Free Project Management Essay Examples & Topics

Writing a project management essay can be a daunting task if you do not understand what to write about and what topic to choose. But it won’t be a problem for you! Our team has prepared this article to see this process clearly. First of all, let us figure out what project management is as a discipline.

Project management is the use of specific tools, methods, skills to complete a project. In its foundation are the efforts to create value through the final result. A project usually has a team, a schedule, a budget, and set goals and expectations. It is a temporary and progressive attempt to reach a specific objective.

On this page, you will also find project management essay examples on specific topics. These samples will reveal critical terminology for completing this assignment. Plus, you’ll see the author’s reflection on the issue. Additionally, our experts have gathered topics and prompts that can give you a direction for a good start.

Project management essays are mainly about planning, management, and organizing. To not miss anything out, start working on your paper with a detailed action plan or outline.

Your structure should include the following aspects:

  • Introduction. Your project management essay should begin with an overview of the project. In your introduction, identify the main goals and finish it with the thesis statement.
  • Thesis . This one sentence should express the main idea of the essay, its message. It also helps to control the pictures in the paper. Our thesis generator can create one for you.
  • Paragraph 1 . Your first body paragraph should relate to the thesis statement the closest. Be mindful that every section should introduce one argument and distinctive thought.
  • Paragraph 2. Your second paragraph should include your strongest argument. Start it by telling your reader what will be inside the section. Provide supportive evidence with quotes. Try a plagiarism checker to see whether you’ve cited correctly.
  • Paragraph 3 . The last section of the body should contain the weakest argument and example. It can also be a natural follow-up to the second paragraph or a counterargument.
  • Conclusion . This last conclusive paragraph should demonstrate your findings. Here, you restate your thesis and include the ideas for further dialogue.

17 Project Management Essay Topics

Still not sure how to start your paper? In this section, you will find ideas to use in your assignment and practice. You can also use our topic generator for this purpose.

Students can use the following topics for this task:

  • The importance of project management software for successful project completion.
  • Organizational culture and effective conflict management.
  • An analysis of project delays in the construction industry.
  • Introduction to agile-scrum in project management theory.
  • Understanding the role of soft skills in project management.
  • Employment background and its correlation with project management success rates.
  • Social media and project management risk.
  • Contemporary approaches to project and chain management.
  • Define possible difficulties and constraints with project scheduling and control during pandemics.
  • How can project management be done sustainably?
  • Critical path method application to project scope.
  • Application of the goal-setting theories in improving the outcomes of the project.
  • An impact of culture on managing expectations for the project.
  • Cross-cultural communication and work ethos in multinational project management.
  • Project management triangle and its variations.
  • How is a project management plan used in the marketing industry?
  • Project lifecycle in project management.

5 Project Management Essay Questions

If you still have difficulties starting your essay, we have a solution for you! These prompts can guide your process. You’ll get the needed motivation and direction for your project management essay.

These questions will provide you with the arguments and essay ideas:

  • What is the relationship between project management and the overall performance of a company ? Project management and overall company performance got to hand in hand. To succeed in today’s world, a company needs to implement proper techniques and tools.
  • What is p roject management in regards to a legal project? In this essay, apply the academic knowledge you’ve acquired to the legal profession and project. Try to ask yourself what methods and tools can be best utilized when handling a legal project.
  • What is the importance of project management organizational structures? In this essay, include all four traditional types of project organizational structures. Give a brief analysis of each one of them. You can also describe how the digital age disrupted old conventional models and systems.
  • How can project management planning help improve a company’s organizational structure? Business owners and project managers cannot overlook the importance of project management. It can help every part of a business to run successfully. In this essay, focus on how it can improve the success of your organization.
  • What are the processes in project management human resource training? Human resources concern project team recruitment, training, and management. It also involves team building and motivation. In your essay, give particular examples of project human resource management in a specific organization.

Thank you for paying attention and staying with us till the end. Now you can read project management paper examples down below.

564 Best Essay Examples on Project Management

A tree planting project management report.

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Caribana Parade Project of the Toronto Sun

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Harvard Business: Digital Project Simulations

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Furniture Manufacturing in UAE: Project Plan

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Launching a New Car: Project Presentation

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The Concept and Types of Project Closure

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Project Charter for Construction of Football Pitch at Coventry University

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Construction of the Empire State Building

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Summer Music Festival: Event Project Management Plan

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E-Cloth Online Store’s Project Management

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The Project Evaluation Methods

Monitoring and evaluations in development.

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Reflection of Consultancy Project

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The Importance of Managing the Project Lifecycle to Achieve Successful Project Outputs

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Burj Khalifa Construction and Operation Cycle

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Computerized Accounting System Project

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Project Management: Constructing a New Airport in the UAE

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Quality Improvement Project Management Approaches

Workflow management systems: contemporary application.

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Project Management: Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), Its Accomplishments, Constraints, and Current Reform in Relation to Project Management in the Nigerian Power Sector

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Project Management Failures: West Gate Bridge

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Maximum Megahertz Project: Management Challenges

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Project Management Plan Critique

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GPS Chipset Manufacturing: Project Management

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Hershey Corporation Project Management

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Project Simulation and Management

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Project Management: Green Park Development in Madrid

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A Food Truck Business: Project Summary

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Project Management: Building ICT Center

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Social and Organisational Issues in Project Management

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Project Management: A Critical Evaluation

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Virtual Reality’s Benefits and Usages in Concurrent Engineering

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Project Initiation Document

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Socio-Technical Approach to Project Management

Effective project management, personal post-project review.

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Emirates NBD’s Information Technology Project

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Project Management Methodology

Apollo program and project management.

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Sydney Opera House Project management

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Melbourne Royal Show: Project and Event Management

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Al Maktoum International Airport Project Management

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Channel Tunnel between England and France

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Project Management on the Basis of a Real-Life Example

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The Implementation Process and Design

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Tree Planting at the University: Project Analysis

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Learning Curves in Project Management

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Demo Park Water Administration Project Management

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The Parking Garage Project Risks

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Al Wahda Master Development Project Management

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Human Resource Motivation in Projects Management

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Project Control, Audit, and Termination

Eurotunnel project in contractual terms, project management: sydney water company.

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E-Commerce System for a Clothing Company in Abu Dhabi

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MTC IT Project Management: The Triple Constraints

Systemic vs. traditional project management, project risk analysis and management.

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The London Ambulance Services as a Failed IT Project

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Park Road Stadium Project: Earned Value Management

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Project Management Development: Importance in Practice

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Analysis of Internet Forecasting Industry

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Project Management, Leadership and Skills: Planning and Control

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Objectives of Project Management

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Project Deliverables, Goals, and Outcomes

The shore & more bicycles firm’s information technology gap.

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Evaluation of Telecommunications Regulatory Practice in the Kingdom of Bahrain

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Apple’s Organizational Structure: Recommendations

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Designing a Network for a 100-User Firm

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Monitoring Compliance in Project Management

Navigating the construction of a 100-bed special hospital.

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Project Management: The Ethical Standards

Western sydney airport and navi mumbai international airport.

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Project Management Questions: Evaluation of Project

Project monitoring and control, culture, communication, and leadership for projects in dynamic environments, heathrow and los angeles airports’ improvement.

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Rehabilitation Centre Expansion Project Management

Project management: the interview, project management software as a learning tool, project management of federal aviation administration, delays in delivery of new aircrafts.

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Project Management Implementation

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Prioritizing Sustainability Improvement Programs

Project management: the earned value.

Project Management Essay Example

Baris Yalcin

  • November 30, 2022


Project Design and Development

Project Management Essay: Introduction

This paper discusses the projects' architecture, the layout of the task networks, and the effect of the projects on the customer. It also addresses early beginning dates, latest finishing times, vital ways and market relationships of lead time and prices in depth. Throughout the article, it is clear that the design of a project is a significant factor in a company's performance, and the appropriate resources and approaches should be used, and consumer demand is taken into account.

Project Design

The planning of projects plays an essential part in supporting project managers, sponsors, teams, and stakeholders through other project phases. The plan is necessary to define target goals, minimize costs, avoid missing deadlines and eventually deliver the excellent service or result decided upon. Project efficiency is almost inevitably assured to fail without proper preparation. The Center for Project Management reports that by 2017, with every $1 billion spent, the organizations lost $97 million due to lousy project performance (Gray & Dodge, 2008). The project preparation involves a broader mission to be split into assignments, a project manager, and a timeline to be accomplished. In this process, within the overall project, one must set smaller targets such that everything is completed within the period.

The preparation and scheduling of projects is an integral part of project management independent of the technique used. The former team information related to the new project can be easily obtained using management schemes. Project managers can also conveniently establish a consistent management plan and prioritize project success tasks. Tasks like allocating resources, identifying dependencies, setting deadlines, and project deliverables can quickly be completed in no time using project management software (Gray & Dodge, 2008). Every useful project management tool has the features to ease planning while a good start sets the groundwork for a productive project.

Activity Timeline

Sometimes it is more than obvious why a project is behind schedule, but this is not always the case. If one doesn't correctly define that the project is behind budget, the actions one follows to get ahead could be incorrect, and the outcome may be catastrophic. In some way, one doesn't give the patient an aspirin if the gastritis is present, which only aggravates his situation (Lynam, 2011). The same thing can't be achieved with project management if one doesn't know what he is working with.

The choices differ according to the reasons why the project is behind schedule. The options listed here are in no apparent order, and one or more of them can be used in certain situations (Lynam, 2011). Many or all of them are also often possible, but the results differ, and in this case, the task is to find the best solution that could be the least unlikely choice.

Perform overtime: Overtime is always the only way to keep up with it, mainly when the delay is slight. Start with this calculation if overtime for a brief duration is scheduled, and it doesn't cost much. All you need could be overtime.

Extend the time limit: If there is no way to delay and pay, one can seek to prolong the deadline. This is possible in many cases, mainly if the delay results from a force major that no one could foresee (Lynam, 2011). When the date is delayed, but, neither customer nor manager loves it, they only embrace it because it is the least inconvenient.

Table 1. The sequence of the activities along with slack calculations

Figure 1. Activity Network Diagram

Project Management Essay Example

Figure 2. ESD and LFD

Project Management Essay Example

Figure 3. Gantt Chart

Project Management Essay Example

Figure 4. Critical Path

Project Management Essay Example

Customer Influence

Often, businesses view production as a cost center that aims to minimize prices and to operate productively. Simultaneously, the promotion is evaluated as a demand regulated sales center and other promotion elements. It's not always a successful technique, though (Palaka & Kropp, 1998). Dividing an organization into separate divisions for calculating accounting results will result in misaligned rewards and poor system performance. Production and marketing incentives need to be aligned with the company goals and objectives. When manufacturing and marketing work together to achieve objectives according to customers, business performance is improved.

Both departments' decisions and actions involve the two prominent aspects of customer service, price and lead-time. Leadtimes and cost controls are two "necessary cooperation but a potential conflict" areas for marketing/manufacturing (Palaka & Kropp, 1998). All too often, the various divisions of large companies fail to report on important business decisions.

John C. Wu discusses the strategic value of organized promotions and activities. Former President was a web dealer promising in one hour to deliver every order. Despite the high cost of delivery arising from their service dedication, competitive rates were provided to consumers. went out of service. Not surprisingly. According to AMR Report, price management firms are leading the way by centralizing their pricing role and changing sales opportunities to provide profit and not just quantity.

