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SQL for Beginners Tutorial (Learn SQL in 2023)

  • April 29, 2020 March 28, 2023

database assignment for beginners

Welcome to our SQL for Beginners Tutorial! In this guide, you’ll learn everything you need to know to get started with SQL for data analysis.

We cover off fundamental concepts of the SQL language, such as creating databases and tables, select records, updating and deleting records, etc.

database assignment for beginners

Follow Along!

To download the full guide in a beautiful PDF, a SQL Cheat Sheet, and a database file to play along with, sign up below .

You’ll receive an email with the download link shortly! If you don’t, check your spam folder or email me at [email protected] .


We also cover off some more intermediate concepts such as joining tables. We do this by providing many SQL examples to guide you through the process.

A highlight of what will be covered off in the SQL for Beginners Tutorial

Table of Contents

What is SQL?

SQL stands for Structured Query Language and is a standard programming language designed for storing, retrieving, and managing data stored in a relational database management system (RDBMS).

SQL is the most popular database language but has been implemented differently by different database systems. For the purposes of this tutorial, we’ll use SQLite3 – a trimmed down version of SQL that is easier to implement if you want to follow along.

SQL can be pronounced as both sequel or S-Q-L.

How is SQL Used?

In short, SQL is used where databases are used. SQL is used, for example, by music streaming applications to provide information on songs, albums, artists and playlists. It’s also used in the finance industry to update bank accounts, for example.

SQL is used to create, maintain, and update databases. Because databases are everywhere in technology, whether on your iPhone or on this website, SQL is used almost everywhere.

Why Should You Learn SQL?

SQL is one of the key languages to learn on your journey to becoming a data analyst or data scientist. It’s used everywhere, it’s in high demand, and it isn’t showing any sign of going anywhere.

It’s also in incredibly high demand in terms of data jobs, as this Indeed study found:

Nearly a quarter of tech jobs posted require a knowledge of SQL.

How Long Does it Take to Learn SQL?

It’s possible to learn the fundamentals of SQL in a matter of days. This post will walk you through everything you need to get started with analyzing data using SQL.

A more complete answer would be: it depends on what your previous knowledge is. If you have an understanding of relational databases or other programming languages, you might have an easier time.

The best way to learn is to dive into it with beginner exercises. Later, you can apply what you’ve learned to large, more complex examples to better prepare you for the real world.

What is SQLite?

SQLite is a relational database management system that is embedded in the end program. This makes it an easier solution for this tutorial to follow along with, as it’s something you can set up immediately on your machine. It’s quite similar in structure to another iteration of SQL called PostgreSQL.

SQL for Beginners Tutorial – What We’re Creating

Following along with this SQL for beginners tutorial, I’ll walk you through all the code you need to create the following database. It’s a simple one, but it’ll teach you basic and intermediate SQL skills!

The sample database we'll be creating in the SQL for Beginners Tutorial

If you’re not familiar with database structures, let’s go over a few key elements before diving in:

  • Table Names are listed in blue. In this database, we have two tables: clients and orders .
  • Primary Keys of tables are in bold. Primary keys uniquely identify a record in a table.
  • A line is drawn between columns that have a relationship. In this case, the client_id in the clients table connects with userid in the orders table. Each client can have multiple orders – this means that the client table has a one-to-many relationship.

How Do You Create Tables in SQL?

To create a table in SQL, you following the structure below:

Let’s take a look at these commands in a little bit more detail:

  • CREATE TABLE is the command used to instruct SQL to create a new table,
  • IF NOT EXISTS only makes SQL create the table is the table doesn’t already exist,
  • tableName reflects the name of the table to be created,
  • Within brackets, columns are defined by providing: the column name and any constraints.
  • SQLite supports PRIMARY KEY , UNIQUE , NOT NULL , CHECK column constraints.
  • Within the brackets, table constraints such as PRIMARY KEY , FOREIGN KEY , and UNIQUE .
  • We end with a semi-colon, which let’s SQL know that the command is complete.

Assigning a PRIMARY KEY value to a column or multiple columns means that the column(s) uniquely identify a record in the table.

In order to create the two tables for our sample database, we would write the following code:

When we run this command, we create our two tables. We’re including the IF NOT EXISTS command so that we can re-run the command without SQL throwing an error that the tables already exist.

How Do You Insert Data with SQL?

In this section, you’ll learn how to insert data with SQL. We’ll be loading data into the tables that we generated in the previous section . Inserting data with SQL is a straightforward process. Let’s get started!

The general process looks like this:

Let’s look at the INSERT statement in a bit more detail:

  • We first specify the name of the table we want to add values into
  • We then specify a list of all the columns in the table. While this list is optional, it’s good practice to include it.
  • We then follow with a list of values we want to include. If we don’t spell out all the column names, we have to include a value for each column.

If the table has some constraints, such as UNIQUE or NOT NULL, these need to be maintained in our INSERT statement.

Let’s now insert a few records into both of our tables:

We’ve now successfully inserted records into both of our tables!

How Do You Modify Records with SQL?

To modify records in SQL, you use the UPDATE statement to update existing rows within a table.

The UPDATE statement works like below:

Let’s explore this in a bit more detail:

  • We follow UPDATE with the name of the table where we want to update records,
  • SET is followed by a list of column = value pairings of which columns we want data to be updated in
  • The WHERE statement identifies the records where we want data to be updated

Note! The WHERE statement identifies the records to be updated. While this field is optional, if it’s left blank, it causes all records in that table to be overwritten.

Let’s try this out to update one of our records in our client table:

In this example, we updated our second record in the clients table to change the client’s first name from Jane to Jean the last name from Doe to Grey.

If we had left the WHERE statement blank, all first names in the table would have become Jean and all last names would have become Grey!

How Do You Delete Records with SQL?

To delete a record, or multiple records, from a table in SQL, you use the DELETE statement. This follows a similar structure to the UPDATE statement:

Let’s explore this in more detail:

  • DELETE FROM is followed by the table in which we want to delete,
  • WHERE is followed by the condition(s) which are used to tell SQL which records to delete

Note! The WHERE statement is optional, but if it’s left blank, all the records in the table will be deleted.

Let’s now practice by deleting a record from our orders table:

In the above example, we specified that we wanted to delete the record where order_id is equal to 6, from the orders table.

How Do You Select Records with SQL?

The SELECT statement is used to select and retrieve data from one or multiple tables. The SELECT statement can be modified to either select everything from a table or only a subset of records. Later on, we’ll also cover off how to select data from multiple tables using JOIN statements.

Selecting and retrieving data is an important skill for data analysis and data science. Because of this, we’ll dedicate a significant amount of time to this to provide helpful examples!

Selecting All Records in a Table with SQL

The most straightforward to select data with SQL is to select all the records in a table. This is accomplished using the structure below:

  • The asterisk (*) is used as a wildcard character in SQL. We ask SQL to return all columns in a table.
  • FROM is used to specify from which table we want to return data.

Let’s try this with one of our tables:

This would provide the following output:

Select Only Some Columns from a Table

If we wanted to only return a number of columns from a table, we could specify the column names in our SELECT statement. This follows the structure below:

Let’s try this out with one of our tables:

How Do You Limit SQL Outputs?

There may be times when you’re only interested in a smaller subset of data from your query and want to only select a number of a rows.

In true databases, tables will have many, many more rows than our sample tables. By limiting outputs, you can also improve the performance of your queries, which is especially useful when you’re testing a query.

Let’s see what this looks like! For the purposes of our SQL for beginners tutorial, we will follow SQLite syntax, which follows the MySQL syntax:

This follows a similar structure to a regular select statement, except we add a LIMIT clause at the end with a number of rows we want to limit the query to.

Let’s true this out on our database:

This returns the following:

If we were writing this in Microsoft SQL-Server, we would write the following:

SQL WHERE Clause: How Do You Select Records Conditionally with SQL?

The WHERE clause is used in many different places in SQL, including the SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements. In the SELECT statement, the WHERE clause extracts only the records that meet the conditions specified in the WHERE clause.

The WHERE clause is used in the SELECT statement in the following way:

Let’s break this down further:

  • The SELECT statement is used to identify the column(s) to be selected,
  • The FROM statement is used to identify the table from which to extract records,
  • The WHERE statement is followed by either a single condition or multiple conditions.

Filter Records with WHERE Clause in SQL

Let’s say that we only wanted to select records from our orders table where the total price was higher than 100, we could write:

This returns the following table:

Filter Records with Different Operators

To be able to more accurately filter data, we can use different operators, which are listed out below. Since this is a SQL for beginners tutorial, we’ll only cover off some of them in this tutorial.

SQL AND & OR Operators

We can also apply multiple conditions to a WHERE clause. Within this, we can use the different operators that we showed above. We can apply this with AND and OR statements to further filter data.

Combining Conditions with AND Statements

The AND operator is used to evaluate whether two conditions are TRUE. It’s used in combination with the WHERE statement. This follows the format below:

This returns only records where both condition1 and condition2 are met.

If we wanted to, for example, return all orders where the user_id is equal to 1 and the order total is greater or equal to 200. We could do this using the following code:

Combining Conditions with OR Statements

OR statements are used when only one condition needs to be true. This is helpful in situations where it doesn’t matter which condition is true.

This follows the format below:

Let’s look at an example:

The table above includes any record where there userid is equal to 1 or where the total is greater or equal to 90.

