize the information that you find in different sources. The following are four steps you can follow to create your APA format bibliography.

Start on a New Page

Your working bibliography should be kept separate from the rest of your paper. Start it on a new page, with the title "Bibliography" centered at the top and in bold text. Some people use the title "References" instead, so it's best to check with your professor or instructor about which they prefer you to use.

Gather Your Sources

Compile all the sources you might possibly use in your paper. While you might not use all of these sources in your paper, having a complete list will make it easier later on when you prepare your reference section.

Gathering your sources can be particularly helpful when outlining and writing your paper.

By quickly glancing through your working bibliography, you will be able to get a better idea of which sources will be the most appropriate to support your thesis and main points.

Reference Each Source

Your references should be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name, and they should be double-spaced. The first line of each reference should be flush left, while each additional line of a single reference should be a few spaces to the right of the left margin, which is known as a hanging indent.

The format of each source is as follows for academic journals:

  • Last name of first author (followed by their first initial)
  • The year the source was published in parentheses
  • The title of the source
  • The journal that published the source (in italics)
  • The volume number, if applicable (in italics)
  • The issue number, if applicable
  • Page numbers (in parentheses)
  • The URL or "doi" in lowercase letters followed by a colon and the doi number, if applicable

The following examples are scholarly articles in academic journals, cited in APA format:

  • Kulacaoglu, F., & Kose, S. (2018). Borderline personality disorder (BPD): In the midst of vulnerability, chaos, and awe.  Brain sciences ,  8 (11), 201. doi:10.3390/brainsci8110201
  • Cattane, N., Rossi, R., & Lanfredi, M. (2017). Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: exploring the affected biological systems and mechanisms.  BMC Psychiatry,   18 (221). doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1383-2

Visit the American Psychological Association's website for more information on citing other types of sources including online media, audiovisual media, and more.

Create an Annotation for Each Source

Normally a bibliography contains only references' information, but in some cases you might decide to create an annotated bibliography. An annotation is a summary or evaluation of the source.

An annotation is a brief description of approximately 150 words describing the information in the source, your evaluation of its credibility, and how it pertains to your topic. Writing one of these for each piece of research will make your writing process faster and easier.

This step helpful in determining which sources to ultimately use in your paper. Your instructor may also require it as part of the assignment so they can assess your thought process and understanding of your topic.

Reasons to Write a Bibliography

One of the biggest reasons to create an APA format bibliography is simply to make the research and writing process easier.

If you do not have a comprehensive list of all of your references, you might find yourself scrambling to figure out where you found certain bits of information that you included in your paper.

A bibliography is also an important tool that your readers can use to access your sources.

While writing an annotated bibliography might not be required for your assignment, it can be a very useful step. The process of writing an annotation helps you learn more about your topic, develop a deeper understanding of the subject, and become better at evaluating various sources of information.

The following is an example of an APA format bibliography by the website EasyBib:

There are many online resources that demonstrate different formats of bibliographies, including the American Psychological Association website . Purdue University's Online Writing Lab also has examples of formatting an APA format bibliography.

Check out this video on their YouTube channel which provides detailed instructions on formatting an APA style bibliography in Microsoft Word.

You can check out the Purdue site for more information on writing an annotated APA bibliography as well.

What This Means For You

If you are taking a psychology class, you may be asked to create a bibliography as part of the research paper writing process. Even if your instructor does not expressly require a bibliography, creating one can be a helpful way to help structure your research and make the writing process more manageable.

For psychology majors , it can be helpful to save any bibliographies you have written throughout your studies so that you can refer back to them later when studying for exams or writing papers for other psychology courses.

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . 7th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2020.

Masic I. The importance of proper citation of references in biomedical articles.   Acta Inform Med . 2013;21(3):148–155. doi:10.5455/aim.2013.21.148-155

American Psychological Association. How do you format a bibliography in APA Style?

Cornell University Library. How to prepare an annotated bibliography: The annotated bibliography .

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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How to Write a Bibliography

Last Updated: March 12, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Diane Stubbs . Diane Stubbs is a Secondary English Teacher with over 22 years of experience teaching all high school grade levels and AP courses. She specializes in secondary education, classroom management, and educational technology. Diane earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Delaware and a Master of Education from Wesley College. There are 14 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 656,386 times.

When you write a paper or a book, it's important to include a bibliography. A bibliography tells your reader what sources you've used. It lists all the books, articles, and other references you cited in or used to inform your work. Bibliographies are typically formatted according to one of three styles: American Psychological Association (APA) for scientific papers, Modern Language Association (MLA) for humanities papers, and Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) for the social sciences. Make sure you always check with your superior - whether a professor or boss - about which style they prefer.

Sample Bibliographies

how to write bibliography for assignment website

Writing an APA Bibliography

Step 1 Create a reference list.

  • For example, if the author's name for a source is "John Adams Smith," you would list him as "Smith, J.A.," before listing the title of his piece.

Step 3 Use ellipses if there are more than seven authors.

  • For example, if one source has twelve authors, and the seventh author is "Smith, J.A." and the twelfth is "Timothy, S.J.," you would list the first six authors, then write "Smith, J.A. ...Timothy, S.J."

Step 4 List sources by the same author is chronological order.

  • For example, if you have a World Health Organization Report without an author as one of your sources, you would write, "World Health Organization, "Report on Development Strategies in Developing Nations," July 1996."

Step 6 Indent each line after the first line of each source.

  • For example, an article citation might look like this: Jensen, O. E. (2012). "African Elephants." Savannah Quarterly , 2(1), 88.
  • If the periodical the article comes from always begins with page number 1 (these types of periodicals are called “paginated by issue” periodicals, you should include the full page range of the article.
  • If the article was retrieved online, end the citation with the words "Retrieved from" followed by the web address.

Step 8 Cite books.