Lead-times and Price Decisions

Although shorter lead times can attract more customers and generate more demand; its production resources are under pressure. On the other hand, if cheaper rates are given, consumers might be able to wait longer. Hence, the company can find it more desirable to sell consumers shorter lead times at the cost of higher pricing ranges and vice versa, based on business dynamics and their present workload. To capture price-time trade, demand can be modeled by customer pricing and customer lead time sensitivity (Palaka & Kropp, 1998). Depending upon their rewards (objective functions), the decentralized environment makes the output a lead-time subject to a service-level restriction, whereas marketing opts for a profit.

The model in which development and commercialization/sales agree on lead time and quality, particularly for proven production processes with fixed capacities, is applicable in a variety of sectors. In practice, the primary input (or decision) for the lead-time quote usually comes from production, even if it is notified via sales/marketing to customers and the price quota (Palaka & Kropp, 1998). On the other hand, as the chief, before transmitting the allowance to the consumer, the marketing will influence the first time deciding on the production through its price determination based on potential demand produced.

Project Management Essay: Conclusion

In summary, this paper examined project design, activity network diagram, and customer influence on the project design. It also discussed the earliest start dates, latest finish dates, critical paths with illustrations and lead time price relationship in detail. Throughout the article, it is evident that project design plays a vital role in the success of a product, and while designing necessary tools and methods should be used. Customer demand should be taken into consideration.

Gray, R. M., Cook, M. B., Natera, M. T., Inglis, M. M., & Dodge, M. L. (2008). Project Management: The. In Managerial Process”, McGraw-Hill.

Lynam, J. R. (2011). U.S. Patent No. 8,063,904. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Palaka, K., Erlebacher, S., & Kropp, D. H. (1998). The lead-time setting, capacity utilization, and pricing decisions under lead-time dependent demand. IIE transactions.

Baris Yalcin

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  • Project management essays

Our project management essays cover a range of topics in this field, including PRINCE2 and Agile methodologies, organisation, communication, negotiation, risk management, leadership and more. We also have separate sections for leadership essays and business essays .

Breaking the barriers of conventional project management concepts and fostering innovative environments

Abstract Innovative products or services are not fruit of randomness. The highly creative world, where start-ups are disrupting and defying established companies with new technologies, is product of efforts to create clusters and promote investment in research and development (R&D). The implementation of different methodologies or approaches has also played an important role to stimulate … Read more

Strategies for Conflict Resolution, Collaboration & Change Management

Strategies for Conflict Resolution (LO4) Conflict could affect the delivery of our project considerably, and can destabilise the whole delivery process, poor decision making, damaged relationships, delays, poor publicity, reputational damage and additional costs. This list can continue if not managed well, and the impact can increase through all phases of works. With any dispute … Read more

Project management

Project management can be defined as the knowledge, skills, methods required to perform a set of tasks which are carried out by a group of individuals working towards a common objective. Project management highlights risks, cost, scope, time and quality in a project. According to me, Project management plays a vital role in today’s professional … Read more

Project management methodologies and tools – strengths and weaknesses

Agile Agile can be defined as the ability to create and respond to change to profit in a business environment with turbulence and the balancing of flexibility and stability (Highsmith 2012) The publication of the manifesto for agile software development formalised Agile. EXPAND The principles for Agile approach were; Individuals and interactions over processes and … Read more

Critical analysis of the impact of loss aversion & availability error on human decision-making in projects

Literature Review For a critical analysis of the impact of loss aversion and availability error on human decision-making in projects, it is necessary to clarify some fundamental concepts for a better understanding of the research topic; these are discussed below; 2.1 Project Project is a vague word defined differently by many researchers (Maylor, 2010). The … Read more

When is SCRUM Appropriate? Scrum is meant for those kinds of work which people have found unmanageable using existing (defined) processes like uncertain requirements combined with unpredictable technology implementation risks. While deciding whether to apply Scrum in any organization, as opposed to plan-driven approaches, one should always consider whether the underlying mechanisms are well-understood or … Read more

Effect of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) over the phases of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) executions

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Influence of Project Management in IT advancement

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Agile implementation with challenges and solutions

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The importance of culture for project success

Research has shown that an organisation’s culture directly impacts its bottom-line (Kotter & Haskett 1992 cited by Cooper, 2000). In projectised organisations, where the bottom-line is determined via the delivery of successful projects, this phenomenon can be a blessing or a curse (Ikeda, 2006), depending on whether the organisational culture is supportive of project management, … Read more

Prioritization Process

In simple terms, the process of prioritizing projects is an activity undertaken to determine the sequence of projects to be undertaken in a portfolio. It is done in an attempt to make the portfolio more efficient and more effective. Here’s a broader definition: Project Prioritization Process is a structured and consistent activity that aims to … Read more

Importance of time management – Burj Khalifa project

Time management Time management should not be wasted in any given time. Time is the most valuable resource in a project. Time is key in project management because it’s not only the time but it’s the time management of the project team as a whole. Scheduling is one the simplest ways of managing a project … Read more

Relationship between project management and organizational performance

Our aim is to understand the relationship between project management and organizational performance and Project management contributions towards the company performance. Every organization is under pressure to amend its performance to achieve sustained prosperity in today’s ecumenical emporium. It signifies being responsive to circumstances change. By the final of the 1950s and in the first … Read more

Agile project management development methodology

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Qatar Hamad International Airport project

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Writing project management essays

Here are some key areas for discussion when writing an essay about project management:

Project Planning: The process of defining project objectives, creating a project plan, and developing project schedules and budgets.

Risk Management: The identification, assessment, and management of project risks, including strategies for risk mitigation and contingency planning.

Project Execution: The process of implementing the project plan and managing project resources, including project team members, stakeholders, and external vendors.

Project Monitoring and Control: The process of tracking project progress, monitoring project performance, and taking corrective action when necessary.

Project Closure: The process of completing the project and ensuring that project objectives have been achieved, including finalizing project deliverables, evaluating project performance, and conducting a post-project review.

Project Leadership: The role of project managers as leaders who must motivate and inspire project team members, communicate project goals and objectives, and resolve conflicts and challenges.

Agile Project Management: An iterative and flexible approach to project management that emphasizes collaboration, customer feedback, and rapid prototyping.

Project Portfolio Management: The process of managing multiple projects within an organization to ensure alignment with organizational goals and objectives.

Human Resource Management: The process of identifying, hiring, and developing project team members, including strategies for team building, motivation, and performance management.

Communication Management: The process of planning, executing, and controlling project communication, including communication plans, status reports, and stakeholder engagement strategies.

These are just a few examples of the many possible areas that could be discussed in an essay about project management. Depending on the specific focus and scope of the essay, other topics and areas of discussion could also be explored.

Sample project management essay titles

Stuck for an essay title or idea? Here are some to inspire you:

  • Agile Project Management: Strategies for Flexibility and Success
  • The Importance of Risk Management in Project Planning and Execution
  • Effective Communication: A Key to Successful Project Management
  • Project Leadership: Navigating Challenges and Motivating Teams
  • The Human Side of Project Management: Strategies for Building and Managing Teams
  • Closing the Gap: Aligning Project Management with Organizational Goals and Objectives
  • Beyond Waterfall: Exploring Innovative Approaches to Project Management
  • The Role of Technology in Modern Project Management
  • Quality Management in Project Execution: Strategies for Ensuring Excellence
  • Lessons Learned: The Value of Post-Project Reviews and Continuous Improvement.

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  • Project Management Essays

Project Management Essays (Examples)

1000+ documents containing “project management” .


Filter by Keywords:(add comma between each)

Project management plan.

Project Management Plan of a New estaurant This project management plan is majorly concerned primarily with the first two steps which are defining the project; the project objective is broken down into a series of manageable steps called tasks and designing the project process; this work is performed by the project manager and is presented in the GANTT chart where the tasks are displayed in more detail (Hamilton, 2004). Besides, for this project, the stakeholders will actually deliver the project. The final step of developing the project management process is a continual reappraisal of the way in which tasks are planned for and implemented; this is an ongoing process that begins once the first task is underway. Assumptions In this project management plan, there are certain choices that had to be made regarding the parameters to which this project subject. These include the assumption that the general working hours are; weekdays from 8am….

Hamilton, A. (2004). Handbook of Project Management Procedures. TTL Publishing Ltd.

Ireland, L.R. (2006). Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional.

Kemp, S. (2004). Project Management Demystified: A Self-Teaching Guide. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.

Kendrick, T. (2010). The Project Management Toolkit, 2nd Ed. New York: American Management Association.

Project Management in a Legal Context Project

Project Management in a Legal Context Project management is increasingly becoming a popular and preferred way of contending with inter-organizational ventures that are out of the ordinary. hen the functions of a project require the involvement of specialized personnel and skill sets which may not be readily represented from within the company to the fullest extent demanded, it may be appropriate to organize a project team. This might be comprised of current employees and temporary hires with specialized and pertinent skills. In either event, project management requires a competent and strong project leader. This is especially true in the current case scenario, which finds Good Circuit Company (GCC) defending itself against a legal claim for Breach of Contract on behalf of the Tuffy Cleaning Company. Because Good Circuit Company is not a legal entity and because the company is relatively modest in size, we do not keep a large and comprehensive legal….

Works Cited:

Gray, C.F. & Larson, E.W. (2005).Project management the managerial process. McGraw-Hill.

United States District Court (2013). Case NO. 12-45390 Complain for Breach of Contact. Western District of Washington at Seattle.

Project Management February J 2014 a Project

Project Management February J. 2014 A project is a temporary group of activity designed to produce unique products and services or results. Typically, a project has a defined beginning and end and therefore having defined scope and resources. (Pierre, 2012). A project also has a specific set of operations to accomplish a singular goal. Examples of projects are as follows: Development of software to improve business process, Construction of bridge or building, Expansion of sales to specific geographical areas. Major goal of executing projects is to achieve a strategic plan. However, many projects have been met with failures because of lack of integration of effective project management model in the project lifecycle. Project management model is critical for the success of a project. Project management is the application of skills, tools, knowledge and techniques to project activities to meet stakeholders' requirements and expectations. Typically, understanding a project management tool is very critical to the successful completion of….

Claude, H.M.(2012). ESI International Project Management: Project Management Concepts, Methods, and Techniques. ESI International Project Management Series.

Cleland, D.I. & Ireland, L.R (2008). Project Manager's Handbook, Chicago, McGraw-Hill.

Kerry, W. (2010). Essential Project Management Skills. Wills CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group .

Morris, P. & Pinto, J.K. (2010). The Wiley Guide to Project Organization and Project Management Competencies, USA. John Wiley & Sons.

Project Management Considered as the

Yet upon closer inspection these two ideas are connected by the reality that strategy must be implemented; a task achieved by project managers throughout the value chain. Likewise, the human capital of the project managers must be accounted for by management in creation of a strategy framework. The BSC connects these elements by: Providing the discipline to ensure that the formulated strategy has specific objectives for shareholders and customers, an explicit customer value proposition, the critical internal processes for creating and delivering the value proposition, and aligned human resources, information technology, and organization culture. (Lagace, M. February 2, 2004. PP. 2). eferences Balanced Scorecard Institute. (N.D.). Balanced Scorecard Basics. Balanced Scorecard Institute. PP. 1. etrieved March 9, 2012 from Duke Fuqua School of Business. (N.D.). Strategy Development. Duke Fuqua School of Business. PP.1. etrieved March 9, 2012 from Guerrera, F. (March 12, 2009). Welch Condemns Share Price Focus. Financial Times. PP. 1.….

