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APA Sample Paper: Experimental Psychology

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Chapter 11: Presenting Your Research

Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style

Learning Objectives

  • Identify the major sections of an APA-style research report and the basic contents of each section.
  • Plan and write an effective APA-style research report.

In this section, we look at how to write an APA-style empirical research report , an article that presents the results of one or more new studies. Recall that the standard sections of an empirical research report provide a kind of outline. Here we consider each of these sections in detail, including what information it contains, how that information is formatted and organized, and tips for writing each section. At the end of this section is a sample APA-style research report that illustrates many of these principles.

Sections of a Research Report

Title page and abstract.

An APA-style research report begins with a  title page . The title is centred in the upper half of the page, with each important word capitalized. The title should clearly and concisely (in about 12 words or fewer) communicate the primary variables and research questions. This sometimes requires a main title followed by a subtitle that elaborates on the main title, in which case the main title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Here are some titles from recent issues of professional journals published by the American Psychological Association.

  • Sex Differences in Coping Styles and Implications for Depressed Mood
  • Effects of Aging and Divided Attention on Memory for Items and Their Contexts
  • Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Child Anxiety: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial
  • Virtual Driving and Risk Taking: Do Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Cognitions, Affect, and Behaviour?

Below the title are the authors’ names and, on the next line, their institutional affiliation—the university or other institution where the authors worked when they conducted the research. As we have already seen, the authors are listed in an order that reflects their contribution to the research. When multiple authors have made equal contributions to the research, they often list their names alphabetically or in a randomly determined order.

In some areas of psychology, the titles of many empirical research reports are informal in a way that is perhaps best described as “cute.” They usually take the form of a play on words or a well-known expression that relates to the topic under study. Here are some examples from recent issues of the Journal Psychological Science .

  • “Smells Like Clean Spirit: Nonconscious Effects of Scent on Cognition and Behavior”
  • “Time Crawls: The Temporal Resolution of Infants’ Visual Attention”
  • “Scent of a Woman: Men’s Testosterone Responses to Olfactory Ovulation Cues”
  • “Apocalypse Soon?: Dire Messages Reduce Belief in Global Warming by Contradicting Just-World Beliefs”
  • “Serial vs. Parallel Processing: Sometimes They Look Like Tweedledum and Tweedledee but They Can (and Should) Be Distinguished”
  • “How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Words: The Social Effects of Expressive Writing”

Individual researchers differ quite a bit in their preference for such titles. Some use them regularly, while others never use them. What might be some of the pros and cons of using cute article titles?

For articles that are being submitted for publication, the title page also includes an author note that lists the authors’ full institutional affiliations, any acknowledgments the authors wish to make to agencies that funded the research or to colleagues who commented on it, and contact information for the authors. For student papers that are not being submitted for publication—including theses—author notes are generally not necessary.

The  abstract  is a summary of the study. It is the second page of the manuscript and is headed with the word  Abstract . The first line is not indented. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions. Because the abstract is usually limited to about 200 words, it can be a challenge to write a good one.


The  introduction  begins on the third page of the manuscript. The heading at the top of this page is the full title of the manuscript, with each important word capitalized as on the title page. The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings. The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it.

The Opening

The  opening , which is usually a paragraph or two in length, introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting. To capture the reader’s attention, researcher Daryl Bem recommends starting with general observations about the topic under study, expressed in ordinary language (not technical jargon)—observations that are about people and their behaviour (not about researchers or their research; Bem, 2003 [1] ). Concrete examples are often very useful here. According to Bem, this would be a poor way to begin a research report:

Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance received a great deal of attention during the latter part of the 20th century (p. 191)

The following would be much better:

The individual who holds two beliefs that are inconsistent with one another may feel uncomfortable. For example, the person who knows that he or she enjoys smoking but believes it to be unhealthy may experience discomfort arising from the inconsistency or disharmony between these two thoughts or cognitions. This feeling of discomfort was called cognitive dissonance by social psychologist Leon Festinger (1957), who suggested that individuals will be motivated to remove this dissonance in whatever way they can (p. 191).

After capturing the reader’s attention, the opening should go on to introduce the research question and explain why it is interesting. Will the answer fill a gap in the literature? Will it provide a test of an important theory? Does it have practical implications? Giving readers a clear sense of what the research is about and why they should care about it will motivate them to continue reading the literature review—and will help them make sense of it.

Breaking the Rules

Researcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitions—and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults. He opened his article with the following humourous anecdote:

A friend whose mother is suffering symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) tells the story of taking her mother to visit a nursing home, preliminary to her mother’s moving there. During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room. The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required. The absence of tipping was a central theme in the orientation lecture, mentioned frequently to emphasize the quality of care along with the advantages of having paid in advance. At the end of the meeting, the friend’s mother was asked whether she had any questions. She replied that she only had one question: “Should I tip?” (Jacoby, 1999, p. 3)

Although both humour and personal anecdotes are generally discouraged in APA-style writing, this example is a highly effective way to start because it both engages the reader and provides an excellent real-world example of the topic under study.

The Literature Review

Immediately after the opening comes the  literature review , which describes relevant previous research on the topic and can be anywhere from several paragraphs to several pages in length. However, the literature review is not simply a list of past studies. Instead, it constitutes a kind of argument for why the research question is worth addressing. By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process.

Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure. For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories. Or it might describe one phenomenon, then describe another phenomenon that seems inconsistent with the first one, then propose a theory that resolves the inconsistency, and finally present a hypothesis to test that theory. In applied research, it might describe a phenomenon or theory, then describe how that phenomenon or theory applies to some important real-world situation, and finally suggest a way to test whether it does, in fact, apply to that situation.

Looking at the literature review in this way emphasizes a few things. First, it is extremely important to start with an outline of the main points that you want to make, organized in the order that you want to make them. The basic structure of your argument, then, should be apparent from the outline itself. Second, it is important to emphasize the structure of your argument in your writing. One way to do this is to begin the literature review by summarizing your argument even before you begin to make it. “In this article, I will describe two apparently contradictory phenomena, present a new theory that has the potential to resolve the apparent contradiction, and finally present a novel hypothesis to test the theory.” Another way is to open each paragraph with a sentence that summarizes the main point of the paragraph and links it to the preceding points. These opening sentences provide the “transitions” that many beginning researchers have difficulty with. Instead of beginning a paragraph by launching into a description of a previous study, such as “Williams (2004) found that…,” it is better to start by indicating something about why you are describing this particular study. Here are some simple examples:

Another example of this phenomenon comes from the work of Williams (2004).

Williams (2004) offers one explanation of this phenomenon.

An alternative perspective has been provided by Williams (2004).

We used a method based on the one used by Williams (2004).

Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressing—not necessarily why your favourite answer to it is correct. In other words, your literature review must be balanced. If you want to emphasize the generality of a phenomenon, then of course you should discuss various studies that have demonstrated it. However, if there are other studies that have failed to demonstrate it, you should discuss them too. Or if you are proposing a new theory, then of course you should discuss findings that are consistent with that theory. However, if there are other findings that are inconsistent with it, again, you should discuss them too. It is acceptable to argue that the  balance  of the research supports the existence of a phenomenon or is consistent with a theory (and that is usually the best that researchers in psychology can hope for), but it is not acceptable to  ignore contradictory evidence. Besides, a large part of what makes a research question interesting is uncertainty about its answer.

The Closing

The  closing  of the introduction—typically the final paragraph or two—usually includes two important elements. The first is a clear statement of the main research question or hypothesis. This statement tends to be more formal and precise than in the opening and is often expressed in terms of operational definitions of the key variables. The second is a brief overview of the method and some comment on its appropriateness. Here, for example, is how Darley and Latané (1968) [2] concluded the introduction to their classic article on the bystander effect:

These considerations lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid. To test this proposition it would be necessary to create a situation in which a realistic “emergency” could plausibly occur. Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behaviour during the emergency. Finally, the experimental situation should allow for the assessment of the speed and frequency of the subjects’ reaction to the emergency. The experiment reported below attempted to fulfill these conditions. (p. 378)

Thus the introduction leads smoothly into the next major section of the article—the method section.

The  method section  is where you describe how you conducted your study. An important principle for writing a method section is that it should be clear and detailed enough that other researchers could replicate the study by following your “recipe.” This means that it must describe all the important elements of the study—basic demographic characteristics of the participants, how they were recruited, whether they were randomly assigned, how the variables were manipulated or measured, how counterbalancing was accomplished, and so on. At the same time, it should avoid irrelevant details such as the fact that the study was conducted in Classroom 37B of the Industrial Technology Building or that the questionnaire was double-sided and completed using pencils.

The method section begins immediately after the introduction ends with the heading “Method” (not “Methods”) centred on the page. Immediately after this is the subheading “Participants,” left justified and in italics. The participants subsection indicates how many participants there were, the number of women and men, some indication of their age, other demographics that may be relevant to the study, and how they were recruited, including any incentives given for participation.