  • Example: Worden, B. L. (1999). Echoing Eden. New York, New York: One Two Press.
  • If the title is more than one word long and doesn’t contain any proper nouns, only the first word should be capitalized. Only the first letter of any subtitle should be capitalized as well.

Step 9 [8]...

  • For example, a cited website might look like this: Quarry, R. R. (May 23, 2010). Wild Skies. Retrieved from https://wildskies.com.
  • If no author is available, just start with the title. If no date is available, write "n.d."

Step 10 Check a reliable source for other citation rules.

Writing a MLA Bibliography

Step 1 Create a works cited page.

  • You shouldn’t use an author’s title or degrees when listing their names in your bibliography. This is true even if they are listed that way on the source.

Step 6 Cite books.

  • For example, a book citation might look like this: Butler, Olivia. Parable of the Flower. Sacramento: Seed Press, 1996.

Step 7 Cite articles.

  • For example, an article published in a scholarly journal might look like this: Green, Marsha. "Life in Costa Rica." Science Magazine vol. 1, no. 4, Mar 2013: 1-2.
  • If you’re citing an article in a newspaper, you only need the name of the newspaper, followed by the date it was published, and the page number. A citation for that might look like this: Smith, Jennifer. “Tiny Tim Wins Award.” New York Times, 24 Dec 2017, p. A7.

Step 8 Cite websites.

  • For example, a website citation might look like this: Jong, June. "How to Write an Essay." Writing Portal. 2 Aug. 2012. University of California. 23 Feb. 2013. <https://writingportal.com>
  • Some websites, particularly academic ones, will have what’s called a DOI (digital object identifier). Write “doi:” in front of this number in place of the website’s url if a DOI is available.

Step 9 Use reliable sources to look for the citations rules for other types of sources.

Writing a CMS Bibliography

Step 1 Create a bibliography page.

  • Example: Skylar Marsh. "Walking on Water." Earth Magazine 4(2001): 23.

Step 6 Cite books.

  • For example, a book entry might look like this: Walter White. Space and Time . New York: London Press, 1982

Step 7 Cite websites.

  • Example: University of California. "History of University of California." Last modified April 3, 2013. https://universityofcalifornia.com.
  • Unless there is a publication date for the website you’re citing, you don’t need to include an access date. If you do have an access date, it goes at the end of the citation.

Expert Q&A

Diane Stubbs

  • Ask your teacher or professor which style they prefer you to use in your paper. Thanks Helpful 6 Not Helpful 2
  • Be sure to include each and every source you reference in your work. Thanks Helpful 7 Not Helpful 5
  • When writing a bibliography or a reference page, it really comes down to looking at an example and applying it to your own information. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

how to write bibliography for assignment website

You Might Also Like

Write an APA Style References Page

  • ↑ https://libguides.reading.ac.uk/citing-references/compilingbibliography
  • ↑ https://morningside.libguides.com/APA7/references
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
  • ↑ Cite articles
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/08/
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/
  • ↑ https://www.scribbr.com/mla/works-cited/
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/05/
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_works_cited_page_basic_format.html
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/06/
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/07/
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/03/
  • ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/05/

About This Article

Diane Stubbs

To create an APA bibliography, title a separate page at the end of your paper "References." Then, use the authors' last names to organize your list alphabetically, for example by writing the author John Adam Smith as "Smith, J. A." If a source has more than 7 authors, list the first 7 before adding an ellipses. To cite an article, include the author's name, year of publication, article title, publication title, and page numbers. When citing a book, begin with the author's name, then the date of publication, title in Italics, location of the publisher, and publisher's name. For tips on how to write an MLA or CMS bibliography, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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  • Bibliography

If you are using Chicago style footnotes or endnotes, you should include a bibliography at the end of your paper that provides complete citation information for all of the sources you cite in your paper. Bibliography entries are formatted differently from notes. For bibliography entries, you list the sources alphabetically by last name, so you will list the last name of the author or creator first in each entry. You should single-space within a bibliography entry and double-space between them. When an entry goes longer than one line, use a hanging indent of .5 inches for subsequent lines. Here’s a link to a sample bibliography that shows layout and spacing . You can find a sample of note format here .

Complete note vs. shortened note

Here’s an example of a complete note and a shortened version of a note for a book:

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 27-35.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated , 27-35.

Note vs. Bibliography entry

The bibliography entry that corresponds with each note is very similar to the longer version of the note, except that the author’s last and first name are reversed in the bibliography entry. To see differences between note and bibliography entries for different types of sources, check this section of the Chicago Manual of Style .

For Liquidated , the bibliography entry would look like this:

Ho, Karen, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.

Citing a source with two or three authors

If you are citing a source with two or three authors, list their names in your note in the order they appear in the original source. In the bibliography, invert only the name of the first author and use “and” before the last named author.

1. Melissa Borja and Jacob Gibson, “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees,” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 17, no. 3 (2019): 80-81, https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1643983 .

Shortened note:

1. Borja and Gibson, “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics,” 80-81.

Bibliography:

Borja, Melissa, and Jacob Gibson. “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 17. no. 3 (2019): 80–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1643983 .

Citing a source with more than three authors

If you are citing a source with more than three authors, include all of them in the bibliography, but only include the first one in the note, followed by et al. ( et al. is the shortened form of the Latin et alia , which means “and others”).

1. Justine M. Nagurney, et al., “Risk Factors for Disability After Emergency Department Discharge in Older Adults,” Academic Emergency Medicine 27, no. 12 (2020): 1271.

Short version of note:

1. Justine M. Nagurney, et al., “Risk Factors for Disability,” 1271.

Nagurney, Justine M., Ling Han, Linda Leo‐Summers, Heather G. Allore, Thomas M. Gill, and Ula Hwang. “Risk Factors for Disability After Emergency Department Discharge in Older Adults.” Academic Emergency Medicine 27, no. 12 (2020): 1270–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.14088 .