Balanced Scorecard Institute. (N.D.). Balanced Scorecard Basics. Balanced Scorecard

Institute. PP. 1. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from 

Duke Fuqua School of Business. (N.D.). Strategy Development. Duke Fuqua School of Business. PP.1. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from 

Guerrera, F. (March 12, 2009). Welch Condemns Share Price Focus. Financial Times. PP.

Project Management Human Resource Training

The defining of individualized scaffolding or customized learning programs must be in the context of a curriculum broad enough to encompass the roles of project manager, business analyst and contract manager however if it is to be effective, as is shown in the DMH program (Damare, 2008). By having a unified curriculum, the weakest areas of project management can quickly to dealt with an improved as well. This specific area of best practices looks to accelerate and internalize the learning necessary for project managers to better understand user analysis for example (Little, 2011). The curriculum structure must be agile enough to take into account the specific learning needs of project managers, business analysts and contract managers yet rigid enough to ensure that user analysis and user requirements are well-understood and strengthened (Holzle, 2010). This doesn't have to be a dichotomy but can instead be complimentary and supported with effective….

Crawford, J., Leonard, L.N.K., & Jones, K. (2011). The human resources influence in shaping it competence. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 111(2), 164-183.

Damare, B. (2008). Workplace learning to improve it project management. Public Manager, 37(4), 45-50.

Dexter, B. (2010). Critical success factors for developmental team projects. Team Performance Management, 16(7), 343-358.

Holzle, K. (2010). Designing and implementing a career path for project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 28(8), 779.

Project Management Imagine You Are

Change management is very critical in project management and must be covered in this set of three articles. #2: The rest of the students are not interested in academic careers, however, you feel it is important that they receive a theoretical knowledge of the subject matter. What five essential theoretical lessons would you share with your students that you feel are the most important in assuring professional success as a project manager? The five most important lessons I'd stress to students begin with defining a strong business case for their projects, followed by concentrating on creating effective change management strategies. I'd also focus on no matter how much technology you rely on, project management fundamentals must still be well understood to get the most out of them. I'd also concentrate on making sure students realized that project management is as much about skills as it is about continually striving to improve….

Contino, D.S. (2004). What's your projects ROI? Nursing Management, 35(2), 39-40.

Imam, M.H., & Dhillon, J.S. (1989). Project management in telecommunications - a case study. AACE International Transactions,, E.8.1-E.8.1.

Quayle, M. (1999). Project management in European aerospace plc: A case study. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 99(5), 221-226.

Reed, R.E. (1996). ROI for management. AACE International Transactions,, PRF51-PRF53.

Project Management Any Project No Matter What

Project Management Any project, no matter what the outcome is supposed to be, has to be properly managed from outset to completion to make sure that the outcome is the one desired. Without some type of plan, a project can easily become so overburdened with cost and time overruns that it is better just to abandon it and move on. The problem is though that project management often requires a large amount of very complex steps which have to be coordinated in a specific order. To do this the manager has to understand the tools that are at his or her disposal, and they have to understand how to use those tools. The steps required are not inviolate, but it is wise to understand the different phases of project management and make sure that they are all given the proper care. Following is a research paper which looks at the project….

Chen, S.-J., & Lin, L. (2002). A project task coordination model for team organization in concurrent engineering. Concurrent Engineering: Research & Applications, 10(3), 187-203.

Glen, P. (2003). Monitoring project progress. Retrieved from 20030429 Monitoring-Project-Progress.html

Henrie, M. (2006). Project management supply-chain challenges. Retrieved from

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2010). Definition: What is resource allocation? Retrieved from  t/ahc_75702.pdf

Project Management Emerging Markets Continue to Be

Project Management Emerging markets continue to be a promising area for many of America's most beloved companies such as Coca-Cola, Apple and more. This bodes well for project managers in the digital age as the expand operations overseas. However, as these companies become more global, the risk associated with their operation becomes more important. Understanding gender, ethnic and cultural differences can have a profound impact on the overall success of a project manager within the digital age. Our economies are becoming more global with each passing year. Currently, we are in the midst of a global recession, not a domestic recession. This is a testament to the magnitude and extent to which our U.S. operations reach other nations. This phenomenon reaches even into the global work environment as talent within specific nations is becoming more desirable. This talent is often placed in the charge of a project manager who rarely, if….


1) "Ethnocentric - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary." Dictionary and Thesaurus - Merriam-Webster Online. Web. 14 July 2011. .

2) "Polycentric - Definition of Polycentric by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia." Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary. Web. 14 July 2011. .

3) "Definition of Geocentric, Meaning of Geocentric." WELCOME TO DEFINITION-OF.NET, YOUR ONLINE DICTIONARY. Web. 14 July 2011. .

4) "Matrix Organization Structure." Business Plans. Web. 14 July 2011. .

Project Management for an Experienced Entrepreneur The

Project Management for an Experienced Entrepreneur: The Benefits of Specialized Expertise As an experienced entrepreneur with several successful projects already underway or completed, there is no real need to tell you how important it is to know -- or to consult and work with people who know -- the specifics of a particular process, product, or industry when engaging in a new venture. Knowledge might not translate directly to power in the way the old adage suggests, but it is an essential component in business success, to be sure. Flexibility, learning and thinking on one's feet, and allowing ideas and conclusions to change in response to new information are also quite important, of course, but these things are all aided by a solid foundational knowledge in areas and elements of interest. As I will attempt to show you here, this is true not only in the realm of specific industries, but….

Bowers, D. (2003). Management of Procurement. Reston, VA: Thomas Telford.

Callahan, M. (2009). Termination of Construction and Design Contracts. New York: Aspen Publishers.

Turner, J. (2003). Contracting for Project Management. Burlington, VT: Gower.

Wysocki, R. (2011). Effective Project Management. New York: Wiley.

Project Management Your Company Planning Construct a

Project Management Your company planning construct a nuclear power plant Oregon. What is a project life cycle, and how does it support project success? Ensure you define the basic stages of a project life cycle and the primary activities that take place. According to Bin and Heiser (2004) project life cycle refers to the stages a project goes through from the beginning till it is completed. The project life cycle will indicate how a project will be controlled, planned, and monitored. To ensure that a specific project does progress as required, there is need to have a project life cycle that will model the different phases that the project will go through. The phases make it easy for a project manager to establish exactly where the project has reached, and to identify how long the project will take at each particular phase. Without a project life cycle, one would not be able to manage….

Bin, J., & Heiser, D.R. (2004). The Eye Diagram: A New Perspective on the Project Life Cycle. [Article]. Journal of Education for Business, 80(1), 10-16.

Borisova, T., Racevskis, L., & Kipp, J. (2012). Stakeholder Analysis of a Collaborative Watershed Management Process: A Florida Case Study1. [Article]. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 48(2), 277-296. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00615.x

Valentine, D. (2011). Maintaining Organization Culture Through Leadership Succession Planning. [Article]. Culture & Religion Review Journal, 2011(2), 125-129.

Project Management AT& T Is a Leader in

Project Management AT&T is a leader in communication technology that connects people all over the world. Just as their customers and business depend on them and their services to remain connected, AT&T depends on the internal resources they have particularly project and program managers so that they can remain as the best service providers. Huawei is a Chinese Telecom giant that deals with products such as fixed-line communications, optical transmission, mobile communications, data communications as well as mobile terminals and handsets. Huawei technologies saw the need for the inclusion of project management for the tools and techniques so that it ensures the strategies proved effective, efficient and profitable. This paper looks at AT&T and Huawei and the steps they took when it came to the improvement of their portfolio management process within the corporation. First, current situation within the two organizations when it comes to project management can be examined as follows;….

AT&T, Inc. (2004). AT&T Project Management Center of Excellence. Retrieved February 25, 2013 from 

Hornstein, H. (2012).The need to integrate project management and organizational change. Retrieved February 25, from 

Huawei, Inc. (2004). Huawei technologies. Retrieved February 25, 2013 from

Project Management Organizational Structures a Project Is

Project Management Organizational Structures A project is a variety of jobs that relate and point towards a critical solution. For a project to function successfully, money, time, resources, and personnel is required. Project management often dictates control of resources together with planning the intended project and designating resources in areas where they are needed. Before the start of a project, the management decides upon which organizational structure will be effected to see the running of the project. The three basic organizational structures for project management include pure, matrix and functional project. Every organization should evaluate these three organizational structures and decide on one which best suits them. The organization is set for the success journey after identifying the organizational structure (Daft, 2011). The three organizational structures have merits and demerits in project structuring. Project managers have the mandate and the authority of closing, controlling, executing, planning and initiating the project. It is….

Daft, R.L. (2011). Understanding management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Davies, A., & Hobday, M. (2005). The business of projects: Managing innovation in complex products and systems. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press Badawy, M.K. (2007). Developing managerial skills in engineers and scientists: Succeeding as a technical manager. New York: J. Wiley & Sons

Warrick, D.D., & American Society for Training and Development. (2009). Contemporary

organization development: Current thinking and applications. Glenview, IL: Scott,

Project Management

Introduction A project that I plan on doing in the future is one that focuses on transitioning our marketing to social media. The company wants to promote its brand and become more familiar to consumers because right now it is not gaining much traction in traditional marketing approaches. The company has thus decided to try to focus more on social media as a marketing approach. The project will be to develop a social media marketing campaign that would allow the company develop its brand and gain traction among the target consumer population. The 7 basic steps that will need to be followed for this project to succeed are: 1. Compose the team. 2. Define the mission that the team must embrace. 3. Establish the expectations and goals that the team will be accountable for. 4. Structure and plan the activities that will provide the pathway to the goals and allow members to meet expectations. 5. Train….

Project Management Execution in my Organization

Project Management (a) How can effective project management help your department? Effective project management can be of significant help to the department. First of all, project management can help the department in controlling spending and enhancing project results. Sticking to project management approaches and strategies facilitates the reduction of risks, cost-cutting and enhanced success rates. Effective project management can stop the department from spending money on projects that bring about failure (Mir and Pinnington, 2014). Secondly, project management can help the department in attaining competitive advantage. Executing project management in the department helps in the creation of a strategic value chain on its rivals. Having the ability to deliver projects in a timely manner and within the budget will help the department in getting more tasks and handling more responsibility (Mir and Pinnington, 2014). Project management will be also be helpful to the department in terms of having measurable outcomes. Effective project….

Project Management Plan to Upgrade Hospital Equipment

1. INTRODUCTION This project plan is for a hypothetical struggling hospital in the NY Metropolitan area. The hospital is on the verge of bankruptcy but is the only pediatric hospital in the area. It also boasts of some of the most innovative researchers and physicians in the country. The walls are peeling, some of the equipment is outdated, and staff morale is low. As the consultant project manager, I intend to focus on identifying and replacing the outdated equipment, raising the required funds using appropriate strategies. 1.1 Purpose of Project Management Plan The purpose of the Hospital Equipment Upgrade (HEU) PMP is to identify all outdated equipment in the target hospital, develop a plan of how this equipment will be replaced, and identify the source of the funds required for this purpose. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF PROJECT CHARTER Hospitals in the U.S. lose a total of $8.3 billion a year because of older and outdated….

need an example essay to help me write mine, in which you discuss the different forms of generic, transferable, core or key attributes that will address the skills gap that currently resides in south African supply chain industry

Below is an example essay to help give you ideas when writing your own paper.

Title: Bridging the Skills Gap in the South African Supply Chain Industry Introduction: In today's rapidly evolving global economy, the supply chain industry plays a vital role in ensuring the efficient flow of goods and services. However, South Africa's supply chain sector faces a significant skills gap, hindering its growth and competitiveness. To address this challenge, it is essential to identify and cultivate generic, transferable, core, or key attributes that can bridge this gap effectively. This essay will discuss the different forms of such attributes....