Combining Conditions with both AND & OR Statements

Conditions can also be combined with both AND & OR statements to further refine our queries. In the sample below, make note of how the brackets are used to contain the OR statement:

Let’s try this out with another example:

How Do You Aggregate Data with SQL?

SQL is not only useful for selecting data or maintaining databases, but also for aggregating data. SQL has a number of helpful aggregation functions, including COUNT, SUM, AVG, MIN, and MAX.

As part of our SQL for beginners tutorial, let's take a look at an example. We may be asked, "What is the average value of each order?". We can do this easily in SQL using our sample database by writing the following code:

This returns:

How Do You Group Data with SQL?

GROUP BY is used with the SELECT statement and aggregation functions to group records by a common value.

The code for this follows the convention below:

Let's break this down a little:

  • The SELECT statement lists out columns and aggregate functions applied to columns.
  • The FROM statement identifies which table to pull data from,
  • The GROUP BY statement identifies which column to group by. It's helpful to have this column in the SELECT statement.

Let's try this with an example. Say we wanted to know what the total value of orders and count of orders were, by client, we could write:

How Do You Change a Column Name in SQL?

To change a column name in SQL, an alias is used .

In the example above, we can see that the column names of SUM(total) and COUNT(total) are accurate, but not easy to understand. We may want to change the column names to "Total_Sale_Value" and "Total_Number_of_Sales".

Similarly, we may want to capitalize userid.

In SQL, this is done with what is known as an alias. Let's see how this is accomplished:

The "as" is optional, but makes the code easier to read. The same would be accomplished using:

If we wanted to apply this to our query from the Aggregating Data example from earlier in our SQL for beginners tutorial, we could write:

This returns the table below:

How Do You Join Tables in SQL?

So far, all the queries we've looked at have retrieved data from a single table. However, most databases have many more tables and queries often require joining data from multiple tables. This is done using the JOIN statement.

Let's take a quick look at our database we created for this SQL tutorial for beginners:

The diagram above shows that client_id in the clients table has a one-to-many relationship with the userid field in the orders table. Practically, this means that a single client can have multiple orders.

In terms of databases, this means that userid is a foreign key for the client_id field. Because this relationship exists, we know that we can join these two tables.

There are a number of different types of joins. Let's take a look at these now.

Different types of joins available in SQL as part of SQL for Beginners Tutorial

An Inner Join only the rows of tables that exist in both tables. Take the two tables as an example. If we created a new client that did not yet have any orders, that new client would not show up as he or she would not be represented within the orders table.

Let's go through the syntax of how to write these joins:

Let's explore this a little more:

  • In the SELECT statement, we include all the fields we want to bring in, from both tables. We prefix the column names with the table name as best practice, in case there is an overlap between column names.
  • If you knew that you wanted to return all records from one table, you could write table_name.*
  • The FROM statement is followed by an INNER JOIN statement that identifies the table the join.
  • The ON statement identifies which fields to merge on. This identifies the two fields in each table that have a foreign key relationship.

Let's demonstrate this with an example. Say we wanted to join in the first and last names of clients onto the orders table. To demonstrate this better, let's create a customer in the clients table, but not any orders for that customer.

Now, let's do an inner join of the two tables. If this runs correctly, we should not see our new client returned in the table.

Outer Joins

There are three types of outer joins: left join, right join, and outer (or full) join.

A left join includes all the records from the table on the "left" and only matching records from the table on the right. If you're familiar with VLOOKUP in Excel, you can think of a left join as being a VLOOKUP from one table to another.

Let's take a look how to write a left join in SQL:

The format is quite similar to an inner join. Let's explore this in more detail:

  • In the SELECT statement, we list out all the fields we want to bring in. We prefix the column names with the table name.
  • The FROM statement is followed by a LEFT JOIN statement that identifies the table the join.
  • The ON statement identifies which fields to merge on.

Let's now write a statement that merges in order data into the client table. What we would expect to see is that any client that does not yet have any orders would still exist in the returned data, but not have any data in the columns relating to orders.

Note here that client_id 4 exists in the table, but does not return any values for the total column. This is because that client hasn't placed any orders (therefore doesn't exist in the right table), but exists in the left table.

A right join includes all the records from the table on the "right" and only matching records from the table on the left. However, note that SQLite doesn't support a right join, but other implementations of SQL do. As this is a SQL for beginners tutorial, we won't cover off other languages here.

Full Join / Full Outer Join

A full outer join will return records from both tables, regardless if they exist in one and not in the other. However, note that SQLite doesn't support a right join, but other implementations of SQL do.

Conclusion: SQL for Beginners Tutorial

This brings us to the end of our SQL for beginners tutorial! Thanks so much for reading and I hope you learned everything you need to get started!

You can download our printable PDF of this guide along with a complete database file by signing up for our mailing list below!

You'll receive an email with the download link shortly! If you don't, check your spam folder or email me at [email protected] .

OK, You've Learned SQL - Want to Learn Python?

We provide tons of free Python resources - check them out here !

To learn more about related topics, check out the tutorials below:

  • Python New Line and How to Print Without Newline
  • Pandas Isin to Filter a Dataframe like SQL IN and NOT IN

Nik Piepenbreier

Nik is the author of datagy.io and has over a decade of experience working with data analytics, data science, and Python. He specializes in teaching developers how to use Python for data science using hands-on tutorials. View Author posts

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Learn SQL Queries – Database Query Tutorial for Beginners

Dionysia Lemonaki

SQL stands for Structured Query Language and is a language that you use to manage data in databases. SQL consists of commands and declarative statements that act as instructions to the database so it can perform tasks.

You can use SQL commands to create a table in a database, to add and make changes to large amounts of data, to search through it to quickly find something specific, or to delete a table all together.

In this article, we'll look at some of the most common SQL commands for beginners and how you can use them to effectively query a database – that is, make a request for specific information.

The Basic Structure of a Database

Before we get started, you should understand the hierarchy of a database.

An SQL database is a collection of related information stored in tables. Each table has columns that describe the data in them, and rows that contain the actual data. A field is a single piece of data within a row. So to fetch the desired data we need to get specific.

For example, a remote company can have multiple databases. To see a full list of their databases, we can type SHOW DATABASES; and we can zone in on the Employees database.

The output will look something like this:

A single database can have multiple tables. Taking the example from above, to see the different tables in the employees database, we can do SHOW TABLES in employees; . The tables can be Engineering , Product , Marketing , and Sales for the different teams the company has.

All tables then consist of different columns that describe the data.

To see the different columns use Describe Engineering; . For example the Engineering table can have columns that define a single attribute like employee_id , first_name , last_name , email , country , and salary .

Here's the output:

Tables also consist of rows, which are individual entries into the table. For example a row would include entries under employee_id , first_name , last_name , email , salary , and country . These rows would define and provide info about one person on the Engineering team.

Basic SQL Queries

All the operatations that you can do with data follow the CRUD acronym.

CRUD stands for the 4 main operations we perform when we query a database: Create, Read, Update, and Delete.

We CREATE information in the database, we READ /Retrieve that information from the database, we UPDATE /manipulate it, and if we want we can DELETE it.

Below we'll look at some basic SQL queries along with their syntax to get started.


To create a database named engineering , we can use the following code:


This query creates a new table inside the database.

It gives the table a name, and the different columns we want our table to have are also passed in.

There are a variety of datatypes that we can use. Some of the most common ones are: INT , DECIMAL , DATETIME , VARCHAR , NVARCHAR , FLOAT , and BIT .

From our example above, this could look like the following code:

The table we create from this data would look something similar to this:


After creating the table, we can modify it by adding another column to it.

For example, if we wanted we could add a birthday column to our existing table by typing:

Now our table will look like this:

SQL INSERT Statement

This is how we insert data into tables and create new rows. It's the C part in CRUD.

In the INSERT INTO part, we can specify the columns we want to fill with information.

Inside VALUES goes the information we want to store. This creates a new record in the table which is a new row.

Whenever we insert string values, they are enclosed in single quotes, '' .

For example:

The table would now look like this:

SQL SELECT Statement

This statement fetches data from the database. It is the R part of CRUD.

From our example earlier, this would look like the following:

The SELECT statement points to the specific column we want to fetch data from that we want shown in the results.

The FROM part determines the table itself.

Here's another example of SELECT :

The asterisk * will grab all the information from the table we specify.

SQL WHERE Statement

WHERE allows us to get more specific with our queries.

If we wanted to filter through our Engineering table to search for employees that have a specific salary, we would use WHERE .

The table from the previous example:

Would now have the output below:

This filters through and shows the results that satisfy the condition – that is, it shows only the rows of the people whose salary is more than 1500 .

SQL AND , OR , and BETWEEN Operators

These operators allow you to make the query even more specific by adding more criteria to the WHERE statement.

The AND operator takes in two conditions and they both must be true in order for the row to be shown in the result.

The OR operator takes in two conditions, and either one must be true in order for the row to be shown in the result.

The BETWEEN operator filters out within a specific range of numbers or text.

We can also use these operators in combination with each other.

Say our table was now like this:

If we used a statement like the one below:

We'd get this output:

This selects all comlumns that have an employee_id between 3 and 7 AND have a country of Germany.

SQL ORDER BY Statement

ORDER BY sorts by the columns we mentioned in the SELECT statement.

It sorts through the results and presents them in either descending or ascending alphabetical or numerical order (with the default order being ascending).