Citing a book consulted online

If you are citing a book you consulted online, you should include a URL, DOI, or the name of the database where you found the book.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 27-35, https://doi-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1215/9780822391371 .

Bibliography entry:

Ho, Karen. Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. https://doi-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1215/9780822391371 .

Citing an e-book consulted outside of a database

If you are citing an e-book that you accessed outside of a database, you should indicate the format. If you read the book in a format without fixed page numbers (like Kindle, for example), you should not include the page numbers that you saw as you read. Instead, include chapter or section numbers, if possible.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), chap. 2, Kindle.

Ho, Karen. Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. Kindle.

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How to Write a Bibliography: Referencing Styles Explained

  • Distance Learning

Published: 13 July 2021

Author: Greg Robson

If you aren't familiar with writing bibliographies as part of your assignments, it can feel pretty confusing. Often, bibliographies are an afterthought or something left to the last minute. However, if you collect the information as you study, bibliographies can be a hassle-free part of your project. … Read More

Continue reading (2 minutes)...

If you aren't familiar with writing bibliographies as part of your assignments, it can feel pretty confusing. Often, bibliographies are an afterthought or something left to the last minute. However, if you collect the information as you study, bibliographies can be a hassle-free part of your project.  

In this guide, we explain exactly what a bibliography is, the different referencing styles and where to find the necessary information.  

What is a bibliography? 

A bibliography is the list of sources you used to build your assignment. You should include anything you actively referenced in your work and anything you read as part of your project's research and learning phase, even if you don't explicitly cite them within your project.    

What are primary and secondary sources? 

Your course teacher may request you order your bibliography using primary and secondary sources. This is much more simple than it sounds.   

A primary source refers to works created by people directly connected with the topic you are writing about. For example, if you are discussing a  psychological study , a primary source would be a psychologist who was actively involved in the study.  

On the other hand, secondary sources refer to any authors that discuss the topic you are studying but have no direct association.   

writing a bibliography

What should you include in a bibliography? 

We recommend compiling your bibliography as you study. Whether or not you directly reference sources, if you use them as part of your studies, they should be included. By collecting this information and building your bibliography as you go, you’ll find it far less stressful and one less thing to worry about.    

Information required for referencing printed sources: 

  • The name of the author.  
  • The title of the publication or article.  
  • The date of publication.  
  • The page number in the book where the citation can be found.  
  • The name of the publishing company.  
  • If you’re referencing a magazine or printed encyclopedia, record the volume number.  

Information required for referencing web sources: 

  • The name of the author or editor.  
  • The title of the webpage.  
  • The company that created the webpage.  
  • The URL of the piece.  
  • The last date you visited the webpage.  

Where to find this information 

The information you need to include in your bibliography will be located in different places, which can be pretty frustrating, particularly if you’ve left your referencing to the last minute. However, there are a few specific places where this information is likely to be found:  

  • The contents page (for magazine or journal articles).  
  • The first, second or editorial page (for newspapers).  
  • The header or footer of the webpage.  
  • The contact, or about, page of the website.  

writing a bibliography

What are the different bibliography styles?  

In addition to structuring your bibliography correctly, depending on whether your source is a book, magazine, newspaper or webpage, you need to find out what bibliographic style is required.  

  Different course tutors will ask for a specific referencing style. This means that you simply present your source information in a different order.   

There are four main styles that you might be asked to follow: MLA, APA, Harvard or MHRA, and the chosen style will change your reference order:    

MRL reference order 

  • Full name of the author (last name first).  
  • The title of the book.  
  • Publication place.  
  • The name of the book publisher.  
  • The publication date.  

APA/Harvard reference order  

  • If using Harvard referencing, title your bibliography as ‘References’.  
  • Author’s last name.  
  • Author's first initial.  
  • The publication date (in brackets).  
  • The book title.  
  • The publication place.  

MHRA reference order  

  • Author’s first and last name  
  • The title of the book  
  • The publication date  

Points three to five should all be included in the same bracket.  

writing a bibliography

How to write a bibliography 

Whatever the style needed for your bibliography, there are some simple rules to follow for success:  

  • Collect citation information as you go.  
  • All citations must be listed alphabetically using the author's last name (if using the MHRA style, use the author’s first name).  
  • If you can’t source the author's name, alphabetise using the book or article title.   
  • If there are multiple authors of an article or book, alphabetise by the first author.  
  • Consistency is key. All the information must be listed in exactly the same way.  
  • Each source should begin on a new line.   
  • Bibliographies should be placed at the end of your assignment.

If you’re unsure about constructing your bibliography, get in touch with your  tutor , who will be able to help.  

We hope this handy guide clears up any confusion you have about referencing styles. If you’re looking to level up your learning, our experienced learning advisers are here to help. For more information,  browse our complete range of courses  or give us a call on 0121 630 3000.  

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography - APA Style (7th Edition)

What is an annotation, how is an annotation different from an abstract, what is an annotated bibliography, types of annotated bibliographies, descriptive or informative, analytical or critical, to get started.

An annotation is more than just a brief summary of an article, book, website, or other type of publication. An annotation should give enough information to make a reader decide whether to read the complete work. In other words, if the reader were exploring the same topic as you, is this material useful and if so, why?

While an abstract also summarizes an article, book, website, or other type of publication, it is purely descriptive. Although annotations can be descriptive, they also include distinctive features about an item. Annotations can be evaluative and critical as we will see when we look at the two major types of annotations.

An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (like a reference list). It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation, usually 100–200 words in length.

Depending on the assignment, an annotated bibliography might have different purposes:

  • Provide a literature review on a particular subject
  • Help to formulate a thesis on a subject
  • Demonstrate the research you have performed on a particular subject
  • Provide examples of major sources of information available on a topic
  • Describe items that other researchers may find of interest on a topic

There are two major types of annotated bibliographies:

A descriptive or informative annotated bibliography describes or summarizes a source as does an abstract; it describes why the source is useful for researching a particular topic or question and its distinctive features. In addition, it describes the author's main arguments and conclusions without evaluating what the author says or concludes.