How do firms meet the challenge of technological change by redesigning innovation ecosystem

Firms meet the challenge of technological change by redesigning their innovation ecosystems in several key ways. This approach involves a strategic overhaul of their internal and external operations, relationships, and culture to foster innovation and adaptability. Here's how they do it:

Embracing Open Innovation: Moving away from solely in-house R&D, firms are increasingly embracing open innovation. This involves collaborating with external entities like startups, academic institutions, and other companies to source new ideas, technologies, and methodologies. This collaboration can take various forms, including joint ventures, partnerships, and innovation hubs.

Investing in Digital Transformation: Firms are investing heavily in digital technologies such as....

I\'m searching for essay topics on grant writer interview. Do you have any recommendations?

1. The role and responsibilities of a grant writer in nonprofits and fundraising organizations 2. Essential skills and qualifications needed to be a successful grant writer 3. Common challenges and obstacles faced by grant writers in the interview process 4. Strategies for effectively communicating your experience and qualifications as a grant writer in an interview 5. Tips for preparing and practicing for a grant writer interview 6. The importance of research and preparation in the grant writing interview process 7. Discussing your portfolio and past grant writing success stories in an interview 8. Addressing questions about your understanding of grant funding sources and proposal writing techniques 9. How....


Research Paper

Business - Management

Project Management Plan of a New estaurant This project management plan is majorly concerned primarily with the first two steps which are defining the project; the project objective is broken…

Project Management in a Legal Context Project management is increasingly becoming a popular and preferred way of contending with inter-organizational ventures that are out of the ordinary. hen the functions…

Project Management February J. 2014 A project is a temporary group of activity designed to produce unique products and services or results. Typically, a project has a defined beginning and end…

Yet upon closer inspection these two ideas are connected by the reality that strategy must be implemented; a task achieved by project managers throughout the value chain. Likewise,…

The defining of individualized scaffolding or customized learning programs must be in the context of a curriculum broad enough to encompass the roles of project manager, business analyst…

Change management is very critical in project management and must be covered in this set of three articles. #2: The rest of the students are not interested in academic…

Project Management Any project, no matter what the outcome is supposed to be, has to be properly managed from outset to completion to make sure that the outcome is the…

Project Management Emerging markets continue to be a promising area for many of America's most beloved companies such as Coca-Cola, Apple and more. This bodes well for project managers in…

Project Management for an Experienced Entrepreneur: The Benefits of Specialized Expertise As an experienced entrepreneur with several successful projects already underway or completed, there is no real need to tell…

Project Management Your company planning construct a nuclear power plant Oregon. What is a project life cycle, and how does it support project success? Ensure you define the basic stages of…

Project Management AT&T is a leader in communication technology that connects people all over the world. Just as their customers and business depend on them and their services to remain…

Project Management Organizational Structures A project is a variety of jobs that relate and point towards a critical solution. For a project to function successfully, money, time, resources, and personnel…

Introduction A project that I plan on doing in the future is one that focuses on transitioning our marketing to social media. The company wants to promote its brand and…

Project Management (a) How can effective project management help your department? Effective project management can be of significant help to the department. First of all, project management can help the department…

response paper

1. INTRODUCTION This project plan is for a hypothetical struggling hospital in the NY Metropolitan area. The hospital is on the verge of bankruptcy but is the only pediatric hospital…

Essay on Project Management Process

Project management is a tool used to ensure maximum utilization of goods and resources available to achieve specific goals of a project. The main objective of this paper is to show how project management plays an important role in ensuring the project in question succeeds. It also points out the risks that are likely to be encountered and how who can manage them. This is important since it helps the project manager to plan and strategies.


The business has shifted from local to global. As a result of this, there is increased competition among the companies. There is a need for any company to increase and develop new systems to meet the competing environment. Project management is applied to ensure the organization meets its goals within the budget and minimizes the costs while meeting the customers’ expectations. The project manager must look into risks that a project is likely to face and factors that will ensure the project succeeds.

Project Management Process

The company can use various methodologies, and the results are always a success, provided the rules set out by the methodology are followed appropriately. In this project, we consider the kanban methodology. The reason for choosing this methodology is because it carries the best outlines. As a result, an adequate workforce is achieved by following the processes outlined in the methodology. Kanban is adopted procedurally and is employed by employment. The main aim of Kanban is to determine setbacks that are likely to disrupt the management process and correct them to achieve a good flow of the process.

The goal of this methodology is to ensure the company produces only enough to avoid waste of resources. Producing more than what is required will amount to a waste of resources. At first, Kanban was developed by the senior management to avoid inefficiency, and inadequate production of Toyota Company compared to other American rivals. Kanban methodology controls the whole chain from the procedure to the consumer. This methodology perfectly increases efficiency in the company’s reliability and flexibility since it can easily adjust to the outstanding conditions in the market. It also requires the attention of the whole process to achieve a required aim.

example of a project essay

Firure 1.Kenboard system

example of a project essay

Figure 1.2 Kanboard

Kanban methodology ensures that members in a company access information easily. It is suitable because it is easy to understand, and it ensures a good workflow in the system that is already established. The method is also good because it increases efficiency and effectiveness quickly, helps in easy prioritization of activities, and is good in planning within the company. Since the methodology presents visualization, it cooperates efficiently with the tools of managing workflow.

This methodology minimizes the waste of resources since it is effective in the utilization of the available resources. In the case of human resources, this methodology can determine the right people working on their respective perfect job and in a good way. From this, there is an effective use of human resources within the company. To use Kanban successfully, one must implement some principles. Another importance of this methodology is that it can identify non-active members in the company and easily identify an expensive process to avoid it.

One of the principles of this methodology is, ensuring respect to the system that the current members are using and their roles in the company. Poor management of resources is avoided in this methodology because the end goal is to ensure the extra production of goods for a proper and easy flow of the process, which should emphasize communication among the workforce. The methodology ensures this is achieved. It maintains that any employee is required to alert the other about any move they make. The workforce can achieve effective communication by categorizing it into three parts done, still doing, and not done. This will alert the rest of the employees on what to do.

Another principle is emphasizing incremental change rather than radical change on the existing setup. The reason for this is to avoid opposition by the workforce and the organization. Continuous improvement will be realized in various levels of the company as a result of this. Performance is improved by ensuring members are encouraged to express their views and give their ideas.

If this process is followed effectively, there are high chances of completing the project earlier and no wastage of resources. The project groups should have deliverables to ensure there is effective completion of the projects. There is a need to clearly outline technical problems that are likely to be encountered during the process. The plan should also outline the progress to prepare the comparison to incase of any occurrence.

Effective completion is achieved by ensuring the plan should clearly outlining the timelines. The time project starts to the completion of the project. Also, the plan should propose the costs of the project. If the company puts these deliverables in place, it would be easy to complete the project because it has a clear scope. If a project manager needs to change some of the things on the methodology, there is a clear process that they are supposed to follow. The first step to be followed is initiation. This will give a clue to the members about the change and help them prepare to adapt to the change.

Planning follows initiation. In planning, the manager must write down the steps to be followed in the new initiative—some of the things they should not down include a budget and the need for new employees. The new initiative might require a change in budget allocation and more skilled labor to achieve the new objective. Effective planning will ensure there is a smooth process in achieving the new goal. After planning, execution follows. This is to ensure every department in the company adheres to the new change. In this stage, the management sets the ground for implementing the change by giving the workforce mandates and whatever is required to achieve the initiative. After the senior management reaches an agreement, then it is executed.

In addition, the project scope is required. Project scope ensures that the project is completed on time and within the allocated budget. The project groups need to research the fields they choose. There are risks involved in making certain decisions in business; therefore, the research should include them. The research should also include the following, problems that are likely to be encountered in venturing the business, the amount of capital required in case of any changes in the company, and lastly, the policies to be used to achieve the main goal of the company. (Jovanovic,,2018)

Also, the research should be in a position to identify competitors and how competitors manage to achieve their set goals. This will give the company an overview of how others work and give them ideas on what new methods t use to achieve efficiency and maximum production in the company.

There is a need for the project group to visit a consulting firm. From this, they can write a report about the findings and some of the things the company is doing wrongly. They can now strategize on how to improve from their findings. From the findings, the company will follow the right path in achieving the objectives and ensure the company is satisfied from the consultation.

After completing the research and writing of the report, the company would then draft a conclusion from the research and areas that they need to improve on to ensure the company’s success. All the company sectors are required to carry out this research, the finance department, management sectors, and the workforce sector. From this, the company will easily identify specific problems affecting specific departments. In this case, we use a divisional system where different teams working on specific areas must provide detailed information from their specified areas. (Müller, 2019). The final result is then presented to the consulting; the final report should have clear methods and policies to improve the company’s production. With the new deliverables being put in place, the company will have a clear scope of what is required to guarantee the project’s success.

Nonetheless, when the project manager needs to review some of the parts of the methodology and see through its implementation, clear steps need to be followed. Among the factors that the project manager should look into are the financial requirements. This is to make sure that the changes will not alter the budget plan considering the complexity of the project that they are to implement and ensure that the proposed changes will not negatively impact the organization’s work. The other important factor is the political environment. The project manager should check that the policies they intend to implement align with the government of the day policies. The other important factors that the project manager needs to look into before implementing the changes include the size of the change. It is important to consider the size of the change. Big changes take a considerable amount of time before they are fully implemented and thus will slow the organization’s currently running projects. The project manager should also consider the existing relationships between clients and other parties. The change should serve the purpose of creating more unity between them and their clients; additionally, the project manager should be aware of the penalties that come with the implementation of the changes and that they don’t limit the company negatively.

We should also consider the impact of the change on other projects. With the change projected to result in major changes in other projects, the timing of other projects will be affected, leading to significant delays or even terminations of the running projects, thus raising the case of poor project management. Nonetheless, if all factors are according to plan, the last step will be to test if the company can withstand change. If the company is not capable of withstanding the changes, it will be negatively impacted. Therefore, after the series of tests and it is concluded that the company cannot handle change, outside assistance needs to be reported.

The initial step would be to introduce the changes that need to be implemented. This is a crucial step because it allows people affected by the change to reflect and adapt. The next step would be to planning for the change. This step would require the project manager to draft the steps that are to be followed. This is to include the budget if it exists, the areas that need the change, the amount of change included in the new plan, and if there is a need for any new personnel. When planning, it is important to track the progress as it is important in achieving the desired goal. The next step is the execution of the plan. Execution involves setting the plan in motion and ensuring that each department follows the management stipulated changes. The management should set the stage for implementing the changes and ensure that all the members understand what is expected of them. The execution-only starts after the senior management give it the green light to proceed. The project manager is the overall manager of the project, and they are to ensure that all the changes that are made are to be followed by the task force and rectify any mistake that may arise. Therefore, a good project manager should have their work arranged in terms of priority. This will help in keeping track of the important parts that need to be implemented without any delay. (Weflen, 2021).

In arranging the work in criticality, the best method is the  Mo scow prioritization method. M  stands for must-have. These are the components required for the project to be completed, and the project will not be considered complete without these features. S  stands for should have. These are components required for the project completion, though not urgent but are high priority. C stands for could have. These are components of the project that are highly desired but are not necessary for the completion of the project.  W , stands for won’t have. These are the components of the project that have been thought of, but they are not to be implemented in the current project, but they have a chance of being included in the next project.

example of a project essay

Fig 2. MosCOWprioritization method

In implementing any project, risk should be factored in. Risk is a condition that what had not been planned for that may occur and affect the project. With that in mind, the project manager needs to have a risk management framework in place. Some of the common risks associated with project management include degraded quality regarding handling a project as less human resources are used. The other risk costs. This occurs when the project uses more resources than the allocated budget. These cost risks can be considered as poor budget planning or inaccurate cost estimations. Cost risks normally lead to performance risks.