Three ways of organizing an APA-style method. Long description available.

After the participants section, the structure can vary a bit. Figure 11.1 shows three common approaches. In the first, the participants section is followed by a design and procedure subsection, which describes the rest of the method. This works well for methods that are relatively simple and can be described adequately in a few paragraphs. In the second approach, the participants section is followed by separate design and procedure subsections. This works well when both the design and the procedure are relatively complicated and each requires multiple paragraphs.

What is the difference between design and procedure? The design of a study is its overall structure. What were the independent and dependent variables? Was the independent variable manipulated, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects? How were the variables operationally defined? The procedure is how the study was carried out. It often works well to describe the procedure in terms of what the participants did rather than what the researchers did. For example, the participants gave their informed consent, read a set of instructions, completed a block of four practice trials, completed a block of 20 test trials, completed two questionnaires, and were debriefed and excused.

In the third basic way to organize a method section, the participants subsection is followed by a materials subsection before the design and procedure subsections. This works well when there are complicated materials to describe. This might mean multiple questionnaires, written vignettes that participants read and respond to, perceptual stimuli, and so on. The heading of this subsection can be modified to reflect its content. Instead of “Materials,” it can be “Questionnaires,” “Stimuli,” and so on.

The  results section  is where you present the main results of the study, including the results of the statistical analyses. Although it does not include the raw data—individual participants’ responses or scores—researchers should save their raw data and make them available to other researchers who request them. Several journals now encourage the open sharing of raw data online.

Although there are no standard subsections, it is still important for the results section to be logically organized. Typically it begins with certain preliminary issues. One is whether any participants or responses were excluded from the analyses and why. The rationale for excluding data should be described clearly so that other researchers can decide whether it is appropriate. A second preliminary issue is how multiple responses were combined to produce the primary variables in the analyses. For example, if participants rated the attractiveness of 20 stimulus people, you might have to explain that you began by computing the mean attractiveness rating for each participant. Or if they recalled as many items as they could from study list of 20 words, did you count the number correctly recalled, compute the percentage correctly recalled, or perhaps compute the number correct minus the number incorrect? A third preliminary issue is the reliability of the measures. This is where you would present test-retest correlations, Cronbach’s α, or other statistics to show that the measures are consistent across time and across items. A final preliminary issue is whether the manipulation was successful. This is where you would report the results of any manipulation checks.

The results section should then tackle the primary research questions, one at a time. Again, there should be a clear organization. One approach would be to answer the most general questions and then proceed to answer more specific ones. Another would be to answer the main question first and then to answer secondary ones. Regardless, Bem (2003) [3] suggests the following basic structure for discussing each new result:

  • Remind the reader of the research question.
  • Give the answer to the research question in words.
  • Present the relevant statistics.
  • Qualify the answer if necessary.
  • Summarize the result.

Notice that only Step 3 necessarily involves numbers. The rest of the steps involve presenting the research question and the answer to it in words. In fact, the basic results should be clear even to a reader who skips over the numbers.

The  discussion  is the last major section of the research report. Discussions usually consist of some combination of the following elements:

  • Summary of the research
  • Theoretical implications
  • Practical implications
  • Limitations
  • Suggestions for future research

The discussion typically begins with a summary of the study that provides a clear answer to the research question. In a short report with a single study, this might require no more than a sentence. In a longer report with multiple studies, it might require a paragraph or even two. The summary is often followed by a discussion of the theoretical implications of the research. Do the results provide support for any existing theories? If not, how  can  they be explained? Although you do not have to provide a definitive explanation or detailed theory for your results, you at least need to outline one or more possible explanations. In applied research—and often in basic research—there is also some discussion of the practical implications of the research. How can the results be used, and by whom, to accomplish some real-world goal?

The theoretical and practical implications are often followed by a discussion of the study’s limitations. Perhaps there are problems with its internal or external validity. Perhaps the manipulation was not very effective or the measures not very reliable. Perhaps there is some evidence that participants did not fully understand their task or that they were suspicious of the intent of the researchers. Now is the time to discuss these issues and how they might have affected the results. But do not overdo it. All studies have limitations, and most readers will understand that a different sample or different measures might have produced different results. Unless there is good reason to think they  would have, however, there is no reason to mention these routine issues. Instead, pick two or three limitations that seem like they could have influenced the results, explain how they could have influenced the results, and suggest ways to deal with them.

Most discussions end with some suggestions for future research. If the study did not satisfactorily answer the original research question, what will it take to do so? What  new  research questions has the study raised? This part of the discussion, however, is not just a list of new questions. It is a discussion of two or three of the most important unresolved issues. This means identifying and clarifying each question, suggesting some alternative answers, and even suggesting ways they could be studied.

Finally, some researchers are quite good at ending their articles with a sweeping or thought-provoking conclusion. Darley and Latané (1968) [4] , for example, ended their article on the bystander effect by discussing the idea that whether people help others may depend more on the situation than on their personalities. Their final sentence is, “If people understand the situational forces that can make them hesitate to intervene, they may better overcome them” (p. 383). However, this kind of ending can be difficult to pull off. It can sound overreaching or just banal and end up detracting from the overall impact of the article. It is often better simply to end when you have made your final point (although you should avoid ending on a limitation).

The references section begins on a new page with the heading “References” centred at the top of the page. All references cited in the text are then listed in the format presented earlier. They are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author. If two sources have the same first author, they are listed alphabetically by the last name of the second author. If all the authors are the same, then they are listed chronologically by the year of publication. Everything in the reference list is double-spaced both within and between references.

Appendices, Tables, and Figures

Appendices, tables, and figures come after the references. An  appendix  is appropriate for supplemental material that would interrupt the flow of the research report if it were presented within any of the major sections. An appendix could be used to present lists of stimulus words, questionnaire items, detailed descriptions of special equipment or unusual statistical analyses, or references to the studies that are included in a meta-analysis. Each appendix begins on a new page. If there is only one, the heading is “Appendix,” centred at the top of the page. If there is more than one, the headings are “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on, and they appear in the order they were first mentioned in the text of the report.

After any appendices come tables and then figures. Tables and figures are both used to present results. Figures can also be used to illustrate theories (e.g., in the form of a flowchart), display stimuli, outline procedures, and present many other kinds of information. Each table and figure appears on its own page. Tables are numbered in the order that they are first mentioned in the text (“Table 1,” “Table 2,” and so on). Figures are numbered the same way (“Figure 1,” “Figure 2,” and so on). A brief explanatory title, with the important words capitalized, appears above each table. Each figure is given a brief explanatory caption, where (aside from proper nouns or names) only the first word of each sentence is capitalized. More details on preparing APA-style tables and figures are presented later in the book.

Sample APA-Style Research Report

Figures 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, and 11.5 show some sample pages from an APA-style empirical research report originally written by undergraduate student Tomoe Suyama at California State University, Fresno. The main purpose of these figures is to illustrate the basic organization and formatting of an APA-style empirical research report, although many high-level and low-level style conventions can be seen here too.


Key Takeaways

  • An APA-style empirical research report consists of several standard sections. The main ones are the abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references.
  • The introduction consists of an opening that presents the research question, a literature review that describes previous research on the topic, and a closing that restates the research question and comments on the method. The literature review constitutes an argument for why the current study is worth doing.
  • The method section describes the method in enough detail that another researcher could replicate the study. At a minimum, it consists of a participants subsection and a design and procedure subsection.
  • The results section describes the results in an organized fashion. Each primary result is presented in terms of statistical results but also explained in words.
  • The discussion typically summarizes the study, discusses theoretical and practical implications and limitations of the study, and offers suggestions for further research.
  • Practice: Look through an issue of a general interest professional journal (e.g.,  Psychological Science ). Read the opening of the first five articles and rate the effectiveness of each one from 1 ( very ineffective ) to 5 ( very effective ). Write a sentence or two explaining each rating.
  • Practice: Find a recent article in a professional journal and identify where the opening, literature review, and closing of the introduction begin and end.
  • Practice: Find a recent article in a professional journal and highlight in a different colour each of the following elements in the discussion: summary, theoretical implications, practical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research.

Long Descriptions

Figure 11.1 long description: Table showing three ways of organizing an APA-style method section.

In the simple method, there are two subheadings: “Participants” (which might begin “The participants were…”) and “Design and procedure” (which might begin “There were three conditions…”).

In the typical method, there are three subheadings: “Participants” (“The participants were…”), “Design” (“There were three conditions…”), and “Procedure” (“Participants viewed each stimulus on the computer screen…”).

In the complex method, there are four subheadings: “Participants” (“The participants were…”), “Materials” (“The stimuli were…”), “Design” (“There were three conditions…”), and “Procedure” (“Participants viewed each stimulus on the computer screen…”). [Return to Figure 11.1]

  • Bem, D. J. (2003). Writing the empirical journal article. In J. M. Darley, M. P. Zanna, & H. R. Roediger III (Eds.),  The compleat academic: A practical guide for the beginning social scientist  (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ↵
  • Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4 , 377–383. ↵

A type of research article which describes one or more new empirical studies conducted by the authors.