We can specify that with the command: ORDER BY column_name DESC | ASC .

In the example above, we sort through the employees' salaries in the engineering team and present them in descending numerical order.

SQL GROUP BY Statement

GROUP BY lets us combine rows with identical data and similarites.

It is helpful to arrange duplicate data and entries that appear many times in the table.

Here COUNT(*) counts each row separately and returns the number of rows in the specified table while also preservering duplicate rows.

SQL LIMIT Statement

LIMIT lets you spefify the maximum number of rows that should be returned in the results.

This is helpful when working through a large dataset which can cause queries to take a long time to run. By limiting the results you get, it can save you time.

SQL UPDATE Statement

This is how we update a row in a table. It's the U part of CRUD.

The WHERE condition specifies the record you want to edit.

Our table from before:

Would now look like this:

This updates the country of residence column of an employee with an id of 1.

We can also update information in a table with values from another table with JOIN .

SQL DELETE Statement

DELETE is the D part of CRUD. It's how we delete a record from a table.

The basic syntax looks like this:

For instance, in our engineering example that could look like this:

This deletes the record of an employee in the engineering team with an id of 2.


To remove a specific column from the table we would do this:


To delete the whole table we can do this:

In this article we went over some of the basic queries you'll use as a SQL beginner.

We learned how to create tables and rows, how to gather and update information, and finally how to delete data. We also mapped the SQL queries to their corresponding CRUD actions.

Thanks for reading and happy coding!

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Sql tutorial for beginners.

In this SQL tutorial for beginners, you will create your own database, insert data into that database, and then run queries against that database.

This SQL tutorial will get you running SQL queries in no time!

SQL Example

Here’s an example SQL statement:

This is a perfect example of how easy it can be to write SQL. This simple SQL statement actually does a lot. It returns the whole table. It returns all columns and all rows from the table called Pets .

The asterisk ( * ) is a wildcard character, which means “all columns”. It’s a quick and easy way to get all columns without having to type them all out.

That’s one of the beautiful things about SQL. The simplest SQL queries are usually the most powerful. If we wanted to return less data, we would actually need to write more .

For example, if we only wanted pets named Fetch , we would add a WHERE clause that stipulated that requirement.

The WHERE clause filters our query to just the rows where the PetName column has a value of Fetch .

This query assumes that there is a column called PetName and a table called Pets in the database.

In this SQL tutorial, I’ll show you how to create such a database using SQL.

I’ll also show you how to insert data into that database, update data, delete data, and run queries against it.

What is SQL?

SQL  is an acronym for Structured Query Language.

SQL is the standard query language used for working with relational databases.

SQL is used by all the major Relational Database Management Systems ( RDBMS s), including:

  • Microsoft Access

What Can I Do with SQL?

You can use SQL to run queries against a database, insert records, update records, and delete records. You can also create new database objects such as databases and tables. You can also perform database administration tasks, such as creating logins, automated jobs, database backups, and much more.

Even when you do stuff using a Graphical User Interface (GUI), your Database Management System ( DBMS ) will almost certainly use SQL behind the scenes to carry out that task.

For example, when you create a database by clicking Create Database and entering the details of the new database into a dialog box, once you click OK or Create or whatever the button reads, your database system will use the SQL CREATE DATABASE statement to go ahead and create the database as specified.

The same is true for other tasks, such as running queries, inserting data, etc.

SQL also enables you to perform more advanced actions such as creating stored procedures (self contained scripts), views (pre-made queries), and setting permissions on database objects (such as tables, stored procedures, and views).

That said, you don’t need to learn all the advanced stuff in order to get started with SQL. The good thing about SQL is that, some of the most common tasks are the easiest to write.

SQL Standard

SQL was standardised in ANSI X3.135 in 1986, and, within a few months, it was adopted by ISO as ISO 9075-1987. The international standard (now ISO/IEC 9075) has been revised periodically ever since, and it currently exists in 9 parts.

Most major database vendors tend to adhere to the SQL standard. The good thing about that is that you don’t have to learn a new query language every time you learn a new DBMS.

In practice though, there are variations between how each database vendor implements the SQL standard. Therefore, code that you write in one DBMS might not always work in another without the need for modifications.

The good news is that all major DBMSs support the most common tasks in generally the same way.

SQL Pronunciation

SQL is typically pronounced in one of two ways:

  • “ ess-que-el ” (i.e. spelling out each letter)
  • “ sequel ” (as in the original spelling/pronunciation).

See Is it Pronounced S-Q-L or Sequel if you’re wondering why.

What Do I Need for this SQL Tutorial?

To really benefit from this SQL tutorial, you should follow along with the examples. That means you’ll need somewhere to enter the SQL queries. You’ll need to have something like this:

Screenshot of Azure Data Studio

If you’re going to run SQL queries, you’ll need:

  • An RDBMS installed (such as SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, etc).
  • A database tool that allows you to run SQL queries against that RDBMS (such as MySQL WorkBench , Azure Data Studio (pictured), DBeaver , and SSMS ).

If you already have one of each installed, great! You can continue on with the tutorial.

If you don’t have these installed, see What Do I Need to Run SQL? for instructions on installing an RDBMS and its relevant database management tool, before returning to this SQL tutorial.

Create a Database

Once you’ve installed your RDBMS and the appropriate database tool, you’re ready to create a database:

That statement actually created a database. An empty database, but a database nonetheless.

This database will contain the tables and data used in this SQL tutorial. When we create a table or insert data, we will do it inside this database.

I should mention that SQLite uses a different syntax for creating databases. If you’re using SQLite, here’s how to create a database in SQLite .

Connect to the Database

Before you start creating tables, inserting data, and so on, you need to be sure that you’re in the right database. Creating a database (like we just did) doesn’t necessarily connect you to that database.

In many DBMSs (such as SQL Server , MySQL and MariaDB ), we can use the following to switch over to the specified database:

That makes PetHotel the current database.

In SQLite , you’re probably already in the database after creating it. If not, you can attach the database (which will also create it if it doesn’t already exist):

In PostgreSQL , if you’re using the psql tool, you can use the following:

Or the shortened version:

I should mention that the process of creating and connecting to databases can differ widely between DBMSs.

Fortunately, most GUI tools let you connect to a database by either double-clicking on the database, or right-clicking on the database name and selecting a new query tab from the context menu. If you find yourself stuck at this step, just use the GUI to create and/or connect to your DB.

Create a Table

Now that you’ve connected to the right database, you can go ahead and create some tables.

To create a table in SQL, use the CREATE TABLE statement.

When you create a table, you need to specify what columns will be in the table, as well as their data types. You can also specify other details, but let’s not get ahead of ourselves.

Let’s create a table:

In this case we create a table called PetTypes . We know that, because the table name comes immediately after the CREATE TABLE bit.

After that comes a list of columns, enclosed in parentheses.

The above table contains the following columns:

Each column is followed by its data type:

  • int means that this column accepts integers. As far as I’m aware, most major DBMSs support declaring columns as int . If you have any problems, try using integer .
  • varchar(60) means that this column accepts strings up to 60 characters long. varchar columns are variable-length strings. Another string data type is char (which is a fixed-length string). If you have problems trying to define a column as varchar(60) , try using char(60) .

NOT NULL Constraints

In this example, both columns are defined with NOT NULL constraints. The NOT NULL constraint means that this column cannot be empty. When a new row is inserted, any NOT NULL columns must contain a value. Other columns can remain empty if there’s no data for those columns.

If NULL values are allowed in the column, you can either omit the NOT NULL part, or declare it as NULL (meaning, NULL values are allowed in this column).

Some DBMSs (such as DB2) don’t support the NULL keyword anyway, and so you will need to omit it when working with such DBMSs.

Primary Keys

We also made the PetTypeId column the primary key . The primary key is one or more columns that uniquely identifies each row in the table. You specify your selected column/s as the primary key by using a primary key constraint. You can do this in the CREATE TABLE statement (like we did here), or you can add one later with an ALTER TABLE statement.

Primary keys must contain unique values. That is, for each row in that table, the value in the primary key column/s must be different in each row. This could be as simple as having incrementing numbers (like 1, 2, 3… etc) or it could be a product code (like pr4650, pr2784, pr5981… etc).

Also, primary keys must contain a value. It cannot be NULL .

Although primary keys are not required, it’s generally considered good practice to define a primary key on each table.

Create More Tables

Let’s create two more tables:

Both of these tables are similar to the first one, except that they have more rows, and a couple of extra pieces, which I’ll explain below.

If you’re interested, check out SQL CREATE TABLE for Beginners for a few more simple examples of creating tables in SQL.


When we created our Pets table, we actually created a relationship between the three tables.

That relationship is depicted in the following diagram.

Database diagram of our PetHotel database

Database relationships are a crucial part of SQL. Relationships allow us to query multiple tables for related data and get accurate and consistent results.

In our case, we want to be able to search for pets by owner, or pets by pet type, etc. And we want our results to be accurate and consistent.

To achieve this, we need to insist that all pets are entered along with their owner and pet type. Therefore we need to ensure that, whenever a new pet is added to the Pets table, there’s already a corresponding owner in the Owners table, and a corresponding pet type in the PetTypes table.

Basically, our requirements are as follows:

  • Any value in the Pets.PetTypeId column must match a value in the PetTypes.PetTypeId column.
  • Any value in the Pets.OwnerId column must match a value in the Owners.OwnerId column.