The other common risk is the schedule risk. This occurs when the project runs out of schedule by taking more time than the scheduled time, affecting other activities. Schedule risks may lead to cost risks because more resources mean more expenses. In general, the schedule risks will affect the performance of the project. The other risks that may occur are governance risk, deferral risk, which comes from failing to perform the project.

It can noted that project risks can either be internal or external. All projects are subject to face risks if they are to be deemed successful. The risks usually depend on the nature and weight of the possible outcomes and their likelihood. To handle risks in project management, what should apply steps of avoiding or preventing risks. The most effective way to avoid risks is by walking away from them or by mitigation when they can’t void the risk. Mitigations help to prevent the damage from being bigger.

Nowadays, the risk is handled by transferring it to someone else. Typically, this is having the insurance company pay. When risks can’t be avoided or mitigated, acceptance is reported. Risks need to be tackled earlier before it’s too late. A risk management plan provides a clear guideline on how risks are to be handled.

Risks need to be handled by employing different steps. This includes mapping the risk in the picture, the results of these risks, and what happens after. The impact and severity of the risks also need to be measured. How is the risk going to cause a problem? What will be affected as a result of the risk? After that is answered, the next step to be taken is what decisions need to be made. This is where the project manager is crucial in analyzing and determining whether the project should carry on or stop completely and determine the steps for mitigating it. After this part, solutions need to be identified and drafted, after which the risks are constantly analyzed. These steps are crucial in the identification and analysis of the risks. The structure of the project management is important for the success of any project. When the structure is not well organized, it often leads to the failure of the project. The project management structure is organized so that the project manager is the overall leader of the project and has the power and speaks authority over the project.

The powers of the project manager allow him to have a say on the project budget and cost, control the project schedule and the structure of the project task force. On the project team hierarchy, the project manager is at the top, and they manage everything, and the other employees are their juniors. The structure is also organized such that the team members report directly to the project manager, and all the activities of the project work towards the realization of the project’s goal. The project manager assigns tasks to the project members, makes key project decisions, and manages project resources. The project members either work permanently or part-time on the project. To create a uniqueness of the organizational structure, the project team and resources are demobilized on the completion of the project. The company usually tasks different departments of the organization to support the project. The common departments that offer support include human resources and the administration departments. (Cakmakci,,2019).

Most companies have resorted to this type of organization when dealing with their projects as it has proven to be so effective. The project manager is always given major responsibilities because of the skills and abilities they are to possess, which are much needed for the success of a project. (,2017). This structure is preferred due to transparency; hence nothing can be compromised. This structure also provides clear communication channels hence no confusion can arise.

The success of a project requires teamwork from the project team. Therefore, team members need to support learning, growth, and improvement based on the different skill sets. The project organizational structure has made the learning curves quicker as it encourages the project team to learn from one another; thus, it takes a much shorter time. The project team concludes that the overall success will depend on the principles and methods adopted; hence the organization needs to employ the best structure.

The project team must handle the limitations of any organizational structure. This includes giving the project manager more power. This can lead to pride and arrogance leading to a misunderstanding between the project manager and the project team. This structure also includes inflexible and tight schedules. This is not a healthy technique because it brings fatigue and can lead to stress. For the part-time members, it can bring un-commitment because they know their job ends once the project is completed.

The project life cycle costing gives the company a tool for breaking down the cost of the project. This cycle is also a technique for evaluating and determining all the expenses incurred as the project is being implemented. The project’s costs are divided into three important components; project maintenance, operation & design, and development. These three need to be incorporated for the project costing to be completed. After these three parts are considered, the costs incurred in making purchases, investment costs, development, and the actual value of the technological products being used should also be added by the project manager.

Some of the potential employers in the project are employees, suppliers, community, suppliers, investors, customers, community, vendors, trade unions, and government.

The project management cycle is a clear framework that helps a project manager take a project through a systematic process to ensure the project is cleared within a short period and is done successfully. The project cycle ensures the project is subdivided into small steps that would be easier to understand and implement easily. This will make work easier for the project manager because they would take steps assigned for the specific project and go to the next when it is done. There is a coincidence with the Kanban methodology because members must communicate every step they undertake to avoid messing up with the project. Poor communication and taking the project as a whole will mess up the project. Therefore there is a need to follow the steps keenly.

The project cycle is required to outline clearly a few aspects. These aspects include project deliverables, project monitoring through each phase, the projects’ final goal, and the people involved in the project group. The different phases are followed using the life cycle. There is a need to complete a previous project phase in the sequential phase before going to the project phase. The overlapping phase implies that the start of another project phase does not necessarily require the end of the other phase (Bibarsov et al., 2017). This kind of project requires an adaptive life cycle because it outlines easy adaptation in rapid changes.

The project cycle always starts with the initiation phase. In this phase, the project goals are outlined and ensuring that project groups understand the goals that have been set out. Also, it shows the priorities of the project and the risks that the project is likely to encounter. From this, the project group will get the scope required to complete the project effectively. After completing the initiation phase, planning follows. In this stage, the project schedule is outlined; it shows the beginning of the project, and the time it will take to complete the project effectively and systematically. Also, there is a need to include the project’s budget during planning, which will ensure the company has an entire scope of what is required to complete the project in time. Available sources should also be considered. This is in terms of human resources and other available resources that would be esse3ntial AMD of importance in completing the project.

example of a project essay

Fig 3. WBS of the required project

After all the resources have been gathered and proper planning put in place, the execution phase follows. This is the phase where the actual project starts. After the execution of the project, there is a need to monitor. Monitoring ensures that every step is followed and every policy put in place is followed effectively to the latter. The project is divided into small cycles. By doing this, it is necessary to ensure that a step is completed before starting a new step to ensure the effectiveness of the process, so long as the sequential cycle is used. From this cycle, performance can be easily measured. Project groups are rated depending on how they perform their duties. Monitoring is required to continue until the project reaches the completion stage.

Project management is an important factor in governing a project. A project manager or group leader must understand project lifecycle and risk management to provide a clear strategy to ensure the project’s success. In addition, they are using a proper tool in bringing changes within an organization to achieve the major goal. The project manager must ensure the project does not go beyond its budget, and if it goes beyond the budget, there is a need to stop it.

Bibarsov, K. R., Khokholova, G. I., & Okladnikova, D. R. (2017). Conceptual basics and mechanism of innovation project management.

Cakmakci, M., Kucukyasar, M., Aydin, E. S., Aktas, B., Sarikaya, M. B., & Bekar, E. T. (2019). KANBAN optimization in the relationship between industry 4.0 and project management approach. In  Agile Approaches for Successfully Managing and Executing Projects in the Fourth Industrial Revolution  (pp. 210-227). IGI Global.

Demirkesen, S., & Ozorhon, B. (2017). Impact of integration management on construction project management performance.  International Journal of Project Management ,  35 (8), 1639-1654

Müller, R., Drouin, N., & Sankaran, S. (2019). Modeling organizational project management.  Project Management Journal ,  50 (4), 499-513.

Jovanovic, P., & Beric, I. (2018). Analysis of the available project management methodologies.  Management: Journal of Sustainable Business and Management Solutions in Emerging Economies ,  23 (3), 1-13.

Weflen, E., MacKenzie, C. A., & Rivero, I. V. (2021). An Influence Diagram Approach to Automating Lead Time Estimation in Agile Kanban Project Management.  Expert Systems with Applications , 115866.

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example of a project essay

How to write an effective project plan in 6 simple steps

Deanna deBara

Contributing writer

If you’re a Type A personality, project planning might sound like music to your ears. Setting deadlines, organizing tasks, and creating order out of chaos — what’s not to love?

The reality is that project planning isn’t for everyone. In one survey by Association for Project Management, 76% of project professionals said their main project was a source of stress . Poor planning, unclear responsibilities, and overallocation are often the culprits behind the stress. 

An effective project plan helps teams stay within budget, scope, and schedule, while delivering quality work. In short, it gets you to the finish line without the stress.  

What is a project plan?

A project plan, also known as a work plan, is a blueprint of your project lifecycle. It’s like a roadmap — it clearly outlines how to get from where you are now (the beginning of the project) to where you want to go (the successful completion of the project). 

“A project plan is an action plan outlining how…[to] accomplish project goals,” says Jami Yazdani , certified Project Management Professional (PMP), project coach, project management consultant, and founder of Yazdani Consulting and Facilitation . 

A comprehensive project plan includes the project schedule, project scope, due dates, and deliverables. Writing a good project plan is key for any new, complex project in the pipeline.

Why Are Project Plans Important?

Project plans allow you to visualize your entire project, from beginning to end—and develop a clear strategy to get from point A to point B. Project plans steer stakeholders in the right direction and keep team members accountable with a common baseline.  

Project plans help you stay agile

Projects are bound by what is traditionally called the “iron triangle” of project management . It means that project managers have to work within the three constraints of scope, resources (project budget and teams), and schedule. You cannot make changes to one without impacting the other two.    

Modern-day project management has shifted to a more agile approach, with a focus on quality. This means that resources and schedules remain unchanged but a fixed number of iterations (flexible scope) helps teams deliver better quality and more value. 

A project plan puts this “agile triangle” in place by mapping out resources, schedules, and the number of iterations — sprints if you’re using a Scrum framework and work in progress (WIP) limits if you’re using the Kanban methodology . 

As Yazdani points out, “Project plans help us strategize a path to project success, allowing us to consider the factors that will impact our project, from stakeholders to budget to schedule delays, and plan how to maximize or mitigate these factors.” 

Project plans provide complete visibility

A project plan, when created with a comprehensive project management software , gives you 360-degree visibility throughout the project lifecycle. 

As a project manager, you need a single source of truth on team members and their project tasks, project scope, project objectives, and project timelines. A detailed project plan gives you this visibility and helps teams stay on track.

screenshot of a Jira Work Management project board

Project plans also help to get everyone involved on the same page, setting clear expectations around what needs to be accomplished, when, and by who. 

“Project plans create a framework for measuring project progress and success,” says Yazdani. “Project plans set clear expectations for…stakeholders by outlining exactly what…will [be accomplished] and when it will be delivered.”

Project plans boost engagement and productivity

A well-written project plan clarifies how each individual team member’s contributions play into the larger scope of the project and align with company goals. When employees see how their work directly impacts organizational growth, it generates buy-in and drives engagement , which is critical to a project’s success. 

“Project plans provide…teams with purpose and direction,” says Yazdani. “Transparent project plans show team members how their individual tasks and responsibilities contribute to the overall success of the project, encouraging engagement and collaboration.”

How To Write A Project Plan in 6 Steps

Writing a project plan requires, well, planning. Ideally, the seeds for a project plan need to be sowed before internal project sign-off begins. Before that sign-off, conduct capacity planning to estimate the resources you will need and if they’re available for the duration of the project. After all, you want to set your teams up for success with realistic end dates, buffer time to recharge or catch up in case of unexpected delays, and deliver quality work without experiencing burnout .

Based on organizational capacity, you can lay down project timelines and map out scope as well as success metrics, outline tasks, and build a feedback loop into your project plan. Follow these project planning steps to create a winning plan:      

1. Establish Project Scope And Metrics

Defining your project scope is essential to protecting your iron, or agile, triangle from crumbling. Too often, projects are hit with scope creep , causing delays, budget overruns, and anxiety.