The page at the beginning of an APA-style research report containing the title of the article, the authors’ names, and their institutional affiliation.

A summary of a research study.

The third page of a manuscript containing the research question, the literature review, and comments about how to answer the research question.

An introduction to the research question and explanation for why this question is interesting.

A description of relevant previous research on the topic being discusses and an argument for why the research is worth addressing.

The end of the introduction, where the research question is reiterated and the method is commented upon.

The section of a research report where the method used to conduct the study is described.

The main results of the study, including the results from statistical analyses, are presented in a research article.

Section of a research report that summarizes the study's results and interprets them by referring back to the study's theoretical background.

Part of a research report which contains supplemental material.

Research Methods in Psychology - 2nd Canadian Edition by Paul C. Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, & I-Chant A. Chiang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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How to Write an Abstract APA Format

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Educator, Researcher

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, Ph.D., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years experience of working in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

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Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

An APA abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of an article, research paper, dissertation, or report.

It is written in accordance with the guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA), which is a widely used format in social and behavioral sciences. 

An APA abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of between 150–250 words, the major aspects of a research paper or dissertation in a prescribed sequence that includes:
  • The rationale: the overall purpose of the study, providing a clear context for the research undertaken.
  • Information regarding the method and participants: including materials/instruments, design, procedure, and data analysis.
  • Main findings or trends: effectively highlighting the key outcomes of the hypotheses.
  • Interpretations and conclusion(s): solidify the implications of the research.
  • Keywords related to the study: assist the paper’s discoverability in academic databases.

The abstract should stand alone, be “self-contained,” and make sense to the reader in isolation from the main article.

The purpose of the abstract is to give the reader a quick overview of the essential information before reading the entire article. The abstract is placed on its own page, directly after the title page and before the main body of the paper.

Although the abstract will appear as the very first part of your paper, it’s good practice to write your abstract after you’ve drafted your full paper, so that you know what you’re summarizing.

Note : This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), released in October 2019.

Structure of the Abstract

[NOTE: DO NOT separate the components of the abstract – it should be written as a single paragraph. This section is separated to illustrate the abstract’s structure.]

1) The Rationale

One or two sentences describing the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) you investigated. You are basically justifying why this study was conducted.

  • What is the importance of the research?
  • Why would a reader be interested in the larger work?
  • For example, are you filling a gap in previous research or applying new methods to take a fresh look at existing ideas or data?
  • Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer can experience an array of psychosocial difficulties; however, social support, particularly from a spouse, has been shown to have a protective function during this time. This study examined the ways in which a woman’s daily mood, pain, and fatigue, and her spouse’s marital satisfaction predict the woman’s report of partner support in the context of breast cancer.
  • The current nursing shortage, high hospital nurse job dissatisfaction, and reports of uneven quality of hospital care are not uniquely American phenomena.
  • Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are more likely to exhibit behavioral difficulties than their typically developing peers. The aim of this study was to identify specific risk factors that influence variability in behavior difficulties among individuals with SEND.

2) The Method

Information regarding the participants (number, and population). One or two sentences outlining the method, explaining what was done and how. The method is described in the present tense.

  • Pretest data from a larger intervention study and multilevel modeling were used to examine the effects of women’s daily mood, pain, and fatigue and average levels of mood, pain, and fatigue on women’s report of social support received from her partner, as well as how the effects of mood interacted with partners’ marital satisfaction.
  • This paper presents reports from 43,000 nurses from more than 700 hospitals in the United States, Canada, England, Scotland, and Germany in 1998–1999.
  • The study sample comprised 4,228 students with SEND, aged 5–15, drawn from 305 primary and secondary schools across England. Explanatory variables were measured at the individual and school levels at baseline, along with a teacher-reported measure of behavior difficulties (assessed at baseline and the 18-month follow-up).

3) The Results

One or two sentences indicating the main findings or trends found as a result of your analysis. The results are described in the present or past tense.

  • Results show that on days in which women reported higher levels of negative or positive mood, as well as on days they reported more pain and fatigue, they reported receiving more support. Women who, on average, reported higher levels of positive mood tended to report receiving more support than those who, on average, reported lower positive mood. However, average levels of negative mood were not associated with support. Higher average levels of fatigue but not pain were associated with higher support. Finally, women whose husbands reported higher levels of marital satisfaction reported receiving more partner support, but husbands’ marital satisfaction did not moderate the effect of women’s mood on support.
  • Nurses in countries with distinctly different healthcare systems report similar shortcomings in their work environments and the quality of hospital care. While the competence of and relation between nurses and physicians appear satisfactory, core problems in work design and workforce management threaten the provision of care.
  • Hierarchical linear modeling of data revealed that differences between schools accounted for between 13% (secondary) and 15.4% (primary) of the total variance in the development of students’ behavior difficulties, with the remainder attributable to individual differences. Statistically significant risk markers for these problems across both phases of education were being male, eligibility for free school meals, being identified as a bully, and lower academic achievement. Additional risk markers specific to each phase of education at the individual and school levels are also acknowledged.

4) The Conclusion / Implications

A brief summary of your conclusions and implications of the results, described in the present tense. Explain the results and why the study is important to the reader.

  • For example, what changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work?
  • How does this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?

Implications of these findings are discussed relative to assisting couples during this difficult time in their lives.

  • Resolving these issues, which are amenable to managerial intervention, is essential to preserving patient safety and care of consistently high quality.
  • Behavior difficulties are affected by risks across multiple ecological levels. Addressing any one of these potential influences is therefore likely to contribute to the reduction in the problems displayed.

The above examples of abstracts are from the following papers:

Aiken, L. H., Clarke, S. P., Sloane, D. M., Sochalski, J. A., Busse, R., Clarke, H., … & Shamian, J. (2001). Nurses’ reports on hospital care in five countries . Health affairs, 20(3) , 43-53.

Boeding, S. E., Pukay-Martin, N. D., Baucom, D. H., Porter, L. S., Kirby, J. S., Gremore, T. M., & Keefe, F. J. (2014). Couples and breast cancer: Women’s mood and partners’ marital satisfaction predicting support perception . Journal of Family Psychology, 28(5) , 675.

Oldfield, J., Humphrey, N., & Hebron, J. (2017). Risk factors in the development of behavior difficulties among students with special educational needs and disabilities: A multilevel analysis . British journal of educational psychology, 87(2) , 146-169.

5) Keywords

APA style suggests including a list of keywords at the end of the abstract. This is particularly common in academic articles and helps other researchers find your work in databases.

Keywords in an abstract should be selected to help other researchers find your work when searching an online database. These keywords should effectively represent the main topics of your study. Here are some tips for choosing keywords:

Core Concepts: Identify the most important ideas or concepts in your paper. These often include your main research topic, the methods you’ve used, or the theories you’re discussing.

Specificity: Your keywords should be specific to your research. For example, suppose your paper is about the effects of climate change on bird migration patterns in a specific region. In that case, your keywords might include “climate change,” “bird migration,” and the region’s name.

Consistency with Paper: Make sure your keywords are consistent with the terms you’ve used in your paper. For example, if you use the term “adolescent” rather than “teen” in your paper, choose “adolescent” as your keyword, not “teen.”

Jargon and Acronyms: Avoid using too much-specialized jargon or acronyms in your keywords, as these might not be understood or used by all researchers in your field.

Synonyms: Consider including synonyms of your keywords to capture as many relevant searches as possible. For example, if your paper discusses “post-traumatic stress disorder,” you might include “PTSD” as a keyword.

Remember, keywords are a tool for others to find your work, so think about what terms other researchers might use when searching for papers on your topic.

The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain:

Lengthy background or contextual information: The abstract should focus on your research and findings, not general topic background.

Undefined jargon, abbreviations,  or acronyms: The abstract should be accessible to a wide audience, so avoid highly specialized terms without defining them.

Citations: Abstracts typically do not include citations, as they summarize original research.

Incomplete sentences or bulleted lists: The abstract should be a single, coherent paragraph written in complete sentences.

New information not covered in the paper: The abstract should only summarize the paper’s content.

Subjective comments or value judgments: Stick to objective descriptions of your research.

Excessive details on methods or procedures: Keep descriptions of methods brief and focused on main steps.

Speculative or inconclusive statements: The abstract should state the research’s clear findings, not hypotheses or possible interpretations.

  • Any illustration, figure, table, or references to them . All visual aids, data, or extensive details should be included in the main body of your paper, not in the abstract. 
  • Elliptical or incomplete sentences should be avoided in an abstract . The use of ellipses (…), which could indicate incomplete thoughts or omitted text, is not appropriate in an abstract.