For example:

McKinnon, A. (2019). Lessons learned in year one of business.  Journal of Legal Nurse Consulting ,  30 (4), 26–28. This article describes some of the difficulties many nurses experience when transitioning from nursing to a legal nurse consulting business. Pointing out issues of work-life balance, as well as the differences of working for someone else versus working for yourself, the author offers their personal experience as a learning tool. The process of becoming an entrepreneur is not often discussed in relation to nursing, and rarely delves into only the first year of starting a new business. Time management, maintaining an existing job, decision-making, and knowing yourself in order to market yourself are discussed with some detail. The author goes on to describe how important both the nursing professional community will be to a new business, and the importance of mentorship as both the mentee and mentor in individual success that can be found through professional connections. The article’s focus on practical advice for nurses seeking to start their own business does not detract from the advice about universal struggles of entrepreneurship makes this an article of interest to a wide-ranging audience.

An analytical or critical annotation not only summarizes the material, it analyzes what is being said. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of what is presented as well as describing the applicability of the author's conclusions to the research being conducted.

Analytical or critical annotations will most likely be required when writing for a college-level course.

McKinnon, A. (2019). Lessons learned in year one of business.  Journal of Legal Nurse Consulting ,  30 (4), 26–28. This article describes some of the difficulty many nurses experience when transitioning from nursing to a nurse consulting business. While the article focuses on issues of work-life balance, the differences of working for someone else versus working for yourself, marketing, and other business issues the author’s offer of only their personal experience is brief with few or no alternative solutions provided. There is no mention throughout the article of making use of other research about starting a new business and being successful. While relying on the anecdotal advice for their list of issues, the author does reference other business resources such as the Small Business Administration to help with business planning and professional organizations that can help with mentorships. The article is a good resource for those wanting to start their own legal nurse consulting business, a good first advice article even. However, entrepreneurs should also use more business research studies focused on starting a new business, with strategies against known or expected pitfalls and issues new businesses face, and for help on topics the author did not touch in this abbreviated list of lessons learned.

Now you are ready to begin writing your own annotated bibliography.

  • Choose your sources - Before writing your annotated bibliography, you must choose your sources. This involves doing research much like for any other project. Locate records to materials that may apply to your topic.
  • Review the items - Then review the actual items and choose those that provide a wide variety of perspectives on your topic. Article abstracts are helpful in this process.
  • The purpose of the work
  • A summary of its content
  • Information about the author(s)
  • For what type of audience the work is written
  • Its relevance to the topic
  • Any special or unique features about the material
  • Research methodology
  • The strengths, weaknesses or biases in the material

Annotated bibliographies may be arranged alphabetically or chronologically, check with your instructor to see what he or she prefers.

Please see the  APA Examples page  for more information on citing in APA style.

  • Last Updated: Aug 8, 2023 11:27 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.umgc.edu/annotated-bibliography-apa

How to Write Bibliography for Assignment: Tips on Working with Your Sources

The most tedious and time-consuming part of any school or college written assignment is the bibliography. Sometimes, it can even be challenging! For example, if you’re confused by the variety of citation styles. This is probably when the most students wonder “Is there someone who could complete my assignment ?” That is why Custom-Writing experts prepared a brief guide about creating a perfect bibliography for a project. Some tips regarding the formatting are also included!

Our specialists will write a custom essay specially for you!

A bibliography is a list of all of the sources used in your project: books, magazines, and web pages.

First of all, you shouldn’t be worried about how to write this dreadful part of your assignment. A bibliography is just a list of all the sources, such as books and articles, that you have used for creating your project. No matter how short your writing task is, you will most likely need to add a list of references.

📍 What Is a Bibliography?

  • 👣 Writing Steps
  • 📑 Referring to Different Sources

🔨 Reference Generators

🔗 references.

Every time you use a book, magazine, or a webpage for your essay , you need to mention it in a special list called a bibliography. Even if you are not quoting the source but just using it for the general understanding of the topic, you should still include it there. For citing the source in the text , you would only need to write the author’s name and the publication date. Then, the reference about it goes into your bibliography, and that’s where extra information is needed. However, it would depend on the type of source and the citation style. In case you’re not familiar with the variety of the citation styles and the requirements, have a look at our guide , which can save you some time!

Most of the time, your teacher would request to collect at least three printed sources, so try not to rely on the Internet solely.

👣 How to Write a Bibliography Step by Step

Now you know what a bibliography is. It is time to learn how to write it! We assure you: there is nothing complicated. Follow the steps below.

Select the Sources

The first thing you need to do is find the proper sources for your research assignment. When selecting the sources, you should consider the questions below.

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Evaluate Each Source

The next step in writing a bibliography is a brief assessment of each source’s importance.

In case you need a bibliography as part of an assignment, you should identify the reason why and the way how you want to use the source. If you’re assigned to write an annotated bibliography as an independent project, examine the source’s contribution to the research area.

By the way, you may want to use the following questions for sources assessment.

Assess the Author’s Background and Credentials

When writing a bibliography for a project, you may need to examine the author’s credentials and experience. Here are some questions to help you.

Write a Summary for Each Source

Look through the following questions that will guide you. And don’t forget to search for the summarizing paragraphs. You may find them at the beginning or conclusion of each section. If there is none or you aren’t satisfied with its contents, you can take the role of a summary typer yourself and create your own custom summary.

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Make a Proper Bibliography

Well, you’re almost there. You’ve evaluated your sources, took short notes, wrote an outline for each reference.

Use your notes and write your bibliography. How?

📑 How to Refer to Different Sources

You will have to use different writing patterns for different sources. Check these guidelines for bibliography writing:

  • Book with one author: Author’s last name, first name. Title of the book. City: Publisher, Date of Publication.