“Clearly define your project’s scope or overall purpose,” says Yazdani. “Confirm any project parameters or constraints, like budget, resource availability, and timeline,” says Yazdani.

A project purpose statement is a high-level brief that defines the what, who, and why of the project along with how and when the goal will be accomplished. But just as important as defining your project scope and purpose is defining what metrics you’re going to use to track progress.

“Establish how you will measure success,” says Yazdani. “Are there metrics, performance criteria, or quality standards you need to meet?”

Clearly defining what your project is, the project’s overall purpose, and how you’re going to measure success lays the foundation for the rest of your project plan—so make sure you take the time to define each of these elements from the get-go.

2. Identify Key Project Stakeholders 

Get clarity on the team members you need to bring the project to life. In other words, identify the key stakeholders of the project. 

“List individuals or groups who will be impacted by the project,” says Yazdani. 

In addition to identifying who needs to be involved in the project, think about how they’ll need to be involved—and at what level. Use a tool like Confluence to run a virtual session to clarify roles and responsibilities, and find gaps that need to be filled. 

Let’s say you’re managing a cross-functional project to launch a new marketing campaign that includes team members from your marketing, design, and sales departments. 

When identifying your key stakeholders, you might create different lists based on the responsibility or level of involvement with the project:

  • Decision-makers (who will need to provide input at each step of the project)
  • Managers (who will be overseeing employees within their department) 
  • Creative talent (who will be actually creating the project deliverables for the campaign) from each department. 

Give your project plan an edge by using a Confluence template like the one below to outline roles and responsibilities.

confluence template preview for roles and responsibility document

Define roles, discuss responsibilities, and clarify which tasks fall under each teammate’s purview using this Confluence template. 

Getting clarity on who needs to be involved in the project—and how they’re going to be involved—will help guide the rest of the project plan writing process (particularly when it comes to creating and assigning tasks).

3. Outline Deliverables

Now is the time to get granular.

Each project milestone comprises a series of smaller, tangible tasks that your teams need to produce. While a big-picture view keeps teams aligned, you need signposts along the way to guide them on a day-to-day or weekly basis. Create a list of deliverables that will help you achieve the greater vision of the project. 

“What will you create, build, design, produce, accomplish or deliver?” says Yazdani. “Clearly outline your project’s concrete and tangible deliverables or outcomes.” Centralize these deliverables in a Trello board with designated cards for each one, like in the example below, so you keep work moving forward.

trello board that shows tasks organized into status columns

Each card on a board represents tasks and ideas and you can move cards across lists to show progress.

Defining the concrete items you need your project to deliver will help you reverse-engineer the things that need to happen to bring those items to life—which is a must before moving on to the next step.

4. Develop Actionable Tasks

Task management is an important component of any project plan because they help employees see what exactly they need to accomplish. Drill down those deliverables into actionable tasks to assign to your team. 

You can use either Confluence or Jira for different task management needs. If you want to track tasks alongside your work, like action items from a meeting or small team projects, it’s best to use Confluence. But if a project has multiple teams and you need insight into workflows, task history, and reporting, Jira makes it easy.      

“Let your deliverables guide the work of the project,” says Yazdani. “Break down each deliverable into smaller and smaller components until you get to an actionable task.” If a major deliverable is a set of content pieces, the smaller actionable tasks would be to create topic ideas, conduct research, and create outlines for each topic.  

Once you’ve broken down all of your deliverables into manageable, assignable subtasks, analyze how each of those tasks interacts with each other. That way, you can plan, prioritize, assign, and add deadlines accordingly.  

“Highlight any dependencies between tasks, such as tasks that can’t be started until another task is complete,” says Yazdani. “List any resources you will need to accomplish these tasks.”

When a task has multiple assignees, you need to streamline the workflow in your project plan. Say the content pieces you outlined need to be edited or peer-reviewed. A couple of articles may need an interview with a subject matter expert. Lay down a stage-by-stage process of each piece of content and pinpoint when each team member comes into play so you prevent bottlenecks and adjust timeframes.     

5. Assign Tasks And Deadlines

Assign tasks to your team and collaborate with employees to set deadlines for each task. When you involve employees in setting workloads and deadlines , you increase ownership and boost the chances of delivering quality work on time.  

After all, you want to move projects forward at a steady pace, but you also want to make sure your teams stay motivated and engaged. So, when writing your project plan, make sure to “set realistic and achievable deadlines for completing tasks and deliverables,” says Yazdani. “Highlight dates that are inflexible and factor in task dependencies. Add in milestones or checkpoints to monitor progress and celebrate successes .”

example of a project essay

Use Jira and Confluence to create tasks that live alongside your project plan or meeting agendas.

Once you map out all of your tasks and deadlines, you should have a clear picture of how and when your project is going to come together—and the initial writing process is just about finished.

But that doesn’t mean your project plan is complete! There’s one more key step to the process.

6. Share, Gather Feedback, And Adjust The Project Plan As Necessary

While steps 1 through 5 may make up your initial writing process, if you want your project plan to be as strong and complete as it can be, it’s important to share it with your team—and get their input on how they think it can be improved.

“Share the plan with your project team and key stakeholders, gathering feedback to make adjustments and improvements,” says Yazdani. 

A tool like Confluence helps knowledge flow freely within teams and departments, leading to better teamwork, higher collaboration, and a shared understanding of priorities. Coworkers can use comments, mentions, notifications, and co-editing capabilities to provide and discuss feedback. 

After you gather your team’s feedback —and make any necessary adjustments based on that feedback—you can consider your project plan complete. Hooray! 

But as your project progresses, things may change or evolve—so it’s important to stay flexible and make changes and adjustments as needed.

“Expect to update your plan as you gather more information, encounter changing requirements and delays, and learn from feedback and mistakes,” says Yazdani. “By using your project plan to guide your activities and measure progress, you’ll be able to refine and improve your plan as you move through the project, tweaking tasks and deadlines as deliverables are developed.”

Download a  template to create your project plan and customize it based on your needs.

Example of a simple project plan 

A project plan doesn’t have to be a complicated spreadsheet with multiple tabs and drop-down menus. It’s best to use a project planning tool like Confluence — or at least a project plan template — to make sure you cover every aspect of the project. A simple project plan includes these elements:

  • Project name, brief summary, and objective.
  • Project players or team members who will drive the project, along with their roles and responsibilities.
  • Key outcomes and due dates.
  • Project elements, ideally divided into must-have, nice-to-have and not-in-scope categories.
  • Milestones, milestone owners, and a project end date.
  • Reference material relevant to the project.

Project plan Confluence template

Best Practices For Writing Effective Project Plans

A project planning process can quickly turn into a mishmash of goals and tasks that end up in chaos but these best practices can give you a framework to create a project plan that leads to success.

Use Other Project Plans For Inspiration

There’s no need to reinvent the wheel for every new project! Instead, look to other successful project plans for inspiration—and use them as a guide when writing the plan for your project.

“Review templates and plans for similar projects, or for other projects within your organization or industry, to get ideas for structuring and drafting your own plan,” says Yazdani.

To get started, use a Trello project management template and customize it for your project plan by creating unique lists and adding cards under each list.


Build your team’s ideal workflow and mark each stage of the project plan as a list, with cards for each task. 

Get Your Team Involved In The Process

You may be in charge of spearheading the project. But that doesn’t mean that you have to—or even that you should—write the project plan alone. 

“Collaborate with your project team and key stakeholders on crafting a project plan,” says Yazdani. “Input into the project plan supports buy-in to project goals and encourages continued engagement throughout the project.”

With Confluence , you can organize project details in a centralized space and build a project plan collaboratively.

Don’t Let Perfect Be The Enemy Of The Good

You may be tempted to write (and rewrite) your project plan until you’ve got every detail mapped out perfectly. But spending too much time trying to get everything “perfect” can actually hold up the project. So don’t let perfect be the enemy of the good—and instead of getting caught up in getting everything perfect from the get-go, stay willing and flexible to adjust your project plan as you move forward.

“Focus on outcomes, not plan perfection,” says Yazdani. “While it would be awesome for the first draft of our plan to require no changes while also inspiring our team and ensuring project success, our goal shouldn’t be a perfect plan. Our goal is a plan that allows us to successfully deliver on project goals. Responsiveness to changing needs and a shifting environment is more important than plan perfection.”

Use the right tools to succeed with your project plan

Writing a project plan, especially if you’re new to the process, can feel overwhelming. But now that you know the exact steps to write one, make sure you have the tools you need to create a strong, cohesive plan from the ground up—and watch your project thrive as a result. 

Atlassian Together can help with project planning and management with a powerful combination of tools that make work flow across teams.

Guide your team to project success with Atlassian Together’s suite of products.

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  • Starting the research process
  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on November 21, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:


Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

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Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

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As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.


  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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How to Write a Project Proposal (Examples & Template Included)


Table of Contents

What is a project proposal, types of project proposals, project proposal vs. project charter, project proposal vs. business case, project proposal vs. project plan, project proposal outline, how to write a project proposal, project proposal example, project proposal tips.

  • ProjectManager & Project Proposals

A project proposal is a project management document that’s used to define the objectives and requirements of a project. It helps organizations and external project stakeholders agree on an initial project planning framework.

The main purpose of a project proposal is to get buy-in from decision-makers. That’s why a project proposal outlines your project’s core value proposition; it sells value to both internal and external project stakeholders. The intent of the proposal is to grab the attention of stakeholders and project sponsors. Then, the next step is getting them excited about the project summary.

Getting into the heads of the audience for which you’re writing the project proposal is vital: you need to think like the project’s stakeholders to deliver a proposal that meets their needs.

We’ve created a free project proposal template for Word to help structure documents, so you don’t have to remember the process each time.

example of a project essay

Get your free

Project Proposal Template

Use this free Project Proposal Template for Word to manage your projects better.

In terms of types of project proposals, you can have one that’s formally solicited, informally solicited or a combination. There can also be renewal and supplemental proposals. Here’s a brief description of each of them.

  • Solicited project proposal: This is sent as a response to a request for proposal (RFP) . Here, you’ll need to adhere to the RFP guidelines of the project owner.
  • Unsolicited project proposal: You can send project proposals without having received a request for a proposal. This can happen in open bids for construction projects , where a project owner receives unsolicited project proposals from many contractors.
  • Informal project proposal: This type of project proposal is created when a client asks for an informal proposal without an RFP.
  • Renewal project proposal: You can use a renewal project proposal when you’re reaching out to past customers. The advantage is that you can highlight past positive results and future benefits.
  • Continuation project proposal: A continuation project proposal is sent to investors and stakeholders to communicate project progress.
  • Supplemental project proposal: This proposal is sent to investors to ask for additional resources during the project execution phase.

A project proposal is a detailed project document that’s used to convince the project sponsor that the project being proposed is worth the time, money and effort to deliver it. This is done by showing how the project will address a business problem or opportunity. It also outlines the work that will be done and how it will be done.

A project charter can seem like the same thing as a project proposal as it also defines the project in a document. It identifies the project objectives, scope, goals, stakeholders and team. But it’s done after the project has been agreed upon by all stakeholders and the project has been accepted. The project charter authorizes the project and documents its requirements to meet stakeholders’ needs.

A business case is used to explain why the proposed project is justified. It shows that the project is worth the investment of time and money. It’s more commonly used in larger companies in the decision-making process when prioritizing one project over another.

The business case answers the questions: what is the project, why should it be taken up, who will be involved and how much will it cost? It’s therefore related to a project proposal, but the project proposal comes before the business case and is usually part of the larger proposal.