APA Style for Abstracts

An APA abstract must be formatted as follows:

Include the running head aligned to the left at the top of the page (professional papers only) and page number. Note, student papers do not require a running head. On the first line, center the heading “Abstract” and bold (do not underlined or italicize). Do not indent the single abstract paragraph (which begins one line below the section title). Double-space the text. Use Times New Roman font in 12 pt. Set one-inch (or 2.54 cm) margins. If you include a “keywords” section at the end of the abstract, indent the first line and italicize the word “Keywords” while leaving the keywords themselves without any formatting.

Example APA Abstract Page

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APA Style Abstract Example

Further Information

  • APA 7th Edition Abstract and Keywords Guide
  • Example APA Abstract
  • How to Write a Good Abstract for a Scientific Paper or Conference Presentation
  • How to Write a Lab Report
  • Writing an APA paper

How long should an APA abstract be?

An APA abstract should typically be between 150 to 250 words long. However, the exact length may vary depending on specific publication or assignment guidelines. It is crucial that it succinctly summarizes the essential elements of the work, including purpose, methods, findings, and conclusions.

Where does the abstract go in an APA paper?

In an APA formatted paper, the abstract is placed on its own page, directly after the title page and before the main body of the paper. It’s typically the second page of the document. It starts with the word “Abstract” (centered and not in bold) at the top of the page, followed by the text of the abstract itself.

What are the 4 C’s of abstract writing?

The 4 C’s of abstract writing are an approach to help you create a well-structured and informative abstract. They are:

Conciseness: An abstract should briefly summarize the key points of your study. Stick to the word limit (typically between 150-250 words for an APA abstract) and avoid unnecessary details.

Clarity: Your abstract should be easy to understand. Avoid jargon and complex sentences. Clearly explain the purpose, methods, results, and conclusions of your study.

Completeness: Even though it’s brief, the abstract should provide a complete overview of your study, including the purpose, methods, key findings, and your interpretation of the results.

Cohesion: The abstract should flow logically from one point to the next, maintaining a coherent narrative about your study. It’s not just a list of disjointed elements; it’s a brief story of your research from start to finish.

What is the abstract of a psychology paper?

An abstract in a psychology paper serves as a snapshot of the paper, allowing readers to quickly understand the purpose, methodology, results, and implications of the research without reading the entire paper. It is generally between 150-250 words long.

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Research Paper

Category: psychology research paper examples.

Psychology Research Paper Examples

The diversity of the APA divisions clearly reflects the changing face of contemporary psychology as well as represents wide subjects of psychological research. They include General Psychology (Division 1), the Study of Social Issues (Division 9), Clinical Psychology (Division 12), Pharmacology and Substance Abuse (Division 28), Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (Division 33), Media Psychology (Division 46), International Psychology (Division 52), and Trauma Psychology (Division 56).

Clearly, psychology research paper topics in the 21st century continue to be diverse and evolving. Whether the research paper deals with a traditional topic or a cutting-edge topic, you will find that it presents the materials in a decidedly contemporary manner. We hope that students will enjoy reading the research papers on different psychology topics as much as we have enjoyed collecting them for you.

Browse psychology research paper examples below.

Psychology Research Paper

Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

sample of psychology research paper

Are you searching for a great topic for your psychology paper ? Sometimes it seems like coming up with topics of psychology research is more challenging than the actual research and writing. Fortunately, there are plenty of great places to find inspiration and the following list contains just a few ideas to help get you started.

Finding a solid topic is one of the most important steps when writing any type of paper. It can be particularly important when you are writing a psychology research paper or essay. Psychology is such a broad topic, so you want to find a topic that allows you to adequately cover the subject without becoming overwhelmed with information.

In some cases, such as in a general psychology class, you might have the option to select any topic from within psychology's broad reach. Other instances, such as in an  abnormal psychology  course, might require you to write your paper on a specific subject such as a psychological disorder.

As you begin your search for a topic for your psychology paper, it is first important to consider the guidelines established by your instructor.

Topics of Psychology Research Within Specific Branches

The key to selecting a good topic for your psychology paper is to select something that is narrow enough to allow you to really focus on the subject, but not so narrow that it is difficult to find sources or information to write about.

One approach is to narrow your focus down to a subject within a specific branch of psychology. For example, you might start by deciding that you want to write a paper on some sort of social psychology topic. Next, you might narrow your focus down to how persuasion can be used to influence behavior.

Other social psychology topics you might consider include:

  • Prejudice and discrimination (i.e., homophobia, sexism, racism)
  • Social cognition
  • Person perception
  • Social control and cults
  • Persuasion , propaganda, and marketing
  • Attraction, romance, and love
  • Nonverbal communication
  • Prosocial behavior

Psychology Research Topics Involving a Disorder or Type of Therapy

Exploring a psychological disorder or a specific treatment modality can also be a good topic for a psychology paper. Some potential abnormal psychology topics include specific psychological disorders or particular treatment modalities, including:

  • Eating disorders
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Seasonal affective disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Antisocial personality disorder
  • Profile a  type of therapy  (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, psychoanalytic therapy)

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Human Cognition

Some of the possible topics you might explore in this area include thinking, language, intelligence, and decision-making. Other ideas might include:

  • False memories
  • Speech disorders
  • Problem-solving

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Human Development

In this area, you might opt to focus on issues pertinent to  early childhood  such as language development, social learning, or childhood attachment or you might instead opt to concentrate on issues that affect older adults such as dementia or Alzheimer's disease.

Some other topics you might consider include:

  • Language acquisition
  • Media violence and children
  • Learning disabilities
  • Gender roles
  • Child abuse
  • Prenatal development
  • Parenting styles
  • Aspects of the aging process

Do a Critique of Publications Involving Psychology Research Topics

One option is to consider writing a critique paper of a published psychology book or academic journal article. For example, you might write a critical analysis of Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams or you might evaluate a more recent book such as Philip Zimbardo's  The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil .

Professional and academic journals are also great places to find materials for a critique paper. Browse through the collection at your university library to find titles devoted to the subject that you are most interested in, then look through recent articles until you find one that grabs your attention.

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Famous Experiments

There have been many fascinating and groundbreaking experiments throughout the history of psychology, providing ample material for students looking for an interesting term paper topic. In your paper, you might choose to summarize the experiment, analyze the ethics of the research, or evaluate the implications of the study. Possible experiments that you might consider include:

  • The Milgram Obedience Experiment
  • The Stanford Prison Experiment
  • The Little Albert Experiment
  • Pavlov's Conditioning Experiments
  • The Asch Conformity Experiment
  • Harlow's Rhesus Monkey Experiments

Topics of Psychology Research About Historical Figures

One of the simplest ways to find a great topic is to choose an interesting person in the  history of psychology  and write a paper about them. Your paper might focus on many different elements of the individual's life, such as their biography, professional history, theories, or influence on psychology.

While this type of paper may be historical in nature, there is no need for this assignment to be dry or boring. Psychology is full of fascinating figures rife with intriguing stories and anecdotes. Consider such famous individuals as Sigmund Freud, B.F. Skinner, Harry Harlow, or one of the many other  eminent psychologists .

Psychology Research Topics About a Specific Career

​Another possible topic, depending on the course in which you are enrolled, is to write about specific career paths within the  field of psychology . This type of paper is especially appropriate if you are exploring different subtopics or considering which area interests you the most.

In your paper, you might opt to explore the typical duties of a psychologist, how much people working in these fields typically earn, and the different employment options that are available.

Topics of Psychology Research Involving Case Studies

One potentially interesting idea is to write a  psychology case study  of a particular individual or group of people. In this type of paper, you will provide an in-depth analysis of your subject, including a thorough biography.

Generally, you will also assess the person, often using a major psychological theory such as  Piaget's stages of cognitive development  or  Erikson's eight-stage theory of human development . It is also important to note that your paper doesn't necessarily have to be about someone you know personally.

In fact, many professors encourage students to write case studies on historical figures or fictional characters from books, television programs, or films.

Psychology Research Topics Involving Literature Reviews

Another possibility that would work well for a number of psychology courses is to do a literature review of a specific topic within psychology. A literature review involves finding a variety of sources on a particular subject, then summarizing and reporting on what these sources have to say about the topic.

Literature reviews are generally found in the  introduction  of journal articles and other  psychology papers , but this type of analysis also works well for a full-scale psychology term paper.

Topics of Psychology Research Based on Your Own Study or Experiment

Many psychology courses require students to design an actual psychological study or perform some type of experiment. In some cases, students simply devise the study and then imagine the possible results that might occur. In other situations, you may actually have the opportunity to collect data, analyze your findings, and write up your results.

Finding a topic for your study can be difficult, but there are plenty of great ways to come up with intriguing ideas. Start by considering your own interests as well as subjects you have studied in the past.

Online sources, newspaper articles, books , journal articles, and even your own class textbook are all great places to start searching for topics for your experiments and psychology term papers. Before you begin, learn more about  how to conduct a psychology experiment .