Jones, Edward. The Toy. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • Book with two authors: Author’s last name, first name, and second author’s full name. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Jones, Edward and Amelia Smith. Strangers. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • Book without an author: Title of the book. City: Publisher, Date of Publication.

Old Lake. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • Article in a book without an author: Name of the article. Title of the book. City: Publisher, Date of Publication.

Swans. Flora and Fauna. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • Book with an editor: Editor’s last name, first name, ed. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Jones, Edward. 100 Recipes for You. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • Short story or chapter of a book: Author’s last name, first name. “Title.” Title of the book that the source comes from. Editor (ed.) of the book’s full name. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication. Pages of the source.

Jones, Edward. “Learning to communicate.” The Toy. Ed. Helen Stevenson. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • Encyclopedia article with an author/a signed article: Author’s last name, first name. “Title”. Encyclopedia Title. Volume Number. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Jones, Edward. “The Wild Swans.” World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 13. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • Encyclopedia article without an author/an unsigned article: “Title”. Encyclopedia Title. Volume number. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

“The Wild Swans.” World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 13. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • Journal article: Author’s last name, first name “Article Title.” Name volume number:issue number (year of publication): page numbers.

Jones, Edward, “The Wild Swans.” Flora and Fauna 15:1, (2007): 8-11.

  • Magazine article: Author’s last name, first name. “Article title.” Magazine title date of publication: page numbers.

Jones, Edward. “Never been kissed” Us Sept 23, 2002: 221-2.

  • Newspaper article: Author’s last name, first name. “Article title.” Newspaper title [city of publication, if not in title] date of publication, edition if necessary: section if necessary: page numbers.

Jones, Edward. “Handbags are Health Hazard.” Daily News [New York] Oct 31 2002: 26.

  • Interview: Full name (last name first). Occupation. Date of interview.

Jones, Edward. Writer. February 10, 2006.

  • Film: Title, Director, Distributor, Year.

Titanic, Dir. James Cameron, 20th Century Fox, 1998

  • Email message: Author of message, (Date). Subject of message. Electronic conference or bulletin board (Online). Available email: LISTSERV@ email address.

Edward Jones, (May 23, 2006). New Winners. Teen Booklist (Online). Edward [email protected]

  • Web page: URL (Uniform Resource Locator or WWW address). Author (or item’s name, if mentioned), date.

(Boston Globe’s www address) https://www.boston.com/. Today’s News, May 23, 2006.

Nobody wants to do routine work. So you may want to use a citation builder for your assignment. Try one of the source-generating apps or websites below!

By the way,

Get an originally-written paper according to your instructions!

Have you checked our citation guidelines already?

✏️ Bibliography FAQ

A preliminary bibliography is basically the draft of all the sources you think might help your research. You create it when you are still not too familiar with the topic and scanning all the sources available. It’s not the final version of your bibliography since you might find some of the books not as useful as you thought and never use them.

A bibliography card is used to make the process of gathering and categorizing the sources easier. It’s a small piece of paper the size of a standard sticky note. You would take a new one every time you find a useful source. There you need to mention all the information for later referencing. On the back, you can write a brief summary.

Writing a bibliography for a science project is usually no different from creating one for other assignments. It’s a list of the sources the student uses for completing their task. Every source mentioned in the bibliography needs to have some specific publication information as well.

First of all, you need to make sure that your bibliography follows the citation style you are required to use. Otherwise, it will not be alphabetized correctly. Then, if you’re using the MS word program or a similar one, it’s easy to alphabetize your list by choosing the option “Sort.”

  • Bibliography Definition by Cambridge English Dictionary
  • American Psychological Association Style
  • The Chicago Manual of Style Online
  • Information on DOI (digital object identifier)
  • Free DOI Lookup at Crossref
  • Writing a Bibliography as a Part of Research Paper
  • Evaluating Bibliographic Citations // Purdue Writing Lab
  • The Annotated Bibliography – Cornell
  • Bibliography – National Library of Medicine – NIH
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Writing a bibliography, bibliography assignment by qualified online assignment expert at assignment studio.

Whether it’s a research paper, formal essay or dissertation , bibliography is the most important aspect and holds weight in the marking grade. The beginners aren’t familiarize with bibliography term and format; and often end up searching “what is a bibliography” and “How to write bibliography”. Not bothered to learn or incorporating bibliographies in paper, is a clear direction to acknowledgement-refusal which may affect the work on ground of ethics. Therefore, it is important to either learn how to do it, and in case if students doesn’t have sufficient time for it, then must avail bibliography assignment help from qualified online assignment expert at Assignment Studio to avoid poor consequences of plagiarism. Students often use the term reference and bibliography interchangeably where there is a huge difference between them.

References: Generally, a reference list comprises of sources which have been cited (in-text) in the paper. 

Bibliogprahy : It is a list of all the sources which is been used about the topic including where those are cited in the paper or not.

referencing

The writers have got a solution for this problem with their detailed bibliography example. It allows you develop understanding of what it is, when to and how to use. The bibliography format differs according to the style; that’s the reason it is good to check at first, what the assignment requires. Bibliographies are the cited work, and include the bibliographic information (such as the author name, title, publication date, publisher etc). 

What is a bibliography?

Writing bibliography is easy and doesn’t take time if you are well-versed with the format for every source. Basically, it is an alphabetized list of all the sources used in the paper. This includes both the sources which is cited (in-text) or is referred in the paper, also the work or ideas that one come across while researching or preparing the content. These lists are referenced to create a book, academic paper, an essay or a critique, a journal article and commonly include the author name, publication date and title. It varies depending on the format or style; such as Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), Harvard, and Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).  

Bibliography

  • How to Write a Bibliography for your Assignment

Bibliography is a list of comprehensive writings considered by an author in composing specific work. It indicates to what is cited in work or sources which were considered for research and preparation but not cited in the paper. It varies according to the source type, but all of it commonly includes authors’ name, date and year of publication and its title.