Again, the project proposal and the project plan in this case are very similar documents. It’s understandable that there would be some confusion between these two project terms. They both show how the project will be run and what the results will be. However, they’re not the same.

The project proposal is a document that aims to get a project approved and funded. It’s used to convince stakeholders of the viability of the project and their investment. The project plan, on the other hand, is made during the planning phase of the project, once it’s been approved. It’s a detailed outline of how the project will be implemented, including schedule, budget, resources and more.

All the elements in the above project proposal outline are present in our template. This free project proposal template for Word will provide you with everything you need to write an excellent project proposal. It will help you with the executive summary, project process, deliverables, costs—even terms and conditions. Download your free template today.

Project proposal tempalte for Word

There are several key operational and strategic questions to consider, including:

  • Executive summary: This is the elevator pitch that outlines the project being proposed and why it makes business sense. While it also touches on the information that’ll follow in the project proposal, the executive summary should be brief and to the point.
  • Project background: This is another short part of the proposal, usually only one page, which explains the problem you’ll solve or the opportunity you’re taking advantage of with the proposed project. Also, provide a short history of the business to put the company in context to the project and why it’s a good fit.
  • Project vision & success criteria: State the goal of the project and how it aligns with the goals of the company. Be specific. Also, note the metrics used to measure the success of the project.
  • Potential risks and mitigation strategies: There are always risks. Detail them here and what strategies you’ll employ to mitigate any negative impact as well as take advantage of any positive risk.
  • Project scope & deliverables: Define the project scope, which is all the work that has to be done and how it will be done. Also, detail the various deliverables that the project will have.
  • Set SMART goals: When setting goals, be SMART. That’s an acronym for specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound. All your goals would be defined by those five things.
  • Project approach: Define the approach you’ll use for the contract. There are several different types of contracts used in construction , for example, such as lump sum, cost plus, time and materials, etc. This is also a good place to describe the delivery method you’ll use.
  • Expected benefits: Outline the benefits that will come from the successful completion of the project.
  • Project resource requirements: List the resources, such as labor, materials, equipment, etc., that you’ll need to execute the project if approved.
  • Project costs & budget: Detail all the costs, including resources, that’ll be required to complete the project and set up a budget to show how those costs will be spent over the course of the project.
  • Project timeline: Lay out the project timeline , which shows the project from start to finish, including the duration of each phase and the tasks within it, milestones, etc.

In addition to these elements, it’s advisable to use a cover letter, which is a one-page document that helps you introduce your project proposal and grab the attention of potential clients and stakeholders.

To make the best proposal possible, you’ll want to be thorough and hit on all the points we’ve listed above. Here’s a step-by-step guide to writing a persuasive priority proposal.

1. Write an Executive Summary

The executive summary provides a quick overview of the main elements of your project proposal, such as your project background, project objectives and project deliverables, among other things. The goal is to capture the attention of your audience and get them excited about the project you’re proposing. It’s essentially the “elevator pitch” for the project life cycle. It should be short and to the point.

The executive summary should be descriptive and paint a picture of what project success looks like for the client. Most importantly, it should motivate the project client; after all, the goal is getting them to sign on the dotted line to get the project moving!

2. Provide a Project Background

The project background is a one-page section of your project proposal that explains the problem that your project will solve. You should explain when this issue started, its current state and how your project will be the ideal solution.

  • Historic data: The history section outlines previously successful projects and those that could have run more smoothly. By doing so, this section establishes precedents and how the next project can be more effective using information from previous projects.
  • Solution: The solution section addresses how your project will solve the client’s problem. Accordingly, this section includes any project management techniques , skills and procedures your team will use to work efficiently.

3. Establish a Project Vision & Success Criteria

You’ll need to define your project vision. This is best done with a vision statement, which acts as the north star for your project. It’s not specific as much as it’s a way to describe the impact your company plans to make with the project.

It’s also important to set up success criteria to show that the project is in fact doing what it’s proposed to do. Three obvious project success criteria are the triple constraint of cost, scope and time. But you’ll need to set up a way to measure these metrics and respond to them if they’re not meeting your plan.

4. Identify Potential Risks and Mitigation Strategies

To reduce the impact of risk in your project, you need to identify what those risks might be and develop a plan to mitigate them . List all the risks, prioritize them, describe what you’ll do to mitigate or take advantage of them and who on the team is responsible for keeping an eye out for them and resolving them.

5. Define Your Project Scope and Project Deliverables

The project scope refers to all the work that’ll be executed. It defines the work items, work packages and deliverables that’ll be delivered during the execution phase of your project life cycle. It’s important to use a work breakdown structure (WBS) to define your tasks and subtasks and prioritize them.

6. Set SMART Goals for Your Project Proposal

The best mindset when developing goals and objectives for your project proposal is to use the SMART system :

  • Specific – Make sure your goals and objectives are clear, concise and specific to the task at hand.
  • Measurable – Ensure your goals and objectives are measurable so it’s obvious to see when things are on track and going well, and conversely, when things are off track and issues need to be addressed. Measurable goals make it easy to develop the milestones you’ll use to track the progress of the project and identify a reasonable date for completion and/or closure.
  • Attainable – It’s important every project has a “reach” goal. Hitting this goal would mean an outstanding project that extends above and beyond expectations. However, it’s important that the project’s core goal is attainable, so morale stays high and the job gets done with time and resources to spare.
  • Relevant – Make sure all of your goals are directly relevant to the project and address the scope within which you’re working.
  • Time-Based – Timelines and specific dates should be at the core of all goals and objectives. This helps keep the project on track and ensures all project team members can manage the work that’s ahead of them.

7. Explain What’s Your Project Approach

Your project approach defines the project management methodology , tools and governance for your project. In simple terms, it allows project managers to explain to stakeholders how the project will be planned, executed and controlled successfully.

8. Outline The Expected Benefits of Your Project Proposal

If you want to convince internal stakeholders and external investors, you’ll need to show them the financial benefits that your project could bring to their organization. You can use cost-benefit analysis and projected financial statements to demonstrate why your project is profitable.

9. Identify Project Resource Requirements

Project resources are critical for the execution of your project. The project proposal briefly describes what resources are needed and how they’ll be used. Later, during the planning phase, you’ll need to create a resource management plan that’ll be an important element of your project plan. Project requirements are the items, materials and resources needed for the project. This section should cover both internal and external needs.

10. Estimate Project Costs and Project Budget

All the resources that you’ll need for your project have a price tag. That’s why you need to estimate those costs and create a project budget . The project budget needs to cover all your project expenses, and as a project manager, you’ll need to make sure that you adhere to the budget.

11. Define a Project Timeline

Once you’ve defined your project scope, you’ll need to estimate the duration of each task to create a project timeline. Later during the project planning phase , you’ll need to create a schedule baseline, which estimates the total length of your project. Once the project starts, you’ll compare your actual project schedule to the schedule baseline to monitor progress.

Now let’s explore some project proposal examples to get a better understanding of how a project proposal would work in the real world. For this example, let’s imagine a city that’s about to build a rapid transit system. The city government has the funds to invest but lacks the technical expertise and resources that are needed to build it, so it issues a request for proposal (RFP) document and sends it to potential builders.

Then, the construction companies that are interested in executing this rapid transit project will prepare a project proposal for the city government. Here are some of the key elements they should include.

  • Project background: The construction firm will provide an explanation of the challenges that the project presents from a technical perspective, along with historical data from similar projects that have been completed successfully by the company.
  • Project vision & success criteria: Write a vision statement and explain how you’ll track the triple constraint to ensure the successful delivery of the project.
  • Potential risks and mitigation strategies: List all risks and how they’ll be mitigated, and be sure to prioritize them.
  • Project scope & deliverables: The work that’ll be done is outlined in the scope, including all the deliverables that’ll be completed over the life cycle of the project.
  • Set SMART goals: Use the SMART technique to define your project goals by whether they’re specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound.
  • Project approach: Define the methodology that the project manager will employ to manage the project. Also, figure out what type of contract will be used to define the project.
  • Expected benefits: Show how the project will deliver advantages to the company and define what these benefits are in a quantifiable way.
  • Project resource requirements: List all the resources, such as labor, materials, equipment, etc., needed to execute the project.
  • Project costs & budget: Estimate the cost of the project and lay that out in a project budget that covers everything from start to finish.
  • Project timeline: Outline the project schedule, including phases, milestones and task duration on a visual timeline.

Whatever project proposal you’re working on, there are a few tips that apply as best practices for all. While above we suggested a project proposal template that would have a table of contents, meaning it would be many pages long, the best-case scenario is keeping the proposal to one or two pages max. Remember, you’re trying to win over stakeholders, not bore them.

Speaking of project stakeholders , do the research. You want to address the right ones. There’s no point in doing all the work necessary to write a great proposal only to have it directed to the wrong target audience. Whoever is going to read it, though, should be able to comprehend the proposal. Keep the language simple and direct.

When it comes to writing, get a professional. Even a business document like a project proposal, business case or executive summary will suffer if it’s poorly constructed or has typos. If you don’t want to hire a professional business writer, make sure you get someone on your project team to copy, edit and proof the document. The more eyes on it, the less likely mistakes will make it to the final edition.

While you want to keep the proposal short and sweet, it helps to sweeten the pot by adding customer testimonials to the attachments. Nothing sells a project plan better than a customer base looking for your product or service.

ProjectManager & Project Proposals

ProjectManager allows you to plan proposals within our software. You can update tasks for the project proposal to signify where things stand and what’s left to be done. The columns allow you to organize your proposal by section, creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) of sorts.

When building a project proposal, it’s vital to remember your target audience. Your audience includes those who are excited about the project, and see completion as a gain for their organization. Conversely, others in your audience will see the project as a pain and something to which they aren’t looking forward. To keep both parties satisfied, it’s essential to keep language factual and concise.

Our online kanban boards help you think through that language and collaborate on it effectively with other team members, if necessary. Each card shows the percentage completed so everyone in the project management team is aware of the work done and what’s left to be done.

Example Project Proposal Kanban Board

As you can see from the kanban board above, work has begun on tasks such as product documentation and design. Tasks regarding stakeholder feedback, ideation, market research and more have been completed, and there’s a good start on the engineering drawings, 3D rendering, supply chain sourcing and translation services.

A PDF is then attached to the card, and everyone added to the task receives an email notifying them of the change. This same process can be used throughout the life-cycle of the project to keep the team updated, collaborating, and producing a first-class project proposal. In addition to kanban boards, you can also use other project management tools such as Gantt charts , project dashboards, task lists and project calendars to plan, schedule and track your projects.

Project proposals are just the first step in the project planning process. Once your project is approved, you’ll have to solidify the plan, allocate and manage resources, monitor the project, and finally hand in your deliverables. This process requires a flexible, dynamic and robust project management software package. ProjectManager is online project management software that helps all your team members collaborate and manage this process in real-time. Try our award-winning software with this free 30-day trial .

Click here to browse ProjectManager's free templates

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Essays on Project

College project essay topics.

Choosing the right essay topic is crucial for college students. It allows for creativity, personal interest, and the opportunity to explore new ideas. Below, you will find a variety of essay types and topics to help you get started on your next project.

Argumentative Essay Topics

  • Should college athletes be paid?
  • Is social media beneficial or harmful to society?
  • Should the voting age be lowered to 16?

Paragraph Example:

Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the United States, affecting 40 million adults in the country. Despite this staggering statistic, the stigma surrounding mental health issues persists, leading to a lack of understanding and support for those who suffer from anxiety. In this essay, we will explore the impact of social media on mental health and argue for greater awareness and acceptance of anxiety disorders in society.