We can ensure the above requirements by creating a foreign key constraint against the applicable columns. A foreign key constraint is used to specify that a certain column references the primary key of another table.

The above code did indeed create two foreign key constraints on the Pets table.

Notice that the PetTypeId and OwnerId columns have some extra code that starts with REFERENCES... . Those are the parts that created the two foreign keys.

When we created the Pets table, its PetTypeId column has a bit that goes REFERENCES PetTypes (PetTypeId) . This means that the Pets.PetTypeId column references the PetTypeId column in the PetTypes table.

It’s the same deal for the OwnerId column. It references the OwnerId column of the Owners table.

In most DBMSs, foreign keys can be also created on an existing table, by using the ALTER TABLE statement, but we won’t go over that here. See How to Create a Relationship in SQL for more about that.

Anyway, our foreign keys have been created. Now, whenever someone inserts a new pet into the Pets table, the PetTypeId and OwnerId values will need to have a corresponding value in the PetTypes and Owners tables respectively. If any of them don’t, the database will return an error.

This is the benefit of foreign keys. It helps to prevent bad data being entered. It helps to maintain data integrity and more specifically, referential integrity .

Check Constraints

A check constraint is another constraint type you should be aware of. A check constraint checks data before it enters the database. When a table has a check constraint enabled, data can only enter the table if it doesn’t violate that constraint. Data that violates the constraint cannot enter the table.

For example, you might create a check constraint on a Price column to ensure that it only accepts values that are greater than zero. Or we could apply a check constraint to our Pets table to ensure that the DOB column is not in the future.

For an example, see What is a CHECK Constraint?

You may have noticed that my examples include whitespace. For example, I’ve spaced out the code across multiple lines, and I’ve used tabs to indent the data types, etc.

This is perfectly valid in SQL. You can safely do this, and it won’t affect the outcome. SQL allows you to spread your code across multiple lines if you wish, and it allows you to use multiple spaces or tabs to improve readability.

You can also include comments within your code. Comments can be handy once you start writing longer SQL scripts. Once a script gets quite long, comments can make it easier to quickly identify what each part does.

Inline Comments

You can create inline comments by prefixing your comment with two hyphen characters ( -- ):

In this example, both queries will run without any problems. The comments will be ignored by the DBMS.

Multiline Comments

You can spread comments over multiple lines by surrounding the comment with /* and */ :

If you’re using MySQL, you can also use the number sign/hash sign ( # ) for single line comments.

Commenting Out Code

Another cool benefit of comments is that you can comment out code. For example, if you have a long SQL script that does many things, but you only want to run one or two parts of it, you can comment out the rest of the script.

Here’s an example:

In this case, the first SELECT statement has been commented out, and so only the second SELECT statement will run.

You can also use multiline comments for this technique.

Insert Data

Now that we’ve created three tables and created the appropriate foreign keys, we can go ahead and add data.

The most common way to insert data in SQL is with the INSERT statement. It goes something like this:

You simply replace MyTable with the name of the table that you’re inserting data into. Likewise, you replace Column1 , etc with the column names, and Value1 , etc with the values that go into those columns.

For example, we could do this:

Each value is in the same order that the column is specified.

Note that the column names match the names we used when we created the table.

You can omit the column names if you’re inserting data into all columns. So we could change the above example to look like this:

For this tutorial, we’ll be adding quite a few more rows, so we’ll add more INSERT INTO statements – one for each row we want to insert.

So let’s go ahead and populate our tables.

Notice that we populated the Pets table last. There’s a reason for this.

If we had tried to insert data into the Pets table before populating the other two, we would have received an error, due to our foreign key constraint. And for good reason. After all, we would’ve been trying to insert values in the foreign key columns that didn’t yet exist in the primary key columns on the other tables. That’s a big “no no” when it comes to foreign keys.

So by populating the Owners and PetTypes tables first, we ensured that the appropriate values were already in the primary key columns before we populated the foreign key columns in the Pets table.

See SQL INSERT for Beginners for more examples of inserting data into tables.

Check Our Data

Phew! Finally we can start running queries against our database.

Let’s check the data in all our tables.

Great, so it looks like the data was successfully inserted.

Select Specific Columns

It’s generally considered bad practice to select all rows and all columns from a table (like we did in the previous example), unless you really need to. Doing this can impact on the performance of your database server, especially if there are a lot of rows in the table.

It’s not an issue when you’re using small data sets like we are here, or if you’re in a development environment or similar. Otherwise, it’s usually better to select just the columns you require.

Therefore, if we wanted the IDs, names and dates of birth of all pets, we could do this:

If we wanted the IDs, and date of birth of all pets named Fluffy, we could use this:

You can also use the SELECT statement to return no-table data. That is, it can return data that isn’t stored in a table. See SQL SELECT Statement for Beginners to see an example.

SQL provides the ORDER BY clause that enables us to sort data.

We can add an ORDER BY clause to our earlier example so that the pets are sorted by their names:

The ASC part means ascending . When you use the ORDER BY clause, it defaults to ascending, so you can omit the ASC part if you wish.

To sort it in descending order, use DESC .

You can also sort the results using multiple columns. It will sort by the first column specified, then if there are any duplicates in that column, it will sort those duplicates by the second column specified, and so on.

See how the two Fluffys have swapped their position.

If you don’t use the ORDER BY clause, there’s no guarantee what order your results will be in. Although it may look like your database is sorting the results by a particular column, this may not actually be the case. In general, without an ORDER BY clause, data will be sorted in the order the in which it was loaded into the table. However, if rows have been deleted or updated, the order will be affected by how the DBMS reuses reclaimed storage space.

Therefore, don’t rely on the DBMS to sort the results in any meaningful order.

Bottom line: If you want your results to be sorted, use ORDER BY .

See SQL ORDER BY Clause for Beginners for more examples.

Count the Rows in a Result Set

You can use the COUNT() aggregate function to count the rows that will be returned in a query.

This tells us that there’s 8 rows in the table. We know that because we selected all rows and all columns.

You can use COUNT() on any query, for example queries that use a WHERE clause to filter the results.

You can also specify a particular column to count. The COUNT() function only counts non- NULL results, so if you specify a column that contains NULL values, those values won’t be counted.

Here’s an example to demonstrate what I mean.

You may recall that the Pets table contains two NULL values in the DOB column (two pets haven’t supplied their date of birth), and so COUNT(DOB) returns 6, instead of 8 when we used COUNT(*) . The reason COUNT(*) returned all rows, is because those two rows did have data in the other columns.

In my example, my DBMS also returned a warning about this. You may or may not get a warning, depending on your DBMS and your specific configuration.

See SQL COUNT for Beginners for more examples.

Other aggregate functions include: AVG() , SUM() , MIN() , and MAX() .

Another useful clause is the GROUP BY clause. This does pretty much what its name promises. It allows you to group the results by a given column.

In this example, we are counting how many pets we have for each pet type, then sorting it in descending order (with the highest count at the top).

See SQL GROUP BY Clause for Beginners for more examples.

The HAVING Clause

We can use the HAVING clause to filter the results in the GROUP BY clause. The HAVING clause returns rows where aggregate values meet specified conditions.

Here’s an example.

In this case, we returned data for just the pet types that have more than 2 pets assigned to that type.

See SQL HAVING Clause for Beginners for more examples.

In SQL, a join is where you run a query that combines data from multiple tables.

The previous two examples are OK, but they’d be better if they returned the actual pet types (e.g. Cat, Dog, Bird, etc) rather than the ID (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc).

The only problem is, the Pets table doesn’t contain that data. That data is in the PetTypes table.

Fortunately for us, we can do a join between these two tables. Here’s an example that uses a LEFT JOIN :

This result set is much easier to read than the previous ones. It’s easier to understand how many of each pet type is in the table.

The syntax uses the join type (in this case LEFT JOIN ), followed by the first (left) table, followed by ON , followed by the join condition.

Let’s use an INNER JOIN to return all pet names with their respective pet types.

Joins really open up our options, because we can now grab data from multiple tables and present it as if it were a single table.

You’ll notice that in the join examples, we qualify our column names with the table names. The reason we do this is to avoid any ambiguity regarding the column column names between the tables. Both tables could have columns of the same name (like in our example), and in such cases, the DBMS won’t know which column you’re referring to. Prefixing the column names with their table names ensures that you’re referencing the right column, and prevents any errors that could result from any ambiguity about which column you’re referring to.

See my SQL Joins Tutorial for more examples and an explanation of the various join types.

We can go a step further and assign an alias to each table name and column name.

This has resulted in new column headers, plus the code is more concise.

An alias allows you to temporarily assign another name to a table or column for the duration of a SELECT query. This can be particularly useful when tables and/or columns have very long or complex names.

An alias is assigned through the use of the AS keyword, although this keyword is optional, so you can safely omit it. Note that Oracle doesn’t support the AS keyword on table aliases (but it does on column aliases).

In the above example, I’ve included the AS keyword when assigning the column aliases, but omitted it when assigning the table aliases.

An alias name could be anything, but is usually kept short for readability purposes.

In our case, we changed the two tables to p and pt , and the column names to Pet and Pet Type . Note that I surrounded Pet Type in double quotes. I did this, because there’s a space in the name. For aliases without spaces, you don’t need to do this. In SQL Server, you can alternatively use square brackets ( [] ) instead of double quotes (although it also supports double quotes).

The practice of using spaces in columns and aliases is generally discouraged, as it can cause all sorts of problems with some client applications.