The formats vary for Harvard, APA, MLA, Chicago and other, but general entry for the source of writing; a periodical or journals, in a bibliography holds the following information:

  • Publication year
  • Article title
  • Journal title

General entry for the source of writing; a book, in a bibliography holds the following information:

  • Author name

Bibliography styles: APA, Harvard and other

Bibliography has different formats, that slightly varies on the presented order and information which is included.  Make sure to check exactly the format requirements which are specified in the assignment guideline and follow reference guide the university provides. An example of Harvard style bibliography using various sources is mentioned below:

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  • Book (one author)

Chris (2012) suggest…..

Mixed method is appropriate for the study of… (Chris 2012).

In bibliography:

Author (surname), Initial., (year). Title . Edition. Publication Place: Publisher.

Chris, P., (2012).  Mixed Research Method Design.  6th ed. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.

  • Book (more than one author – two or three)

Wen and Sho (2018) endorse that..

Global Warming effects human as well as animals…. (David & Wallace 2017).

Author (surname), Initial. And Author (surname), Initial.,(year). Title . Edition. Publication Place: Publisher.

Wen, P. N. and Sho, E., (2018).  Modern environmental theory.  7th ed. Saddle River: Oxford University Press.

  • Journal article (print)

David (2002) claims…..

Conflict on social matter can be expected (David 2002).

Author (surname), Initial., (year). Article Title . Journal Title. Volume -must be bold(issue), range of pages.

David, R., (2002). Conflict between Pakistan and India due to Kashmir Dispute. Journal of Social Science.  35(4), 345-467.  

  • Journal article (having a DOI)

Chen (2005) classifies that monochromatic culture …..

The monochromatic culture depicts (Chen 2008).

Author (surname), Initial., (year). Article Title . Journal Title [online]. Volume -must be bold(issue), range of pages. (Data reviewed).  Available from: doi:

Chen, W., (2005). Impact of monochromatic culture on working population. Journal of Popular Culture [online].  40(6), 34-46. [Viewed 8 October 2012]. Available from: <doi: 11.1010/m.1544-4561.2009.05603.n >

  • Reports (having a DOI)

Aany and Suan (2003) report that organization employees…..

Employees in organization is widely affected by..   (Aany and Suan 2003).

  • Physical or in-hand material:

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author., (Year of publication).  Title of report . Paper number [if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Aany, T. and Suan, M., (2003).  Cultural differences impact on employees in organization; a case of higher employment discrimination in Africa. Tasmania: The Policy Press.

  • Electronic/ Online

Author Surname, Initial(s) or Corporate Author., (Year of publication).  Title of report  Paper number (if applicable) [online]. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Date Viewed]. Available from: URL or doi:

R Shawgral., (2010).  Sainsbury’s food waste and surplus: a positive or negative influence [online]. Bristol: R Shawagral Plc. [Viewed 8 May 2015]. Available from: <http://www.jsainsbury.co.uk/media/3442510/Sainsbury’s%20food%20surplus%20and%20food%20waste%20figures%2015-16%20report.pdf>

The CNN news (2009) describe poverty as…

Poverty can be reduced as (CNN 2009).

Author of section Surname, Initial(s)/corporate author., (Year). Title of part [online].  Name of website . [Date viewed]. Available from: URL

CNN News., (2009). How poverty is increasing crimes? [online].  CNN News . [Viewed 10 October 2019]. Available from: <http://www.cnnnews.gov.uk/Sociology-guide/society>

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How to Write a Bibliography for an Assignment - A Complete Guide

A Brief on Bibliography for Assignment Via Assignment Desk Expert

Table Of Contents

A descriptive thought on what is bibliography for assignment, a manual stating the types of bibliographies in assignment, paradigm of how to write a bibliography for an assignment, difference between a reference list and a bibliography, wrapped thoughts: bibliography for assignment.

How do you write the experiences in the academic documents? Did you get inspired by the quote you read the other day or a paragraph of the book chapter that motivated you to the core? So, you either mention them the way they are or mould them in your words.

Do you ever think to give credit where it is due? Do you disclose if you use someone else's labour in your academic tasks? Either of the two scenarios is possible. There should be a plan of action for that first. The bibliography for assignment serves as a stairway to all scholarly work. It acts as a support to create a solid foundation for your documents. But frequently, the leads are shattered, making it difficult for you to cite or make references, to your explicit sources. Thus, the curated blog is to get you on a journey to understand the worth, that bibliography holds in academic writing. So, why pause the flow and let’s proceed to lay hands on the concept of credibility and understand how to write bibliography ?

What are credibility, authenticity and genuinity when it comes to academic writing? How is it proven, or how do documents state their worth? The overlooked, yet the most vital section of an assignment format - The bibliography! It comes at the last but holds a heavy impact on the valuation of the write-up.

Before writing, indulge in the research and extract content from various sources, like facts, statements, quotations and relevant information. Thus, when you start drafting the assignment and pen down the details, you need to back it up with solid proof. That’s where the bibliography plays a part and gives you space, to cite the sources from where you collected the information. Give detailed and enough info that the reader can easily locate the reference and not get tangled. It also prevents your assignment from the mark for plagiarism and serves as a safeguard while guiding you on how to write bibliography .

A bibliography is a light at the end of the dark tunnel that gives you a sigh of hope and relief. It defines the right direction and helps you state the list of sources to back up your integrity. In vocab, it is only a word, but sums up the types to define various sources in the assignments, based on the intent. To know more, continue to scroll and read the segregation of bibliography, stated by the masters of assignment help UK .

Type 1: Enumerative Bibliography

It is a type that specifies how to format a bibliography by listing references in a specific order. Three words, broken down to serve the purposes of "Enumerate means to list," "Biblio means regarding books," and "graphy means writing." the list of books arranged per a reference scheme or system, such as by author, subject, or date. The listings are implied to be brief, typically containing only the writer's name, the book's title, and the publication date and location.