The influence of social media on mental health is a complex and pressing issue. By raising awareness and promoting understanding, we can work towards a society that is more compassionate and supportive of those struggling with anxiety disorders.

Descriptive Essay Topics

  • The impact of technology on modern society
  • A memorable childhood experience
  • The beauty of nature in the changing seasons

Walking through the bustling streets of the city, one cannot help but be struck by the omnipresence of technology. From smartphones to self-driving cars, the modern world is defined by innovation and advancement. In this essay, we will delve into the profound impact of technology on contemporary society, exploring both its benefits and drawbacks.

As we navigate the complexities of a technologically-driven world, it is essential to consider the implications of our reliance on technology. By fostering a balanced relationship with technology, we can harness its potential for progress while preserving the qualities that make us uniquely human.

Persuasive Essay Topics

  • The importance of environmental conservation
  • The benefits of volunteer work for college students
  • The need for mental health education in schools

As college students, we have the power to effect positive change in our communities and beyond. In this essay, we will advocate for the integration of mental health education into school curriculums, recognizing the critical role that education plays in destigmatizing mental illness and promoting mental wellness.

By prioritizing mental health education in schools, we can empower future generations to lead healthier, more fulfilling lives. Let us work together to create a world where mental health is valued and understood by all.

Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

  • The portrayal of love in Shakespearean sonnets and modern poetry
  • The similarities and differences between traditional and online education
  • The contrasting themes of individualism and collectivism in Eastern and Western cultures

Narrative Essay Topics

  • A life-changing travel experience
  • An unforgettable encounter with a stranger
  • A personal challenge that led to growth and self-discovery

Remember to explore a variety of topics and choose one that resonates with you. Each essay type offers unique opportunities for learning and self-expression. Happy writing!

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Project Plan, Essay Example

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When beginning a project in any business setting, it is important to implement a proper project management plan. These plans are essentials to every aspect of a project. There are nine subcategories involved with any project management plan. The project plan in its entirety will help to achieve goals, deliver the project, schedule the project, and create supporting plans involving the project (Haughey, 2013).

It is important to understand the stakeholders that are essential to the project plan. Stakeholders are the people who have an interest in plan or the people who will be affected by the outcome of the plan (Project planning: stakeholder analysis, 2013). The stakeholders involved in opening a restaurant are the owners, the project team, investors, future customers, and employees. It is important that they are all considered when planning the project.

The project that is being worked on is a business plan for a restaurant. There are many details that are involved with opening a restaurant, or any business for that manner. The project plan is going to help with any goals or time lines that are involved with this project. It is important that this project plan is implemented after being created.

The first step in the project plan is to create the scope management plan. The project scope includes all the details of the project (Project management knowledge, 2010). This includes all input and output within the project. In this plan the project is defined, how the project will develop, and work breakdown structure will be included (Project management knowledge, 2010).

Problems that may arise for the project manager, specifically pertaining to opening a restaurant could be that minor details may be missing. Details regarding how many employees are actually necessary or how many dishes will be needed. These issues may slip through the cracks when detailing the project as a whole.

Another issue may be the work breakdown. There may be people included in this plan that are not taking the responsibility necessary to complete the project. This could be from a lack of specific detail as to job responsibilities within the plan.

The next the subcategory of the project plan is the time management plan. This plan is fairly self explanatory. The time management portion of the plan will set specific deadlines for goals to be accomplished. This is very important, especially when opening a business. The business owner’s livelihood may depend on it.

Issue that may arise for the project manager may be that due to dire circumstances, the project falls behind. A restaurant may miss the expected opening date due to a failure to obtain proper licensing for food or liquor. Another issue could be that due to inclement weather, the contractors cannot complete their work in a timely manner. This part of the project plan could fall apart through no fault of the people in charge.

The cost management plan is very important to the project plan. The cost management plan provides details regarding the cost that will incur for the project, as well as the cost that will be received after the project is finished (Project management knowledge, 2010). These costs are estimates. It will also provide planning and structure for these costs incurred (Project management knowledge, 2010).

The project manager may run into issues if the costs are higher than the estimates included in the plan. Costs could rise if more labor is needed, if more materials are needed, or even more licensing than expected is needed when dealing with restaurants. Sometimes these aspects of the business can be hard to estimate. There could also be an issue if the quotes that were received change over the course of the project for some reason. This could affect time management if the funds are not available immediately.

The communication management plan is another aspect of a project plan. This plan offers details to how the team will communicate during the project (Project management knowledge, 2010). This could be any type of communication to include e-mails, cell phones, or even weekly memos. Communication is key in any project.

When planning for opening a restaurant, it is important to communicate any license requirements, materials needed, even a cleaning schedule for the project. An issue could arise if the team fails to inform each other of necessary work or other issues that may arise. If the entire team is informed there should not be problems, it is when communication breaks down that problems arise.

The next subcategory is the risk management plan. This plan outlines procedures to reduce risk and also how to handle risks that arise (Project management knowledge, 2010). With any project there are risks involved.

This very true with the restaurant business, from start to finish. Risks include economic hardships, people involved with the project, materials being used, etc. There are always risks, some can be foreseen and others cannot. It is important to understand that things do not always go according to plan and this may be something that the project manager will have to deal with.

The integration management plan includes all facets of the project that are interconnected (Project management knowledge, 2010). This plans details these facets and explains how they are connected. This important because it shows how these facets are cohesive and functional (Project management knowledge, 2010).

The project manager may have to deal with individuals that do not understand why a certain aspect of the project is important. For instance, with opening a restaurant, the project will include plans for taking part in charity endeavors. The integration plan will explain how it is important for the business to give back to community, so all aspects of the project must be completed before the grand opening date.

Next there is procurement management plan. This plan allows for the team to determine what must be procured early in the project cycle (Project management knowledge, 2010). This plan basically states what is needed to begin, continue, and finish the project.

Unfortunately for the project manager this plan is not set in stone and may change many times over the duration of the project. Again the issue of the budget may arise. If funds are not available, the plan will change accordingly.

The human resources management plan will define each role of the project, and assign these roles to individual members of the team (Project management knowledge, 2010). Personal responsibilities regarding the project will be given to individual team members and also how reporting to other team members will take place (Project management knowledge, 2010). This is essential to the project.

Issues that may arise for the project when opening a business in regards to human resources can vary but be multiple. Issues include laziness, miscommunication, misunderstanding, and also basic unpleasantness between specific team members. This all has to be dealt with fairly and accurately.

The quality management plan is the final subcategory in the project plan. This plan outlines the methodology that will be used to complete the project (Project management knowledge, 2010). This methodology will ensure that the project meets the necessary standards and level of quality that is expected from the team (Project management knowledge, 2010). It is very important to the overall project.

The major problem that could arise for the project manager is that certain team members may attempt to cut corners in an effort to save time or money. In a restaurant, if the product is not quality it will hurt business. Product includes dishes, food items, and even hired staff members. This should all be in place when the project is finished. If the end product of the project lacks quality, the project manager may face reprimands at the very least.

A project is a onetime effort to accomplish a goal (All about project management, 2013). It produces a given result. The project plan outlines goals, objectives, responsibilities, and outcomes. It is very important when planning for a business opening that the project plan is detailed and aligns with all nine subcategories included in the plan.

All about project management . (2013). Retrieved April 30, 2013, from Free management library:

Haughey, D. (2013). Project planning a step by step guide . Retrieved April 30, 2013, from Project smart:

Project management knowledge . (2010). Retrieved April 30, 2013, from Project management knowledge:

Project planning: stakeholder analysis . (2013). Retrieved April 30, 2013, from JISC:

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    A project also has a specific set of operations to accomplish a singular goal. Examples of projects are as follows: Development of software to improve business process, Construction of bridge or building, Expansion of sales to specific geographical areas. Major goal of executing projects is to achieve a strategic plan.

  10. How to Structure an Essay

    The basic structure of an essay always consists of an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. But for many students, the most difficult part of structuring an essay is deciding how to organize information within the body. This article provides useful templates and tips to help you outline your essay, make decisions about your structure, and ...

  11. How to Write an EPQ Essay

    9 steps to write your EPQ essay. 1. Come up with an idea. One of the main reasons students fail their EPQ is because they've chosen the wrong subject matter. It's vital that you choose a topic you're genuinely interested in, otherwise you won't have any motivation to work on it.

  12. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper

    7. Preparations Made. Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). 8. Conclusion. Do not restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the "history" of a certain proposal.

  13. Project Management Essays

    Project Management Planning of Office Relocation. Example essay. Last modified: 22nd Sep 2021. The main purpose of this project in hand is to offer goods to customers in an quick manner by deploying less time and reduction over the expenses. This will prove to be fruitful for Nisa Ltd as service and timely delivery of products over shops will ...

  14. Project Management Essay Examples

    Browse essays about Project Management and find inspiration. Learn by example and become a better writer with Kibin's suite of essay help services. Essay Examples

  15. Essay on Project Management Process

    Essay on Project Management Process. Published: 2021/12/02. Number of words: 3946. Abstract. Project management is a tool used to ensure maximum utilization of goods and resources available to achieve specific goals of a project. The main objective of this paper is to show how project management plays an important role in ensuring the project ...

  16. Sample papers

    These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different student paper types. Students may write the same types of papers as professional authors (e.g., quantitative studies, literature reviews) or other types of papers for course assignments (e.g., reaction or response papers, discussion posts), dissertations, and theses.

  17. (PDF) undergraduate project paper

    undergraduate project paper. February 2019; DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2 ... unpublished research papers, websites etc. ... compatibility with persons assistive technology for example computer screen ...

  18. How to write an effective project plan in 6 simple steps

    A simple project plan includes these elements: Project name, brief summary, and objective. Project players or team members who will drive the project, along with their roles and responsibilities. Key outcomes and due dates. Project elements, ideally divided into must-have, nice-to-have and not-in-scope categories.

  19. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Example research proposal #1: "A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management" Example research proposal #2: "Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use" Title page. Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes: The proposed title of your project; Your name

  20. How to Write a Project Proposal (Examples & Template Included)

    This free project proposal template for Word will provide you with everything you need to write an excellent project proposal. It will help you with the executive summary, project process, deliverables, costs—even terms and conditions. Download your free template today. ProjectManager's project proposal template.

  21. ≡Essays on Project. Free Examples of Research Paper Topics, Titles

    College Project Essay Topics. Choosing the right essay topic is crucial for college students. It allows for creativity, personal interest, and the opportunity to explore new ideas. Below, you will find a variety of essay types and topics to help you get started on your next project. Argumentative Essay Topics. Should college athletes be paid?

  22. Project Plan, Essay Example

    The communication management plan is another aspect of a project plan. This plan offers details to how the team will communicate during the project (Project management knowledge, 2010). This could be any type of communication to include e-mails, cell phones, or even weekly memos. Communication is key in any project.

  23. Proposal Essay Examples: Convincing Ideas for Your Research Paper or Essay

    An essay proposal is a document that outlines the content and purpose of your proposed essay. Whereas a thesis conveys the central concept of your study, an essay proposal summarizes the intent and substance of a specific essay. A proposal essay also serves as a detailed plan of action addressing a particular problem.

  24. My Diet Analysis Project

    Essay Example: Embarking on the journey of analyzing one's diet is akin to setting sail on a voyage of self-discovery and transformation. As a diligent student committed to self-improvement, I approached my diet analysis project with an earnest desire to gain insights into my eating habits,