A Word From Verywell

After looking at this brief list of possible topics for psychology papers, it is easy to see that psychology is a very broad and diverse subject. While this variety makes it possible to find a topic that really catches your interest, it can sometimes make it very difficult for some students to select a good topic.

If you are still stumped by your assignment, ask your instructor for suggestions and consider a few from this list for inspiration.

  • Hockenbury, SE & Nolan, SA. Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers; 2014.
  • Santrock, JW. A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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Clinical Psychology Of Depression Research Paper

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Sample Clinical Psychology Of Depression Research Paper. Browse other research paper examples and check the list of research paper topics for more inspiration. iResearchNet offers academic assignment help for students all over the world: writing from scratch, editing, proofreading, problem solving, from essays to dissertations, from humanities to STEM. We offer full confidentiality, safe payment, originality, and money-back guarantee. Secure your academic success with our risk-free services.

1. Introduction

The word ‘depression’ in everyday parlance covers a wide range of emotional states that range in severity from transient moods of sadness to major psychotic episodes accompanied by increased risk of suicide. Depression in the form of a brief sad mood is a universal experience; it is a normal part of living that accompanies the losses, frustrations, failures, and disappointments that all of us face. Clinical depression in contrast, is a syndrome, or constellation of cooccurring psychiatric symptoms, that affects about 20 percent of the population. Major Depressive Disorder, the psychiatric label for clinically significant depression, is characterized by at least a two-week period of persistent sad mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities, and four or more additional symptoms, such as marked changes in weight or appetite, sleep disturbance, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, and concentration difficulties.

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People diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder show marked impairment in their social and occupational functioning; they also have an elevated risk of death from a number of causes. In fact, the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease Study recently ranked depression as the single most burdensome disease in the world in terms of total disability-adjusted life years among people in the middle years of life (Murray and Lopez 1996). To give but one example of the consequences of this disorder, a recent economic analysis of depression in the workplace estimated that the annual salary-equivalent costs of depression-related lost productivity in the United States exceeds $33 billion (Greenberg et al. 1996). Moreover, because this figure does not take into account the impact of depression on such factors as the performance of coworkers, turnover, and industrial accidents, it is likely to be an underestimate of the overall workplace costs of depression.

People who become depressed rarely experience only a single episode; depression is a highly recurrent disorder. In fact, over 80 percent of depressed patients will have more than one depressive episode during their lifetime. The interval between episodes is generally short: over half of depressed patients will have at least one relapse within two years of their recovery from a depressive episode. This pattern of recurrence also appears to intensify over time: individuals with three or more previous episodes of depression may have a relapse rate as high as 40 percent within only three to four months after recovery. The high recurrence rate in depression points to the existence of factors that serve to increase people’s risk for developing this disorder. In attempting to understand this vulnerability to depression, clinical psychologists have focused on two broad areas in which depressed individuals seem to experience particular difficulties: cognitive functioning and interpersonal functioning. In Sects. 2 and 3, therefore, we describe the results of research conducted to examine the cognitive and interpersonal functioning of depressed persons and of individuals who are at risk for becoming depressed.

2. Cognitive Functioning In Depression

In many ways, depression is a disorder of thought. Depressed individuals typically think negatively about themselves, believing that they are useless, deficient, and unattractive people. Depressed persons also express bleak views of their immediate surroundings and of their future prospects. Given the pervasiveness of these dysfunctional cognitive characteristics, scientists have theorized about the importance of cognitions in depression and have conducted considerable research examining how depressed individuals perceive and evaluate information from their environment.

The cognitive theory of depression that has had the greatest impact on research and treatment is that formulated by Aaron Beck (1976), who ascribes the onset of depression to dysfunctional cognitive processes. Beck hypothesizes that individuals who experience loss or adversity in childhood develop a set of negative expectancies, or ‘schemas,’ concerning loss, failure, or abandonment. These schemas serve as filters through which stimuli and events in their environment are perceived, evaluated, attended to, and remembered. The negative schemas of depressed persons lead them to perceive and evaluate neutral stimuli as negative, guide their attention to negative aspects of their environment, and facilitate their memory for negative experiences. Perhaps most importantly, Beck believes that these negative schemas characterize not only currently depressed persons, but also nondepressed people who are at a high risk for developing depression in the future. Indeed, the negative schemas are the risk factor. In these individuals, the negative schemas remain inactive until the person encounters a relevant stressful event or experience. The stressful experience serves to activate the negative schema, which leads the individual to process information in a negative manner, in turn leading to ineffective coping, culminating in a depressive episode.

Thus Beck’s theory, and other similar cognitive theories of depression, predicts that depressed individuals (and individuals who are at risk for becoming depressed) are characterized by negative schemas that lead them to be more attentive to negative than to positive stimuli in their environment and to have better memory for these stimuli. Early studies attempted to examine the cognitive schemas of depressed persons by assessing their responses to self-report questionnaires measuring the negativity of their beliefs. In fact, a large body of literature has now documented that depression is associated with high levels of self-reported dysfunctional attitudes and a negative explanatory style.

Although these studies were important in describing the cognitive styles of depressed persons, their reliance on self-report measures of cognitive schemas is problematic. Perhaps most importantly, it is unlikely that self-report questionnaire measures, which require subjects to make conscious, deliberate, and thoughtful responses, are able to assess the existence and functioning of cognitive schemas, which are hypothesized to be activated automatically and to operate outside of individuals’ awareness. Put more simply, because people are typically not aware of the content of their schemas, self-report measures cannot be used to assess them. To address this problem, clinical psychologists have adapted methodologies from research in experimental cognitive psychology to assess the schematic functioning of depressed individuals. Using such information-processing tasks as the emotion Stroop task and the dot-probe task, investigators have provided empirical support for Beck’s cognitive theory of depression, demonstrating that depressed individuals are characterized by negative cognitive biases in both attention and memory (see Gotlib and Neubauer 2000).

Whether measured by self-report or by information-processing tasks, there is now little question that depression is associated with negative cognitive biases, a conclusion that supports a major tenet of cognitive theories of depression. Importantly, however, the causal status of these negative biases is still an open question. Cognitive theories of depression also hypothesize that negative schematic functioning is a trait-like characteristic that increases an individual’s risk for developing depression. There are very few empirical studies in which investigators have attempted to predict subsequent depression from earlier measures of schematic functioning. Moreover, studies of formerly depressed persons have generally found that cognitive functioning normalizes with recovery from depression. A number of researchers have demonstrated, however, that the presence of negative mood in formerly depressed individuals can reinstate negative cognitive processing which was not observable in the absence of negative mood (Haaga et al. 1991). If this proves to be the case, it is not difficult to see how stressful life events could generate a negative mood state, which, among vulnerable individuals, also activates a set of dysfunctional cognitions that lead to depression. Thus, although much more work remains to be done, it is clear that depressed individuals are characterized by negative schemas, and it is possible that this schematic functioning plays a causal role in the onset of depression.

3. Interpersonal Functioning In Depression

As is the case with cognitive functioning, depressed individuals have consistently been found to experience difficulties in their interpersonal relationships. While there is no single guiding theory of the social functioning of depressed persons that is analogous to Beck’s cognitive theory, empirical research has nevertheless implicated interpersonal dysfunction as important in understanding the etiology and maintenance of depression, as well as relapse of this disorder. Early behavioral formulations of depression viewed the depressed state as resulting from a lack of environmental reinforcement, stemming in part from an inability of depressed persons to elicit reinforcement from others (e.g., Lewinsohn 1974). Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that depressed persons exhibit social skill deficits during interactions with others. For example, compared to nondepressed individuals, depressed persons have been found to speak more slowly and with less volume and voice modulation, to show longer pauses in their speech patterns, to take longer to respond to others, and to engage in less eye contact. They are also more self-centered in interactions and steer conversations to more negative content. Finally, and understandably, depressed persons seem to induce feelings of depression, anxiety, and hostility in those with whom they interact. It is not surprising to learn, therefore, that people ultimately withdraw from interactions with depressed individuals (Segrin 2000).

Although this negativity seems to permeate the full range of depressed individuals’ social interactions, it is especially pronounced in intimate relationships. In this context, a number of investigators have focused on the nature of the relationships between depressed persons and their spouses and children. There is good reason for concern in these areas. For example, the divorce rate among individuals who have been diagnosed with depression is nine times higher than the rate in the general population (Merikangas 1984). Moreover, children of depressed parents are two to three times more likely experience a psychiatric diagnosable disorder at some point in their lives than are offspring of nondepressed parents (Gotlib and Goodman 1999). In attempting to understand the processes underlying these findings, researchers have systematically observed the interactions between depressed people and their spouses, and between depressed parents and their children.