Note that we still needed to use the full column names when referencing them in the join (after the ON keyword).

I should point out that assigning an alias does not actually rename the column or table.

See SQL Alias Explained for more examples.

Updating Data

You can use the UPDATE statement to update data in your tables.

The basic syntax is pretty simple:

In that example, we update the LastName column to have a new value of Stallone where the OwnerId is 3 .

To update multiple columns, use a comma to separate each column/value pair.

But whatever you do, don’t forget the WHERE clause (unless you actually intend to update every row in the table with the same value).

See SQL UPDATE for Beginners for more examples and a more detailed explanation.

Deleting Data

You can use the DELETE statement to delete data from your tables.

The basic syntax is even more simple than the UPDATE statement:

Here, we’re deleting owner number 5 from the Owners table.

As with the UPDATE statement, don’t forget the WHERE clause (unless you intend to delete every row in the table ).

See SQL DELETE for Beginners for more examples and a detailed explanation.

Dropping Objects

While we’re on the subject of deleting things, when you delete a database object (such as a table, view, stored procedure, etc), it’s said that you “drop” that object. For example, if you no longer need a table, you “drop it”.

The syntax is extremely simple, and it goes like this:

Those three words completely obliterated a table called Customers . The table and all its data is now gone.

As you can imagine, this can be a very dangerous statement, and should be used with extreme caution.

The same syntax can be used for other object types, except you would replace table with the object type (for example DROP VIEW vPets drops a view called vPets ).

If you try to drop a table that is referenced by a foreign key, you’ll probably get an error. In this case, you’ll need to either drop the foreign key (using the ALTER TABLE statement) or the child table itself.

SQL Operators

In SQL, an operator is a symbol specifying an action that is performed on one or more expressions.

Operators manipulate individual data items and return a result. The data items are called  operands  or  arguments . In SQL, operators are represented by special characters or by keywords. 

We’ve already seen some operators in action. Some of our previous example queries had a WHERE clause that included the Equals operator ( = ). We also ran a query that used the Greater Than operator ( > ). These are both comparison operators – they compare two expressions.

See 12 Commonly Used Operators in SQL for examples of operators that you’re likely to need when working with SQL.

You can also use this list of SQL Operators as a reference for the operators available in SQL.

In SQL, a view is a query that’s saved to the database as a database object (just like a table). The term can also be used to refer to the  result set  of a stored query. Views are often referred to as virtual tables .

To create a view, you write a query, then save it as a view. You do this using the CREATE VIEW syntax.

Here’s an example of creating a view:

Running that code creates the view and stores it as an object in the database.

We can now query the view, just like we’d query a table.

So we get the same result as we would have got if we’d run the original query, but saving it in a view made it a lot easier to query.

This benefit would become greater, the more complex the query is.

Views and the ORDER BY Clause

One thing I should point out is that the original query had an ORDER BY clause, but I didn’t include that in the view. The SQL standard does not allow the ORDER BY clause in any view definition. Also, most RDBMSs will raise an error if you try to include an ORDER BY clause.

This isn’t a problem though, because you can sort the results when you query the view. Therefore, we can do something like this:

Most RDBMSs also include a large set of system views that you can use to retrieve information about the system.

For more about views, see What is a View?

Stored Procedures

A stored procedure is a series of SQL statements compiled and saved to the database. Stored procedures are similar to views in some respects, but very different in other respects.

One of the benefits of stored procedures is that they allow you to store complex scripts on the server. Stored procedures often contain conditional programming such as  IF... ELSE  statements, for example. Stored procedures can also accept parameters.

Here’s an example of creating a simple stored procedure in SQL Server to get pet information from our database:

This stored procedure accepts a parameter called @PetId . This means that when you call the procedure, you need to pass the ID of the pet that you’d like information about. The procedure then selects data from various tables and returns it.

To call the stored procedure, use the EXECUTE statement. You can alternatively shorten it to EXEC . In PostgreSQL, use the CALL statement.

In this case I was interested in pet number 3, and so that’s the info that I got.

I should mention that the syntax for creating stored procedures can differ quite significantly between DBMSs (as well as their implementations of various SQL statements and commands that you’d use inside a procedure), so I would suggest that you look at the documentation for your particular DBMS if you want to create a stored procedure.

Most RDBMSs also include a large set of system stored procedures that you can use to perform various administration tasks, and to retrieve information about the system.

For a basic overview of stored procedures, including their benefits, see What is a Stored Procedure?

Also, if you’re interested, see How to Create a Stored Procedure in SQL Server to see another example of creating a stored procedure in SQL Server. That example includes some screenshots.

SQL Triggers

A trigger is a special type of stored procedure that automatically executes when an event occurs in the database server.

Most major RDBMSs support DML triggers, which execute when a user tries to modify data through a data manipulation language (DML) event. DML events are INSERT , UPDATE , or DELETE statements.

Some DBMSs (such as SQL Server and PostgreSQL) allow triggers to be associated with both tables and views. Others only allow triggers to be associated with tables.

SQL Server also supports DDL triggers and logon triggers.

DDL triggers execute in response to DDL events, such as CREATE , ALTER , and DROP statements, and certain system stored procedures that perform DDL-like operations.

Logon triggers are fired in response to the LOGON event that’s raised when a user’s session is being established.

Here are some articles explaining how to do various things with triggers in SQL Server:

  • Create a DML Trigger in SQL Server
  • Create a “last modified” column
  • Automatically send an email when someone tries to delete a record
  • Update a column’s value whenever another column is updated
  • Update a column’s value whenever certain other columns are updated

SQL Transactions

SQL transactions are an important part of transactional databases, where data consistency is paramount.

A transaction manages a sequence of SQL statements that must be executed as a single unit of work. This is to ensure that the database never contains the results of partial operations.

When a transaction makes multiple changes to the database, either all the changes succeed when the transaction is committed, or all the changes are undone when the transaction is rolled back.

Transactions help maintain data integrity by ensuring that a sequence of SQL statements execute completely or not at all.

A classic example of a transaction is to move money from one bank account to another. You wouldn’t want money to be deducted from the first bank account, but not appear in the second bank account.

Therefore, you could use a transaction which goes along the lines of this:

You could write conditional logic inside that transaction that rolls back the transaction if anything goes wrong.

The end result is that, either the transaction is completed in its entirety, or it’s not completed at all. It’s never half-done.

See my SQL Transactions Tutorial for examples of SQL transactions.

SQL Functions

A function is a routine that can take parameters, perform calculations or other actions, and return a result.

Most DBMSs provide you with the ability to create your own functions, while also providing a range of inbuilt functions.

User-Defined Functions

A user-defined function (UDF) is a function that you create for a specific purpose, and save to the database. You would create such a function for tasks that aren’t catered for by an inbuilt function.

See Introduction to User-Defined Functions in SQL Server for an overview. Although that article is written for SQL Server, most of the general concepts also apply to other DBMSs.

Inbuilt Functions

Most DBMSs have a large range of inbuilt functions that you can use in your SQL queries. For example, there are functions that return the current date and time, functions that format dates and numbers, functions that convert data from one data type to another, and more.

The range of inbuilt functions can be pretty extensive, and depend on the DBMS in use, so I won’t go over them in this SQL tutorial. But I would encourage you to try to find out what inbuilt functions your DBMS supports.

To get you started, the following articles contain some of the most commonly used functions in SQL programming.

  • SQL Server String Functions
  • SQL Server Mathematical Functions
  • SQL Server Date & Time Functions
  • MySQL String Functions
  • MySQL Mathematical Functions
  • PostgreSQL Date & Time Functions
  • PostgreSQL Math Functions
  • SQLite Aggregate Functions
  • SQLite Date & Time Functions
  • Engineering Mathematics
  • Discrete Mathematics
  • Operating System
  • Computer Networks
  • Digital Logic and Design
  • C Programming
  • Data Structures
  • Theory of Computation
  • Compiler Design
  • Computer Org and Architecture
  • DBMS Tutorial - Database Management System