Type 2: Analytical Bibliography

The category also goes by the name critical bibliography. It investigates the physicality of books in great detail. When asked what is bibliography , it is sufficient to check the facts and figures pertinent to the publication unit. The history of printers and booksellers, the description of paper or bindings, or textual issues that came up during the transition from the author's manuscript to the published book are all possible topics for analytical bibliographies. According to Sir Walter Greg, it looks at the components that make them up and how they are together.

Now that you are thorough with the concept of - What is bibliography and the types based on the content you choose to write your assignment. But the question is - Is it enough for you to implement the section in the document and score top grades? Not really! The blog further explains the steps on how how to write a bibliography. The basics are okay to explain, but you would require knowledge of the process to present. So, let’s dig in!

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Academic documents are formal writing that comes bearing several guidelines and a systematic procedure. The smart move is to learn, implement and deliver the best in the pile of academic documents by eliminating the fact of pay for assignment . The bibliography is a salient part of the paper. It must be organised and written using the procedures listed below.

Step 1: Figure the Sources

Step one is to look and pick the apt sources for the assignment. The internet fueled with scams and edited content, but not all. You need the right approach and the power of observation to conduct this phase of the bibliography.

Step 2: Examine the Picks

Now that the sources are selected and ready, it is time to learn the type of bibliography to be created. You must know the purpose and the method to use the acquired source in your assignment.

Step 3: Asses the Details

Thinking how to write bibliography ? As mentioned earlier, the internet is not always a reliable source to gather details for academic writing. Thus, to some extent, it is favourable also, but you must check the author’s credentials, experience and work before stating it in the bibliography.

Step 4: Create a Brief

Now that you have gathered all the details and the apt sources, it is time to write a summary. Inscribe the relevant information stating the purpose, key idea and the methods used to conduct the research. A brief will help you pen down the bibliography with ease, with the help of custom assignment help .

Step 5: The Final Stage

Voila! You are all set to make an informative and accurate bibliography for assignment . Remember how essential this section is of the academic document, and try not to mess it up with silly mistakes.

This blog post's section went into great detail about the steps that summarise the last page of your assignment and give you a thorough understanding of how to write a bibliography . But did you read the assigned task with care? Does it contain specific instructions on how to write the bibliography page or what referencing style to use?

It is crucial to understand because each university sets forth a specific directive along with the appropriate citation style because the grade chart gives it a lot of weight. So, before moving on, take a brief break and make note, of the example of a bibliography for an assignment in the section below that follows the referencing format.

Format: Author's last name, Author’s first name. Title . Volume. Publication City: Date of publication, page number.

Example: Hudson, Berlin. Ferry and Its Wheels . Vol 4. New York: 1998, 101-115.

  • Harvard Style

Format: Author’s surname, Author’s initial. (Year) Title . Publication City: Name of Publisher.

Example: Hudson, B.R. (1998) Ferry and Its Wheels . New York: Vincent.

Format: Author's last name, Author’s first initial. (Date of Publication). Title . Publication City: Name of Publishing company.

Example: Hudson, B. (1998). Ferry and Its Wheels . New York: The Gold Chain.

  • Chicago Style

Format: Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title : Subtitle . Edition. Publication City: Name of Publisher, Publishing Year. DOI/URL.

Example: Hudson, Berlin. Ferry and Its Wheels: The Revert of Time. Ed 4. New York: Vincent, 1998, https://www.educatorsset.org/pinwheel-talks-of-education.html.

Here are the stated bibliography examples for students to implement and adhere to the right approach. Writing a bibliography is an art, and one needs to be an artist to curate the same. It is that safe space in your assignment which helps you to support your write-up. But, the catch is that you work on it considering the guidelines and the style of referencing format allocated to you.

Did you notice the word that is in repetition in the blog - referencing? It is a term for bibliography only but features a slight difference, as per the referencing tools . So, for clarity, why don’t you continue to read and know the points that differentiate the two?

Citing the appropriate sources is essential in the academic world. It serves, as a plagiarism checker and background checker for the documentation of referencing in academic writing , safeguarding it from all errors. Consequently, keep in mind to follow the tips when you begin citing sources for your upcoming assignments. As you scroll through the document and move forward, you can select from a variety of citation styles.

Now that you are clear , what is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography? Hopefully, you won’t face hurdles in citing the sources with the correct process, apt citation format and considering the type of bibliographies . So, how about wrapping up? So that you get time to implement the learning?

Also Read: How to Score More in Assignment using Social Media?

Are you dedicated to delivering the appropriate content promptly? Has plagiarism ever been charged against your work? If the conditions are such that you cannot handle the pressure. Do not overthink! When problems knock on your door, all you have to do is, read between the lines to uncover the hidden advice on how to write a bibliography for an assignment . If you want to make your writing more impactful, have original quotes, and perceptive sayings. Instead of contemplating it for hours, use it immediately. The catch is that you have to include a bibliography section in which you cite the author, source, or work from which you got the information. if you possess the required knowledge and expertise and are familiar with the appropriate referencing style. You are ready to proceed. Make your citation process easy with the helpful advice provided by the experts of the Assignment Desk.

A Tip: For additional knowledge, the professionals are qualified in various areas, when it comes to academic writing. They will also serve you as the best assignment editing services without delay and compromise with the qualitative aspect.

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IMAGES

  1. How to write an annotated bibliography step-by-step with examples

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  2. How to write a proper bibliography for websites

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  3. How to Write a Bibliography for a School Project

    how to write bibliography for assignment website

  4. How to write an annotated bibliography step-by-step with examples

    how to write bibliography for assignment website

  5. How to write an annotated bibliography step-by-step with examples

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  6. Create a Perfect NLM Annotated Bibliography with Us

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VIDEO

  1. Lesson 9 Overview

  2. Annotated Bibliography

  3. How to write bibliography

  4. BIBLIOGRAPHY

  5. how to write bibliography in Punjabi

  6. How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper?

COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Website

    Citing a website in MLA Style. An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL. The in-text citation usually just lists the author's name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to ...