The marital interactions of depressed persons are characterized by high levels of anger, conflict, and negative affect. Depressed spouses derogate themselves and their partners, and both spouses escalate their negative affect and behaviors over the course of the interactions. Interestingly, expressions of sad affect in the depressed spouse appear to have the effect of suppressing anger and aggression in the partner, suggesting that depression may play a functional but maladaptive role in the marriage. With respect to their children, depressed individuals report that they find it difficult to be warm and consistent parents, that they do not derive satisfaction from their children, and that they feel inadequate in their parenting role. Consistent with these self-reports, in interactions with their children, depressed mothers display sad and irritable affect and are either unresponsive or intrusive. In short, depressed parents appear to be difficult or inadequate social partners for both their spouses and their children, although it is important to also recognize the likely reciprocal nature of these problematic relationships.

Thus there is consistent evidence that depression is associated with deficits in interpersonal functioning. There is less support for the position that difficulties in social functioning serve as risk factors for the onset of a first depressive episode, although some investigators have reported that the lack of a supportive intimate relationship may leave individuals particularly vulnerable to the effects of life stress. Importantly, however, many of the interpersonal problems that characterize people while they are depressed have been found to persist following recovery. For example, in contrast to other disorders such as alcoholism, the marital relationships of people who have been depressed continue to be strained even after they have recovered from their depressive episode. In fact, like currently depressed individuals, people who have recovered from depression also report having fewer friends and close relationships than do individuals who have never been depressed. Interestingly, recovered depressed individuals do not show deficits in the overall number of their network contacts, suggesting that the interpersonal difficulties of formerly depressed persons—like those of currently depressed individuals —are most pronounced in intimate relationships. Finally, and further underscoring the importance of focusing on intimate relationships in understanding the role of interpersonal deficits in depression, the degree of hostility or criticism expressed by spouses about their depressed partners is a strong predictor that the partner will relapse into another episode of depression (Hooley and Gotlib 2000).

As is apparent from this brief review, individuals who are experiencing clinically significant depression are characterized by negative cognitive biases in their perceptions and evaluations of their environment and by impaired interpersonal functioning. Consistent with depressed persons’ difficulties in these areas, two of the most effective psychological treatments for this disorder are cognitive therapies and interpersonal therapies. In the following sections we describe these two approaches to the treatment of depression.

4. Cognitive Treatments For Depression

Cognitive therapies are based on the formulation that individuals’ affect and behavior are largely determined by how they interpret events in their world. As we have seen, clinically depressed individuals are characterized by negative perceptions of the self, the world, and the future. Therefore, a critical premise of cognitive therapies for depression is that replacing maladaptive thoughts with more positive cognitions will result in a significant reduction in depressive symptoms. Cognitive therapies often incorporate behavioral interventions to help in altering the patient’s cognitions; for this reason, these therapies are often referred to as cognitive-behavioral treatments.

Cognitive therapy for depression is time-limited, rarely exceeding 30 weekly sessions and ranging most typically from 15 to 25 sessions. The therapist and patient work together in a process referred to as ‘collaborative empiricism’ (Beck et al. 1979) to identify, evaluate, and change the patient’s negative thoughts. The therapist teaches the patient behavioral coping strategies, such as problem-solving skills and assertiveness training, to help him or her bolster new positive cognitions. Often homework is assigned to help the patient identify negative thoughts and beliefs and practice adaptive behaviors that the patient has learned with the therapist. Finally, because depression has a high relapse rate, in the final sessions of cognitive therapy, the therapist works with the patient to anticipate the kinds of life stressors that he or she may encounter in the future to prevent the recurrence of depression.

Cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavior therapy for depression have been evaluated in over 80 controlled studies (American Psychiatric Association 2000). The results of these clinical trials are consistent: cognitive therapy is an effective treatment for depression. In fact, cognitive therapy is considered by the American Psychological Association to be a ‘well-established treatment’ for depression (Chambless and Hollon 1998). Although there have been exceptions, cognitive therapy has generally been found to be as effective as (and sometimes more effective than) alternate forms of treatment for depression, including antidepressant medication. Moreover, several studies have shown that depressed patients who received cognitive therapy are less likely to relapse following treatment termination than are patients treated with medications. Finally, there is now evidence that cognitive therapy can prevent or delay the onset of depression in persons who are at elevated risk for the disorder (Hollon et al. in press).

5. Interpersonal Treatments For Depression

Interpersonal psychotherapies were developed from broad interpersonal theories of psychopathology, such as those formulated by Adolph Meyer, Harry Stack Sullivan, and John Bowlby. These theories posited that the quality of current interpersonal relationships was critical in contributing to the development and persistence of many forms of psychopathology. From this perspective, therefore, the therapist’s primary goal is to change the patient’s patterns of self-defeating interpersonal interactions. The most systematic and widely used therapy in this area is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), developed by Gerald Klerman and Myrna Weissman for the treatment of depression (Weissman et al. 2000). Like cognitive therapy, IPT is conducted most frequently as a short-term therapy (approximately 16 weekly sessions), but it has also been modified for use as a ‘maintenance therapy’ for the longer-term treatment of patients with recurrent or chronic depression. A major goal of IPT is to improve the patient’s interpersonal functioning by encouraging more effective expression of emotions, clearer communication with significant members of their entourage, and increased understanding of the patient’s behavior in interpersonal interactions. The rationale underlying the use of IPT is that by solving interpersonal problems in therapy, the patient will improve their life situation and simultaneously decreasethenumberand intensity ofdepressivesymptoms.

IPT for depression is divided into three phases. In the initial phase of treatment (the first 3 sessions), the therapist conducts a diagnostic evaluation for depression, educates the patient about depression, and evaluates the patient’s current interpersonal relationships. The therapist then establishes which of four interpersonal problem areas are most closely related to the patient’s current depressive episode: grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, or interpersonal deficits. In the middle phase of treatment (sessions 4–13), the therapist uses specific techniques (outlined explicitly in a treatment manual) that are designed to address these four problem areas. Although these techniques may involve changing the patient’s cognitions or having the patient engage in new behaviors, there is a clear and strong tie to the patient’s current interpersonal relationships. The final phase of treatment (sessions 14–16) focuses on consolidating the changes that the patient has made through therapy and helping the patient recognize and counter depressive symptoms should they arise again in the future.

In the 1980s and 1990s, IPT has been carefully evaluated in numerous research protocols and has been demonstrated to be effective in treating depression in a variety of populations, including adolescents, postpartum depressed women, married spouses, the elderly, and patients in primary medical care facilities. In fact, IPT was one of two forms of psychotherapy (the other was cognitive therapy) tested against antidepressant medication in a large-scale treatment study of 250 depressed patients (Elkin et al. 1989). The results of this study indicate that IPT is more effective than placebo, and as effective as medication and cognitive therapy in reducing depressive symptoms. In addition, IPT was found to be more effective than cognitive therapy in treating more severely depressed patients (Elkin et al. 1989). Importantly, IPT has been shown to prevent or delay the onset of relapse episodes of depression, demonstrating its utility as a maintenance therapy.

6. Conclusions And Future Directions

In the 1980s and 1990s, we have made significant progress in our understanding of psychosocial aspects of depression and in the treatment of this disorder. It is now clear that depressed persons are characterized by maladaptive cognitive schemas that guide their attention to negative, as opposed to positive, environmental information, and enhance their memory for this negative information. Depressed persons also have marked impairments in their interpersonal functioning, particularly in more intimate relationships. Despite this progress, however, there are several issues that remain unresolved.

In closing, therefore, we offer three recommendations for future research examining cognitive and interpersonal functioning in depression. First, much of the research that has been conducted in this area has been cross-sectional, essentially comparing samples of depressed and nondepressed participants at one point in time. We urgently need prospective, longitudinal studies in order to clarify the causal relation of cognitive and interpersonal dysfunction to the onset, maintenance, and relapse of depression. Second, while both cognitive and interpersonal therapies have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of depression, there are anomalies that need to be addressed. For example, cognitive therapy is not universally effective in the treatment of depression and research must begin to identify characteristics that differentiate treatment responders from nonresponders. Similarly, despite its focus on interpersonal functioning, IPT has been found to be no more effective in improving social functioning immediately following treatment than are medications or cognitive therapy. Therefore, for both cognitive therapy and IPT, research is needed to clarify the mechanisms by which the treatment reduces patients’ levels of depression. Finally, we have discussed cognitive and interpersonal functioning in depression as though they occur independent of each other. Clearly, this is not the case. It is only by explicitly integrating data concerning the cognitive and interpersonal functioning of depressed persons, and relating that data to their biological functioning, that we will be able to build a comprehensive understanding of depression allowing us to develop even more effective programs for the prevention and treatment of this disorder.


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  • Lewinsohn P M 1974 A behavioral approach to depression. In: Friedman R J, Katz M M (eds.) The Psychology of Depression: Contemporary Theory and Research. Wiley, New York, pp. 157–85
  • Merikangas K R 1984 Divorce and assortative mating among depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 141: 74–6
  • Murray C J L, Lopez A D (eds.) 1996 The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA
  • Segrin C 2000 Social skills deficits associated with depression. Clinical Psychology Review 20: 379–403
  • Weissman M M, Markowitz J C, Klerman G L 2000 Comprehensive Guide to Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Basic Books, New York


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How To Write A Research Paper

Research Paper Title

John K.