Basic of DBMS

  • Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) - Set 1
  • History of DBMS
  • Advantages of Database Management System
  • Disadvantages of DBMS
  • Application of DBMS
  • Need for DBMS
  • DBMS Architecture 1-level, 2-Level, 3-Level
  • Difference between File System and DBMS
  • Entity Relationship Model
  • Introduction of ER Model
  • Structural Constraints of Relationships in ER Model
  • Difference between entity, entity set and entity type
  • Difference between Strong and Weak Entity
  • Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation in ER Model
  • Recursive Relationships in ER diagrams
  • Relational Model
  • Introduction of Relational Model and Codd Rules in DBMS
  • Types of Keys in Relational Model (Candidate, Super, Primary, Alternate and Foreign)
  • Anomalies in Relational Model
  • Mapping from ER Model to Relational Model
  • Strategies for Schema design in DBMS
  • Relational Algebra
  • Introduction of Relational Algebra in DBMS
  • Basic Operators in Relational Algebra
  • Extended Operators in Relational Algebra
  • SQL | Join (Inner, Left, Right and Full Joins)
  • Join operation Vs Nested query in DBMS
  • Tuple Relational Calculus (TRC) in DBMS
  • Domain Relational Calculus in DBMS
  • Functional Dependencies
  • Functional Dependency and Attribute Closure
  • Armstrong's Axioms in Functional Dependency in DBMS
  • Equivalence of Functional Dependencies
  • Canonical Cover of Functional Dependencies in DBMS
  • Normalisation
  • Introduction of Database Normalization
  • Normal Forms in DBMS
  • First Normal Form (1NF)
  • Second Normal Form (2NF)
  • Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)
  • Introduction of 4th and 5th Normal Form in DBMS
  • The Problem of Redundancy in Database
  • Database Management System | Dependency Preserving Decomposition
  • Lossless Decomposition in DBMS
  • Lossless Join and Dependency Preserving Decomposition
  • Denormalization in Databases
  • Transactions and Concurrency Control
  • Concurrency Control in DBMS
  • ACID Properties in DBMS
  • Implementation of Locking in DBMS
  • Lock Based Concurrency Control Protocol in DBMS
  • Graph Based Concurrency Control Protocol in DBMS
  • Two Phase Locking Protocol
  • Multiple Granularity Locking in DBMS
  • Polygraph to check View Serializability in DBMS
  • Log based Recovery in DBMS
  • Timestamp based Concurrency Control
  • Dirty Read in SQL
  • Types of Schedules in DBMS
  • Conflict Serializability in DBMS
  • Condition of schedules to View-equivalent
  • Recoverability in DBMS
  • Precedence Graph for Testing Conflict Serializability in DBMS
  • Database Recovery Techniques in DBMS
  • Starvation in DBMS
  • Deadlock in DBMS
  • Types of Schedules based Recoverability in DBMS
  • Why recovery is needed in DBMS
  • Indexing, B and B+ trees
  • Indexing in Databases - Set 1
  • Introduction of B-Tree
  • Insert Operation in B-Tree
  • Delete Operation in B-Tree
  • Introduction of B+ Tree
  • Bitmap Indexing in DBMS
  • Inverted Index
  • Difference between Inverted Index and Forward Index
  • SQL Queries on Clustered and Non-Clustered Indexes

File organization

  • File Organization in DBMS - Set 1
  • File Organization in DBMS | Set 2
  • File Organization in DBMS | Set 3

DBMS Interview questions and Last minute notes

  • Last Minute Notes - DBMS
  • Commonly asked DBMS interview questions
  • Commonly asked DBMS interview questions | Set 2

DBMS GATE Previous Year Questions

  • Database Management System - GATE CSE Previous Year Questions
  • Database Management Systems | Set 2
  • Database Management Systems | Set 3
  • Database Management Systems | Set 4
  • Database Management Systems | Set 5
  • Database Management Systems | Set 6
  • Database Management Systems | Set 7
  • Database Management Systems | Set 8

DBMS Tutorial – Database Management System

Database Management System is a software or technology used to manage data from a database. Some popular databases are MySQL, Oracle, MongoDB, etc. DBMS provides many operations e.g. creating a database, Storing in the database, updating an existing database, delete from the database. DBMS is a system that enables you to store, modify and retrieve data in an organized way. It also provides security to the database.

In this Database Management System tutorial you’ll learn basic to advanced topics like ER model, Relational Model, Relation Algebra, Normalization, File Organization, etc.

‘Recent Articles’ on DBMS !

  • Introduction
  • File Organization
  • Advanced Topics
  • Quick Links

Introduction :

  • DBMS Introduction | Set 1
  • DBMS Introduction | Set 2 (3-Tier Architecture)
  • DBMS Architecture 2-level 3-level
  • Need For DBMS
  • Data Abstraction and Data Independence
  • Database Objects
  • Multimedia Database
  • Use of DBMS in System Software
  • Choice of DBMS | Economic factors

Entity Relationship Model :

  • Enhanced ER Model
  • Minimization of ER Diagram
  • ER Model: Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation
  • Recursive Relationships

Relational Model :

  • Relational Model and CODD Rules
  • Keys in Relational Model (Candidate, Super, Primary, Alternate and Foreign)
  • Number of possible Superkeys

>> Quiz on ER and Relational Model

Relational Algebra :

  • Basic Operators
  • Extended Operators
  • Inner Join vs Outer Join
  • How to solve Relational Algebra Problems for GATE
  • How to Solve Relational Algebra Problems for GATE

Functional Dependencies :

  • Finding Attribute Closure and Candidate Keys using Functional Dependencies
  • Armstrong’s Axioms in Functional Dependency
  • Canonical Cover

Normalisation :

  • Normal Forms
  • Dependency Preserving Decomposition
  • Lossless Join Decomposition
  • LossLess Join and Dependency Preserving Decomposition
  • How to find the Highest Normal Form of a Relation
  • DBMS | Data Replication

>> Quiz on Normal Forms

Transactions and Concurrency Control :

  • ACID Properties
  • Concurrency Control -Introduction
  • Concurrency Control Protocol | Graph Based Protocol
  • Concurrency Control Protocol | Two Phase Locking (2-PL)-I
  • Concurrency Control Protocol | Two Phase Locking (2-PL)-II
  • Concurrency Control Protocol | Two Phase Locking (2-PL)-III
  • Concurrency Control Protocol | Multiple Granularity Locking
  • Concurrency Control Protocol | Thomas Write Rule
  • Concurrency Control | Polygraph to check View Serializabilty
  • DBMS | Log based recovery
  • Timestamp Ordering Protocols
  • Introduction to TimeStamp and Deadlock Prevention Schemes
  • Conflict Serializability
  • View Serializability
  • How to test if two schedules are View Equal or not ?
  • Recoverability of Schedules
  • Precedence Graph for testing Conflict Serializabilty
  • Transaction Isolation Levels in DBMS
  • Database Recovery Techniques

>> Quiz on Transactions and concurrency control

Indexing, B and B+ trees :

  • Indexing and its Types
  • B-Tree | Set 1 (Introduction)
  • B-Tree | Set 2 (Insert)
  • B-Tree | Set 3 (Delete)
  • B+ Tree (Introduction)
  • Bitmap Indexing

>> Practice questions on B and B+ Trees >> Quizzes on Indexing, B and B+ Trees

File Organization:

  • File Organization – Set 1
  • File Organization – Set 2 (Hashing in DBMS)
  • File Organization – Set 3
  • File Organization – Set 4

>> Quiz on File structures

Advanced Topics :

  • Query Optimization
  • How to store a password in database?
  • Storage Area Networks
  • Network attached storage
  • Data Warehousing
  • Data Warehouse Architecture
  • Characteristics and Functions of Data warehouse
  • Difficulties of Implementing Data Warehouses
  • Data Mining
  • Data Mining | KDD process
  • Data Mining | Sources of Data that can be mined
  • ODBMS – Definition and overview
  • Architecture of HBase
  • Apache HBase
  • Architecture and Working of Hive
  • Apache Hive
  • Difference between Hive and HBase

SQL Tutorial

  • SQL | Tutorials
  • Quiz on SQL

DBMS practices questions :

  • Database Management Systems | Set 1
  • Database Management Systems | Set 9
  • Database Management Systems | Set 10
  • Database Management Systems | Set 11

Advantages of DBMS

There are some following reasons to learn DBMS:

  • Organizing and management of data: DBMS helps in managing large amounts of data in an organized manner. It provides features like create, edit, delete, and read.
  • Data Security: DBMS provides Security to the data from the unauthorized person.
  • Improved decision-making: From stored data in the database we can generate graphs, reports, and many visualizations which helps in decision-making.
  • Consistency: In a traditional database model all things are manual or inconsistent, but DBMS enables to automation of the operations by queries.

FAQs on Database Management System(DBMS)

Q.1 what is database.

A database is a collection of organized data which can easily be created, updated, accessed, and managed. Records are kept maintained in tables or objects. A tuple (row) represents a single entry in a table. DBMS manipulates data from the database in the form of queries given by the user.

Q.2 What are different languages present in DBMS?

DDL (Data Definition Language) : These are the collection of commands which are required to define the database. E.g., CREATE, ALTER, RENAME, TRUNCATE, DROP, etc. DML (Data Manipulation Language) : These are the collection of commands which are required to manipulate the data stored in a database. E.g., SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, DELETE, etc. DCL (Data Control Language) : These are the collection of commands which are dealt with the user permissions and controls of the database system. E.g, GRANT, and REVOKE. TCL (Transaction Control Language) : These are the collection of commands which are required to deal with the transaction of the database. E.g., COMMIT, ROLLBACK, and SAVEPOINT.

Q.3 What are the ACID properties in DBMS?

The full form of ACID is Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability these are the properties of DBMS that ensure a safe and secure way of sharing data among multiple users. A – Atomic: All changes to the data must be performed successfully or not at all. C – Consistent: Data must be in a consistent state before and after the transaction. I – Isolated: No other process can change the data while the transaction is going on. D – Durable: The changes made by a transaction must persist.

Q.4 What are the Advantages of DBMS?

The followings are the few advantages of DBMS : Data Sharing: Data from the same database can be shared by multiple users at the same time. Integrity: It allows the data stored in an organized and refined manner. Data Independence: It allows changing the data structure without changing the composition of executing programs. Data Security: DBMS comes with the tools to make the storage and transfer of databases secure and reliable. Authentication and encryption are the tools used in DBMS for data security.

Quick Links :

  • Last Minutes Notes(LMNs) on DBMS
  • Quizzes on DBMS !
  • ‘Practice Problems’ on DBMS !
  • DBMS interview questions | Set 1
  • DBMS interview questions | Set 2

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Databases for Beginners

An introduction to databases, SQL, and Microsoft Access

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On the surface, a database might seem much like a spreadsheet; it presents data arranged in columns and rows. But that is where the similarity ends, because a database is far more powerful.