  2. How to Cite a Website in APA Style

    Revised on January 17, 2024. APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date. If you are citing an online version of a ...

  3. How To Write a Bibliography Plus Examples

    Here are some general notes on writing an APA reference list: Title your bibliography section "References" and center the title on the top line of the page. Do not center your references; they should be left-aligned. For longer items, subsequent lines should use a hanging indent of 1/2 inch.

  4. How to Write Bibliography for Assignment: Best Tips for Students

    A bibliography differs from a reference page for an assignment as a reference page (or reference list) only includes cited resources. Most bibliographies appear on a separate numbered page, use double line spacing, a clear, traditional font, such as times new roman (font size 11-12), and include the following: A centred heading 'Bibliography'.

  5. Harvard Style Bibliography

    Formatting a Harvard style bibliography. Sources are alphabetised by author last name. The heading 'Reference list' or 'Bibliography' appears at the top. Each new source appears on a new line, and when an entry for a single source extends onto a second line, a hanging indent is used: Harvard bibliography example.

  6. Reference a Website in Harvard Style

    To reference a website in Harvard style, include the name of the author or organization, the year of publication, the title of the page, the URL, and the date on which you accessed the website. In-text citation example. (Google, 2020) Reference template. Author surname, initial. ( Year) Page Title.

  7. How to Write a Bibliography for Assignments

    Normally, mention the author's name and the article's title. Name of the journal, volume, issue (sometimes, the year of publication is included), page range. When you use evidence from one of your sources in your assignment, you will typically need to include a citation in the text of your paper (references).

  8. How to Write a Bibliography in APA and MLA styles With Examples

    When it is time to turn in your Bibliography, type all of your sources into a list. Use the examples in MLA Format Examples or APA Format Examples as a template to insure that each source is formatted correctly. List the sources in alphabetical order using the author's last name.

  9. How to Write an APA Bibliography

    Follow these steps to write the perfect APA bibliography. Step One: Gather your sources together in a preliminary bibliography. Step Two: Format each citation entry by following these rules: List authors by last name, first name initial, and middle name initial (e.g., Doe, J. J.). Do not spell out first or middle name (s).

  10. How to Write a Bibliography (MLA, APA Examples)

    An annotated bibliography should include a reference list of any sources you use in writing a research paper. Any printed sources from which you use a text citation, including books, websites, newspaper articles, journal articles, academic writing, online sources (such as PDFs), and magazines should be included in a reference list.

  11. How to Write an APA Format Bibliography

    To create a bibliography, gather up all of the sources that you might use in your paper. Create an APA format reference for each source and then write a brief annotation. Your annotation should be a brief summary of what each reference is about. You can quickly refer to these annotations When writing your paper and determine which to include.

  12. How to Cite Sources

    To quote a source, copy a short piece of text word for word and put it inside quotation marks. To paraphrase a source, put the text into your own words. It's important that the paraphrase is not too close to the original wording. You can use the paraphrasing tool if you don't want to do this manually.

  13. How To

    The way that you create your bibliography will depend on the specific style that you are using. There are several different styles available. MLA: This style is designed for creating liberal arts or humanities essays. APA: Use this style for creating in the education or science fields. Chicago:

  14. 4 Ways to Write a Bibliography

    6. Cite books. Include the author's last name and first name, separated by a comma and ending with a period. Then the book title comes in italics with a period at the end of the title. The place of publication and the name of the publishing company are separated by a colon, and then a comma and the publication date.

  15. Bibliography

    For bibliography entries, you list the sources alphabetically by last name, so you will list the last name of the author or creator first in each entry. You should single-space within a bibliography entry and double-space between them. When an entry goes longer than one line, use a hanging indent of .5 inches for subsequent lines.

  16. How to Write a Bibliography: Referencing Styles Explained

    APA/Harvard reference order. If using Harvard referencing, title your bibliography as 'References'. Author's last name. Author's first initial. The publication date (in brackets). The book title. The publication place. The name of the book publisher.

  17. APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.)

    The student version includes the course number and name, instructor name, and due date of the assignment. The professional version includes an author note and running head . For more information on writing a striking title, crediting multiple authors (with different affiliations), and writing the author note, check out our in-depth article on ...

  18. How to Write an Annotated Bibliography

    An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (like a reference list). It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation, usually 100-200 words in length. Depending on the assignment, an annotated bibliography might have different purposes:

  19. How to Write Bibliography for Assignment: Tips on Working with Your Sources

    Author name (if mentioned) Title (if mentioned) Name of the company that created the webpage. Web address (just copy the URL) The date when you used the page last time. Most of the time, your teacher would request to collect at least three printed sources, so try not to rely on the Internet solely.

  20. Setting Up the APA Reference Page

    On the APA reference page, you list all the sources that you've cited in your paper. The list starts on a new page right after the body text. Follow these instructions to set up your APA reference page: Place the section label "References" in bold at the top of the page (centered). Order the references alphabetically. Double-space all text.

  21. How to Write Bibliography for Assignment: Guide for Students

    It varies according to the source type, but all of it commonly includes authors' name, date and year of publication and its title. The formats vary for Harvard, APA, MLA, Chicago and other, but general entry for the source of writing; a periodical or journals, in a bibliography holds the following information: Author. Publication year.

  22. How to Write a Bibliography for an Assignment (Guide)

    Step 1: Figure the Sources. Step one is to look and pick the apt sources for the assignment. The internet fueled with scams and edited content, but not all. You need the right approach and the power of observation to conduct this phase of the bibliography.