How to Write a Good Research Paper Title

10 min read

Published on: Jan 5, 2024

Last updated on: Jan 4, 2024

how to write a research paper title

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In scholarly writing, the title plays a subtle yet pivotal role. Ever wondered how a simple string of words can make or break a research paper's impact?

Your research paper's title serves as the initial point of contact for your reader, forming their first impression of your work. Therefore, careful consideration of your title is crucial.

There are fundamental principles to bear in mind: your title should be informative, attention-grabbing, and contextually fitting. 

This guide provides a detailed view of these essential qualities, by looking at the steps to write a research paper title. We'll break down what makes a great title. 

So let’s get started!

On This Page On This Page -->

What is Research Paper Title, and Why is it Important?

A research paper title is a concise and informative heading that encapsulates the main theme or focus of a research study. It serves as the first point of contact between the reader and the research paper, providing a peek into the purpose of the study. 

It is important because the research paper title tells readers what the study is about almost instantly. 

A good title not only grabs attention but also helps in finding the research online. It shows the professionalism of the study and makes it easier for everyone to understand and engage with the research. 

So, a well-crafted title is like a guide that leads readers to the core of the research.

Characteristics of a Good Research Title

According to rhetoric scholars Hairston and Keene , creating an effective paper title involves achieving the goals outlined below:

  • Content Preview: A good title gives a glimpse of the research content.
  • Engagement Factor: An effective title sparks reader interest.
  • Tone Alignment: It reflects the scholarly tone of the paper.
  • Keyword Integration: Includes essential keywords for better searchability.
  • Prioritize Clarity: Use clear, concise language for broad understanding.
  • Embrace Conciseness: Keep titles brief, omitting unnecessary details.
  • Ensure Specificity: Include unique details to distinguish the research.

With these 7 characteristics of a research title in mind, let's now explore the steps to craft an ideal research paper title.

How to Write a Research Paper Title in 5 Steps

In the following sections, we'll walk through a five-step process designed to help you create a title that is truly impressive. 

Step 1: Define the Core Elements of Your Research

Before crafting your research paper title, it's essential to answer key questions about your study. These questions help you identify the main focus and key components of your research paper. Consider:

  • Research Topic: What is the primary subject of your study?
  • Research Problem or Question: What issue are you addressing, or what question are you seeking to answer?
  • Methodology: What methods or approaches did you use in your research?
  • Results/Findings: What are the main outcomes of your study?

Step 2: Identify Essential Keywords

Identify significant keywords related to your research paper. These terms will play a crucial role in creating a title that effectively communicates your study's focus.

Step 3: Constructing a Research Title Using Keywords 

Combine the identified keywords into a concise and descriptive research paper title. Weave together the essential elements of your study while maintaining clarity and relevance.

The sentence above, describing the research on smoking cessation programs, is undoubtedly too lengthy for a research paper title . Therefore, the forthcoming steps will involve refining and succinctly polishing the title for clarity and conciseness.

Step 4: Develop a Working Research Title

To create a working title, remove elements that make it a complete sentence but keep everything important to the study. Delete unnecessary and redundant words not central to the research or likely excluded from a database search.

Original Working Title:

Refined Title:

Note: The goal is to shorten the title to 16 words or fewer, making it concise and effective for a research paper.

Step 5: Trim Unnecessary Words and Phrases

Remove any nonessential words and phrases from your title. The number of subjects studied and exact outcomes may not be crucial, and detailed methods can be omitted for conciseness. Focus on key terms for database search optimization.

Final Refined Title: 

Adding a Research Paper Subtitle

If your title needs additional details about your methodology or sample, consider adding a subtitle after a colon.

Research Paper Title Examples

Let's start by examining research title examples suitable for students. We will explore the basic formats for research paper title pages, including MLA and APA styles.

Research Paper Title Page MLA

Title Page For A Research Paper APA Style

Title Page For A Research Paper APA Style - CollegeEssay.org

Scientific Paper Title

Here are 5 examples of research titles for scientific papers:

Tips on Formulating a Good Research Paper Title

When creating a title for your research paper, consider the following general tips to capture the reader's attention and effectively convey the purpose of your study:

  • Summarize your research in the fewest possible words to maintain clarity and reader engagement.
  • Incorporate essential keywords that researchers working in your field are likely to use.
  • Use compelling and attention-grabbing language to make your title stand out.
  • Ensure your title accurately captures the purpose of your research, conveying the central question or objective.
  • Clearly define the scope of the study in the title, indicating the specific focus of your research.
  • Consider phrasing your title in the form of a question if it enhances the intrigue and aligns with the nature of your research.
  • Prioritize readability and clarity to make your title easily understandable for a broad audience.
  • Optimize your title for search engines by including relevant keywords that researchers might use when seeking similar studies.
  • Minimize the use of field-specific jargon that may alienate readers unfamiliar with your subject.
  • Ensure the title summarizes the core findings or contributions of your research.

Research Paper Title Checklist

Here's a checklist table to guide you on how to write a research paper title:

In conclusion , writing an effective research paper title is a vital skill that demands accuracy, clarity, and engagement. Prioritize conciseness and specificity while ensuring relevance to the research content. Remember to integrate essential keywords for enhanced searchability. 

If you find yourself struggling, fear not. CollegeEssay.org is here to assist. With a wealth of experience aiding scholars worldwide, our professional writing service ensures meticulously crafted titles that resonate with your research. 

Connect with our research paper writing service for expert assistance – let us elevate your paper's impact and resonance.

Can abbreviations or acronyms be used in the research paper title?

While sparingly acceptable, it's advisable to initially use full terms in the title for clarity. Introduce abbreviations later in the paper to avoid potential confusion for readers unfamiliar with the terms.

Is it advisable to formulate the research paper title as a question?

Crafting the title as a declarative statement is preferable. It provides a clear indication of the study's main focus and findings, enhancing reader engagement and comprehension.

Should the research paper title be in sentence case or title case?

Follow the specific style guidelines recommended by your institution or the publisher. Some styles prefer sentence case (where only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized), while others recommend title case (where major words are capitalized). Consistency is key to maintaining a polished appearance.

Is it permissible to change the research paper title after submission?

Post-submission changes to the title may be challenging, so it's crucial to carefully finalize and review the title before submitting the paper to avoid complications in the publication process.

Is it beneficial to include specific keywords in the research paper title?

Yes, incorporating keywords relevant to your study increases the discoverability of your research. It helps search engines, databases, and readers quickly identify the core themes of your paper.

John K. (Research)

John K. is a professional writer and author with many publications to his name. He has a Ph.D. in the field of management sciences, making him an expert on the subject matter. John is highly sought after for his insights and knowledge, and he regularly delivers keynote speeches and conducts workshops on various topics related to writing and publishing. He is also a regular contributor to various online publications.

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December 28, 2023

2023’s Mind-Bending Revelations in the Brain Sciences

This year the explosion of interest in AI had a profound impact on how experts in the fields of neuroscience and psychology think about biological intelligence and learning

By Gary Stix

A video presents a stylized depiction of a new language decoding process. A decoder generates multiple word sequences (paper strips) and predicts how similar each candidate word sequence is to the actual word sequence (beads of light) by comparing predictions of the user’s brain responses against the actual recorded responses.

Jerry Tang/Alexander Huth

This year was full of roiling debate and speculation about the prospect of machines with superhuman capabilities that might, sooner than expected, leave the human brain in the dust. A growing public awareness of ChatGPT and other so-called large language models (LLMs) dramatically expanded public awareness of artificial intelligence. In tandem, it raised the question of whether the human brain can keep up with the relentless pace of AI advances.

The most benevolent answer posits that humans and machines need not be cutthroat competitors. Researchers found one example of potential cooperation by getting AI to probe the infinite complexity of the ancient game of Go—which, like chess, has seen a computer topple the highest-level human players. A study published in March showed how people might learn from machines with such superhuman skills. And understanding ChatGPT’s prodigious abilities offers some inkling as to why an equivalence between the deep neural networks that underlie the famed chatbot and the trillions of connections in the human brain is constantly invoked.

Importantly, the machine learning incorporated into AI has not totally distracted mainstream neuroscience from avidly pursuing better insights into what has been called “the most complicated object in the known universe”: the brain. One of the grand challenges in science—understanding the nature of consciousness—received its due in June with the prominent showcasing of experiments that tested the validity of two competing theories, both of which purport to explain the underpinnings of the conscious self.

The past 12 months provided lots of examples of impressive advances for you to store in your working memory. Now here’s a closer look at some of the standout mind and brain stories we covered in Scientific American in 2023.