What Can a Database Do?

If the database is relational , which most databases are, cross-references records in different tables. This means that you can create relationships between tables. For example, if you linked a Customers table with an Orders table, you could find all purchase orders from the Orders table that a single customer from the Customers table ever processed, or further refine it to return only those orders processed in a particular time period – or almost any type of combination you could imagine.

Because of these table relationships, a database supports complex querying, with various combinations of columns across tables and filters to fine-tune which rows return after the query executes.

A database performs complex aggregate calculations across several tables. For example, you could list expenses across a dozen retail outlets, including all possible sub-totals, and then a final total.

A database enforces consistency and data integrity, avoiding duplication and ensuring data accuracy through its design and a series of constraints.

What Is the Structure of a Database?

At its simplest, a database is made up of tables that contain columns and rows. Data separates by categories into tables to avoid duplication. For example, a business might have a table for Employees, one for Customers, and another for Products. 

Each row in a table is called a record , and each cell is a field . Each field (or column) holds a specific type of data, such as a number, text or a date. This specification is enforced by a series of rules called constraints to ensure that your data is accurate and dependable.

The tables in a relational database are linked through a key. This is an ID in each table that uniquely identifies a row. Each table uses a primary key column, and any table that needs to link to that table offers a foreign key column whose value will match the first table's primary key.

Queries and Reports

All database engines support querying, which is a process of defining a specific set of rules to obtain an extract a subset of information from the database. However, different engines offer different levels of support. A server-based solution, for example, returns tabular output that must be rendered more aesthetically pleasing through a different report-writing tool. A desktop-based database, like Microsoft Access, includes a visual report designer integrated with its query tool, leading to one-stop shopping for direct-to-print reports.

Common Database Products

Microsoft Access is one of the most popular database platforms on the market today. It's available with some Microsoft 365 plans and is compatible with all Office products. It features wizards and an easy-to-use interface that guides you through the development of your database. Other desktop databases are also available, including FileMaker Pro, LibreOffice Base (which is free) and Brilliant Database.

These solutions are optimized for small-scale, single-user desktop applications.

For businesses, a large-scale, multi-user database server makes more sense. Server databases like MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and Oracle are enormously powerful—but also expensive and can come with a steep learning curve.

Essential Skills

All but the simplest databases rely on Structured Query Language to develop new database assets (like tables and columns) or to extract information through queries. Although SQL is an easy scripting language, different database vendors use slightly different implementations of it relative to their own proprietary database engines.

Get the Latest Tech News Delivered Every Day

  • What Is a Database?
  • Building an Access Database in Microsoft 365
  • Glossary of Common Database Terms
  • Introduction to Database Relationships
  • What Is the Definition of a Database Query?
  • Putting a Database in Third Normal Form (3NF)
  • What Is a Database Relationship?
  • Microsoft Access GROUP BY Query
  • The Power of Foreign Keys in Relational Databases
  • Putting a Database in First Normal Form
  • Basic Keys That Make Database Management Easy
  • What Is a Database Management System (DBMS)?
  • A Database Attribute Defines the Properties of a Table
  • Definition of Database Relation
  • What Is Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)?
  • What is MySQL?

The Complete Beginner’s Guide to SQL Fundamentals

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LearnSQL.com is a great place to learn SQL. If you’re a complete beginner, it’s best to have an overview of what SQL is, what a database is, and how they work together. In this article, you’ll find a complete guide to SQL fundamentals.

SQL Fundamentals: Database

Let’s begin our guide to SQL with basic definitions. You might have already heard that SQL is used with databases. What exactly is a database? In the most general sense, it is an organized collection of various kinds of data. Think of it as a place where you can keep information – e.g. a list of website users’ passwords and profile names; an online store’s transaction history; or a hospital’s patient records. Such information can be stored in various ways: simple text files, spreadsheets, or in databases.

We also talk about what SQL is on our YouTube channel "We Learn SQL". Check it out. Remember to subscribe.

SQL Fundamentals: Database Management System

Going further with our guide to SQL, a database management system (or DBMS) is a computer program, just like an Internet browser or a word processor. A DBMS can configure a database as well as add, delete, and display data. Some popular DBMS programs are Oracle, PostgreSQL, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and SQLite.

SQL Fundamentals: Database Tables

You have probably used a spreadsheet program (like Excel). In a spreadsheet, there are columns and rows which you can fill with data. A database is a set of tables that look similar to Excel sheets – they consist of columns that always store one kind of data and rows that hold information about specific items. Below is an example of a very simple table in a database.

table: movie

When you open an Excel sheet, you can see all the data right away. In order to access data in a database, however, you need to specify what you want to see. That’s where our guide to SQL proceeds to the notion of a programming language.

What Does SQL Do?

IBM invented SQL, or Structured Query Language, in the 1980s as a way to communicate with databases. Although SQL requires a strict syntax, or order of words and commands, it is designed to be human readable. This means that even non-programmers can figure out the meaning of some simple SQL queries. For instance, the statement below…

…tells the database to display the titles and directors of movies ( SELECT title, director ) that are stored in the movie table (FROM movie) and were released in 1994 ( WHERE release_year=1994 ).

SQL keywords are often written in uppercase for greater readability. You can see some of them in the statement above: SELECT , FROM and WHERE . Each keyword has a specific meaning and must appear in a certain order for the database to process it.

Advanced SQL statements allow you to create multiple filters, group rows, join tables, calculate averages and sums, and do much more. You can learn all of these skills in our interactive SQL courses.

A guide to SQL cannot omit the pronunciation issue. SQL can be pronounced two different ways. You can either say each letter separately (“S-Q-L”), or say it as a single word (“sequel”). You can find out more about the history of the SQL name by reading S.Q.L. or Sequel: How to Pronounce SQL?

CRUD Operations

Another topic from the area of SQL fundamentals are CRUD operations. You may have heard that SQL supports all of them. CRUD stands for Create , Read , Update and Delete , which are the four basic operations in any database. As a database language, SQL can perform all of these operations:

  • You can create new data with INSERT statements.
  • You can read data with SELECT statements, as we did in the above example.
  • You can update data with UPDATE statements.
  • You can delete data with DELETE statements.

SELECT statements are by far the most frequently used SQL statements. This is why we recommend you take our SQL Queries course first if you have no prior experience with SQL. The remaining operations – creating, updating and deleting data – are explained in another course, Operating on Data in SQL .

Beyond SQL Fundamentals

Aside from accessing and displaying data, SQL can also be used to create new tables in a database. Good table design makes user mistakes less likely. For example, if you tell a database that a column should contain only numbers, it won’t accept a word or any letters. Our guide to SQL doesn’t cover this topic, so if you want to learn more about how building a table works, check out the Creating Tables in SQL course.

SQL can also control the behavior of your databases: it can create users with specific privileges, create and delete new databases, and describe the tables and columns inside the new databases. However, there are usually slight differences in the SQL syntax among various DBMSes, so you may want to read the documentation of your DBMS before you try these advanced functions.

In many ways, learning SQL fundamentals is a good place to start working with databases. Continue reading the LearnSQL.com blog for more information, or try any of our interactive SQL courses for free!

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15 Best Database Assignment Help Sites For Beginners (2024)

database assignment for beginners

There are several different database assignment help sites that you can use to get your homework done. These sites can provide you with the necessary tools and resources to complete your assignments, as well as offer tips and advice on how to improve your skills. If you’re looking for a reliable database assignment help site, consider using one of the following.

Best Database Assignment Help Sites

Geeks programming.

Geeks Programming Database Assignment

If you’re a student who needs help with Database assignments, look no further than Geeks Programming! Their top-rated writers are experts in the field of databases, and they can help you gain a deeper understanding of the subject matter. Whether you’re struggling with a particular concept or just need some extra help to get your assignment done, their team is here to help.

They pride themselves on providing high-quality writing services to students all over the world, and the Database assignment help is no exception. Geeks Programming  is the perfect solution for students who need help with their database assignments. They offer 24-hour customer support so you can always get the assistance you need when you need it.

The Trusted Database Assignment Help service is known for its quality and attention to detail, so you can be sure that your assignment will be perfect. In addition, they offer a variety of services to suit your needs, so you can always find the perfect solution for your assignment. Whether you need help with a single assignment or a series of assignments, they can help you get the job done right.

Assignment XP

Assignment xp

Their database experts have vast expertise for applications of databases and they bring in the relevant elements while preparing the database assignment solutions. The objective is to enhance the database understanding of the students through a step-by-step approach and enable them to solve database projects on their own.

They provide comprehensive, well-crafted, and plagiarism-free solutions at pocket-friendly rates. So, if you are burdened with pending database assignments, then don’t delay any further and hire their services now! If you are a student who is facing difficulties in understanding database concepts or completing your database assignments, then you have come to the right place.

Assignment XPs is a one-stop solution for all your database issues. They have a team of experienced and qualified database experts who can provide you with superior and unique help with your database homework or assignments.

Topics like ACID properties, Normalization, SQL, and PL-SQL scripts need to be understood properly for better grades in your exams. However, these topics can be difficult to understand if you don’t have proper guidance. That’s where the experts can help you. They can provide you with comprehensive explanations while giving online Database tutoring help.

If you are looking for reliable and trustworthy database assignment help, then you have come to the right place. Assignment XP is a leading website that offers customized solutions to your database assignments and projects. They have a team of expert tutors who are available round the clock to offer you the best assistance.


My coding pal

Do you need help with your database assignment? The team at MyCodingPal offers the best database assignment help to students from all over the world. They have a team of highly skilled and experienced experts who are capable of completing your assignment easily and effectively.

They understand that database assignments can be quite challenging and complex for students. Therefore, the experts provide high-quality and customized services to meet all your requirements. They have in-depth knowledge of different database management systems and can provide you with accurate and relevant information. Moreover, they will also ensure that your assignment is completed within the given deadline.

MyCodingPal is a leading assignment help provider that assists students in completing their assignments on time and with utmost perfection. The company has been operational for over a decade now and has helped numerous students in achieving academic excellence. It has a team of highly qualified and experienced professionals who are well-versed in the requirement of different universities and colleges across the globe.

The company provides a wide range of services that include help with database assignment, essay writing help, dissertation writing help, thesis writing help, and much more. It also has a very user-friendly website that provides all the necessary information about the company and its services. The website is also equipped with a live chat support system that enables students to get in touch with the experts in the case.

The Programming Assignment Help

The Programming Assignment Help

Are you pursuing a computer science course and finding it difficult to write a quality database management assignment? Then, you are not alone. There are thousands of students who face similar difficulties while working on their assignments. However, with The Programming Assignment Help by your side, you need not worry about your grades anymore. They are the leading online database assignment help provider that offers quality solutions to help you score top grades.

They have a team of experienced database and programming experts who prepare quality assignment solutions as per your university guidelines. With them, you can be assured of getting plagiarism-free and error-free solutions within the stipulated deadline. So, if you are looking for instant database assignment help, then look no further than The Programming Assignment Help.

If you’re struggling with multiple assignments and tight deadlines, then The Programming Assignment Help is here to help you out! They provide programming homework help to students who are stuck with their database assignments, regardless of the complexity. The experts have in-depth knowledge of the subject and can prepare quality assignment solutions for you.

My Assignment Help

My Assignment Help

For students pursuing a degree in database management, assignments can be a real nightmare. If you are also struggling with your DBMS assignments, the team at MyAssignmenthelp.com can help you out. They have a team of skilled and qualified experts who can provide you with much-needed assistance with your assignments.

For the last 10+ years, they have been providing students with quality support and guidance. Over the years, they have helped thousands of students with their DBMS assignments and projects. If you are also looking for database management assignment help, they are the best people to approach.

My Assignment Help has a team of qualified and experienced DBMS assignment experts who can provide you with top-quality solutions. Each of the experts is highly qualified and has years of experience in solving DBMS tasks with different requirements. They are also well-versed with the academic guidelines and can provide you with well-written and error-free solutions. So, if you want quality assistance with your DBMS assignments, look no further than My Assignment Help!

Do My Assignment

Do My Assignment

Do My Assignment offers database homework help from tech specialists who can show you an easy and effective way to do your assignment. With their coding homework help, you’ll be able to get your homework done quickly and easily, freeing up more time for the things you love.

Don’t spend another night struggling with your homework. Let Do My Assignment help you get it done right. Try them now and see the difference. They are a professional company that provides top-quality academic writing and computer science services. No matter what kind of help you need, they are here to provide it.

Do My Assignment offers a wide range of assignment database services that will ensure your future success. The database assignment help is among the most popular services and they can guarantee that you’ll receive only A+ grades. Need coding homework help? They can do that too!

Real Code 4 Yo u

Real Code 4 You

Real Code 4 You is excited to offer the innovative online Database assignment help service to students worldwide. Their team of highly qualified experts is dedicated to providing top-quality online Database homework help and other related services. They are proud to offer a wide range of services that are affordable, reliable, and convenient.

Their online database assignment help service is designed to provide high-quality assistance to students who need help with their assignments. They will work with you to ensure that your assignments are completed on time and to your satisfaction. The team of experts is available 24/7 to answer any questions you may have and to provide assistance when needed.

All Assignment Help

All Assignment Help - database assignment help

Introducing All Assignment Help- your one-stop shop for database management assignment help. They have a team of highly skilled and experienced professionals who are well versed in all the concepts of database management. So, if you are struggling with your assignments, then simply get in touch with them and they will take care of everything.

There is no need to spend endless hours trying to figure out the concepts as the experts are here to help you. With this online database management assignment help, you will be able to get your hands on quality assignments within the deadlines. All Assignment Help is the perfect solution for students who need last-minute assistance with their assignments.

They have a team of over 2000 Ph.D. experts who are available to help with any assignment, no matter what the subject or level of difficulty. With flexible pricing, you can choose an expert that fits your budget and quality parameters.

Best Assignment Expert s

Best Assignment Experts - database assignment help

Assignments are always a burden for students as they need to manage their time between college and other work. Yes, you heard it right. They are the best assignment help company in the market and students from all around the world are benefitting from them. They have a team of experts who are well-versed in different subjects and can provide you with quality assignments database within the given deadline.

So, if you are struggling with your assignments, then contact them now and get rid of all your worries. They promise to deliver the best quality work that will help you score good grades.

The team of qualified experts is here to provide you with the highest quality assignment help available. They only hire master’s and Ph.D. level tutors, so you can be confident in the quality of the experts. With Best Assignment Experts, you can relax and focus on your studies, knowing that they’ve got you covered.

Coding Parks

Coding Parks - database assignment help

Coding Parks is the #1 online service provider for database assignment help and homework help in the USA. They have a team of experienced and qualified database experts who can help you with all your database assignments and homework problems. No matter how difficult your assignment or homework is, they can help you get the best grades.

Coding Parks offers a variety of services related to databases and programming. They are here to help you with all of your coding needs, whether it’s for school or work. Coding Parks have a wide range of services that they offer, and they are always updating their offerings to make sure that they are providing the best possible service for the customers.

The experts are here to help you with all of your database needs, and they will work with you to make sure that you are getting the best possible service.

Assignment Help

Assignment Help - database assignment help

If you are looking for robust and comprehensive database assignment help, look no further than Assignmenthelp.net. They provide top-notch quality assistance with all kinds of database-related assignments, homework, projects, and more. No matter what your specific needs are, the team of experts can help you get the job done right.

Their services include database assignment help, online tutoring, and training programs – all at affordable prices. They can help you with MySQL, SQL, Oracle, and MS Access databases. Whether you need help designing a database or simply writing queries, they have you covered.

At Database Assignment Help, there is a team of highly skilled and experienced professionals who can help you with your assignment. So, if you are looking for unique and superior database assignment help, then contact them today. They not only do your database assignment but also follow up with you so that your assignment is up to standard.

Java Assignment Help

Java Assignment Help

Java assignment help expert tutors are here to help you with your Java homework, no matter how difficult it may be. Whether you’re just getting started with Java or are looking to brush up on your skills, they can help. Java assignment help tutors will work with you one-on-one to help you master the material and complete your homework on time.

They always try to make sure that the coding is according to your needs and requirements. The team of experts has in-depth knowledge of databases and hence, they successfully deliver plagiarism-free assignments every single time. Customer satisfaction is a top priority and they offer round-the-clock customer support in case you need assistance with anything.

Assign Code

Assign Code

If you’re looking for a writing service that can handle any type of assignment with the utmost proficiency, then Assign Code is the right choice for you. They only work with the best and most qualified writers. So you can be assured that your assignment will be in good hands. The experts are also trained in different academic writing styles and formatting, so they can handle any type of assignment you throw at them.

With the support of mentors and quality assurance managers, the experts are constantly evolving and improving with every assignment they complete. Plus, they verify the diplomas of all the specialists to make sure they’re qualified to handle your specific needs.

Coders Arts

Coders Arts - database assignment help

Are you struggling with your database assignment? Do you need help understanding SQL or programming in Oracle, MySQL, SQL Server, PostgreSQL, SQLite, or MongoDB? If so, Coders Arts is here to help! They are a top-rated website for database assignment help, homework help, and project help.

Their dedicated team of experts will guide you through your journey and help you achieve success. They offer step-by-step solutions to complex problems, detailed explanations of concepts, and programming tips and tricks to make learning easy. In addition, they provide coursework help to ensure that you get the most out of your learning experience.

If you’re a computer science student struggling with data, Coders Arts is the perfect website for you. They offer database assignment help at an affordable price, so you can get the help you need without breaking the bank. A database is a type of data structure that is essential for the collection and organization of related information.

Creating database schema, designing and modeling, writing queries, and converting database models to relational databases are all tasks that the experts can help you with. In addition, they can also help you connect your database with any web development or mobile development projects you may be working on.

Go Assignment Help

Go Assignment Help - database assignment help

Go Assignment Help has a team of experts available 24/7 to help you with all your Database management homework assignments. All the services are 100% confidential and come with a money-back guarantee. Plus, they always deliver on time, so you don’t have to worry about missing your deadline. And if that’s not enough, all our assignments are of A+ quality.

The expert writers can help you with everything from basic database assignments to complex ones. They can even help you learn how to properly apply various techniques, such as logical functions, lookup tables, goal-seeking analysis, and scenario analysis.


This is just a small sample of the many database assignment help services available online. So if you’re struggling with your assignments, be sure to check out one of these websites. With the help of an expert, you’ll be able to complete your assignments on time and get the grades you deserve.

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