AI Drives a Machine That Can Decode the Contents of Your Brain

Researchers proved the usefulness of merging AI with neuroscience by reporting how they combined a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scan with AI-driven LLMs to try to figure out what is actually going on in a person’s head. Demonstrated at the University of Texas at Austin, the model replicated—with a fair degree of accuracy—the stories a person listened to or made up while in the scanner. The researchers recorded brain activity when the participant listened to certain words. The data from these scans were then used to train an AI model to detect patterns in how the brain activated in response to these words. Then the system took a new set of scans, and the AI predicted, based on its training, what a person heard during those scans. It may be some time before you can buy this kind of technology on Amazon; such deductive feats require a ton of training. The best the current system can do is provide a rough gist of what’s in your head.

Victories in Go Inspire Better Gameplay

When the “superhuman” AI created by Google’s outfit DeepMind defeated then champion Lee Sedol at the strategy game of Go in 2016, it spurred collective hand-wringing about what this kind of superiority might imply for humans (who had previously been felled by computers in chess). Some researchers took it upon themselves to study exactly how Go players reacted to the defeat . The findings, published in March, hold some optimism for the future of human collaborations with AI systems: The study revealed that the Go community took Sedol’s defeat as a learning experience. These players analyzed the program’s moves and discovered that some had never been seen before in human gameplay. They then incorporated those moves into their own games—an example of an AI-human interaction that ultimately improved human gameplay and offered ideas about how such collaborations can better human decision-making.

Will We Finally Understand Consciousness by the Year 2048?

Headlines around the world revealed the outcome of a 25-year-old bet between philosopher David Chalmers and neuroscientist Christof Koch. The wager, settled at a New York University conference in June, was over whether neuroscience would be able to supply a “clear” neural signature of consciousness by this year. Koch—who thought a quarter-century ago that the consciousness signature would be QED by now—had to reluctantly agree that this lofty goal had yet to be reached. He proceeded to fork over a case of fine wine to Chalmers, and then he vowed to revisit the matter in another 25 years to assess whether more “clarity” had been achieved toward hacking consciousness. The conference also highlighted the results of experiments intended to test two leading theories of consciousness; it was agreed that both of them need a lot more work.

Quashing Bad Thoughts Makes You Feel Better

Not everything in the brain sciences has to do with AI. Clinical psychologists have done stellar work without the need to necessarily draw upon the resources of  an LLM. One simple at-home type of step has to do with turning off a negative flow of thoughts that might be streaming inside your head. The idea that if you ignore distressing thoughts and imagery, they’ll inevitably come back to haunt you later does not measure up, according to a study by researchers at the University of Cambridge in England. This is great news for people with anxiety, depression or trauma. Suppression of this flow of negativity really does seem to ratchet down the intensity of one’s inner fears.


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What in the Actual F— Is Wrong With These People? (Harvard Edition)

sample of psychology research paper

A Response to Claudine Gay

'karma': black harvard professor demoted under claudine gay responds to gay's resignation, harvard's plagiarizing president resigns. media say racism made her do it. , top 6 candidates to replace claudine gay as harvard president, the new york times's israel problem, harvard president claudine gay hit with six new charges of plagiarism, half of gay’s published works now implicated in growing scandal.

Claudine Gay

Harvard University president Claudine Gay was hit with six additional allegations of plagiarism on Monday in a complaint filed with the university, breathing fresh life into a scandal that has embroiled her nascent presidency and pushing the total number of allegations near 50.

Seven of Gay’s 17 published works have already been impacted by the scandal, but the new charges, which have not been previously reported, extend into an eighth: In a 2001 article, Gay lifts nearly half a page of material verbatim from another scholar, David Canon , a political science professor at the University of Wisconsin.

That article, "The Effect of Minority Districts and Minority Representation on Political Participation in California," includes some of the most extreme and clear-cut cases of plagiarism yet. At one point, Gay borrows four sentences from Canon’s 1999 book , Race, Redistricting, and Representation: The Unintended Consequences of Black Majority Districts , without quotation marks and with only minor semantic tweaks. She does not cite Canon anywhere in or near the passage, though he does appear in the bibliography.

Beyond that, Gay’s first two footnotes are copied verbatim from Canon’s endnotes.

Canon, like several of the scholars Gay has quoted without attribution, insisted that she had done nothing wrong.

"I am not at all concerned about the passages," Canon told the Washington Free Beacon . "This isn't even close to an example of academic plagiarism."

Though Harvard's governing board, the Harvard Corporation, said in mid-December that it had reviewed Gay’s published oeuvre and found several cases of "inadequate citation," it did not identify any of the examples described in the new complaint, which was submitted to the school’s research integrity officer, Stacey Springs, and obtained by the Free Beacon .

The discrepancy raises troubling questions not just about the scope of Gay’s plagiarism, which appears to afflict half of her published works, but also the thoroughness and seriousness of the Corporation’s probe , which the board described as "an independent review by distinguished political scientists."

The review was completed in just a few weeks—far less time than the 6 to 12 months typical of other plagiarism investigations —and the Corporation has refused to disclose the names of the academics who conducted it. A Harvard spokesman, Jonathan Swain, did not respond to a request for comment about whether the school has reviewed all of Gay’s work, and, if so, how it missed the examples unearthed on Monday.

"The board’s review of Gay’s work was too brief to inspire confidence," the complaint reads. "So we now know for certain that the board’s investigation was a sham."

The allegations filed Monday also include more material from Gay’s dissertation, which has already received three corrections. In one of the new examples, Gay, who works in quantitative political science, lifts a full sentence from her thesis adviser, Gary King, to describe a mathematical model. She does not cite King in parentheses or put his words in quotation marks.

While some of Gay’s defenders have claimed that technical descriptions do not require attribution in the social sciences, since there are only so many ways to explain a method or a formula, a Harvard handbook from 1998—the year Gay completed her dissertation—says otherwise.

"Citing tells your readers that the strategy or method isn’t original with you and allows them to consult its original context," the handbook states. King, who has downplayed previous charges against Gay, did not respond to a request for comment.

The rest of the new examples center on a 1996 paper by Frank Gilliam, "Exploring Minority Empowerment: Symbolic Politics, Governing Coalitions and Traces of Political Style in Los Angeles," that Gay repeatedly quotes without attribution, changing just a few words here or there. Those passages describe big-picture findings and do not include technical verbiage. Gilliam, now the chancellor of the University of North Carolina-Greensboro, did not respond to a request for comment.

The new complaint comes as an increasing number of Harvard students are speaking out against Gay, arguing that she has been held to a lower standard than the average undergraduate. One student on Harvard’s honor council, a jury-like body that adjudicates allegations of plagiarism and cheating, wrote in an anonymous op-ed that students are routinely suspended for doing what Gay did. Some students have called on Gay to resign , and others seem reluctant to defend their embattled president.

"President Gay Plagiarized, but She Should Stay," read the headline of a Harvard Crimson editorial . "For Now." The paper says the allegations of plagiarism are focused on "her PhD dissertation and two of her 11 published journal articles," leaving out the many allegations relating to articles that were not peer-reviewed.

The paper's qualified editorial position—"for now"—represents a shift in tone from the paper’s editorial board, which previously opined that—for the sake of a "free democracy"—Gay "must not yield" to "partisan attacks" in the wake of her disastrous testimony on anti-Semitism.

Gay’s most outspoken defenders have been her faculty colleagues. Randall Kennedy, a Harvard Law School professor, told the New York Times that the plagiarism charges were ginned up by "professional vilifiers" and "bad faith" actors—and went on to suggest the university may not cooperate with the congressional investigation underway into its adjudication of Gay’s work.

Another Harvard lawyer, Charles Fried, was more explicit, describing the allegations as an "extreme right-wing attack on elite institutions."

"If it came from some other quarter, I might be granting it some credence," he told the Times . "But not from these people."

Harvard said in December that Gay’s "duplicative language," while "regrettable," did not constitute research misconduct because it was not "intentional or reckless," citing a policy that only governs faculty and is less stringent than the rules for students.

But as more allegations have surfaced, some professors have begun to break ranks. A few told the Boston Globe in December that Gay’s treatment reeked of hypocrisy and double standards. And Omar Haque, a psychiatrist at Harvard Medical School and a member of the university’s Council on Academic Freedom, said that the sheer breadth of the examples—especially those from the pre-word processor days—made it hard to fathom that everything was unintentional.

"Gay's alleged plagiarism in the 1990s may be more serious than in in recent years," he told the Free Beacon , "because prior to the use of computers to highlight and copy/paste text in seconds, plagiarism was more likely to be non-accidental and intentional and reckless."

Haque, who said he was speaking only in a personal capacity, added that it took "greater effort" to plagiarize with a typewriter.

The blowback has been exacerbated by the Harvard Corporation’s feckless response to the allegations, which it initially tried to squash with a legal threat to the New York Post —and to the unnamed whistleblower who brought those allegations to the Post’s attention.

Through the bellicose litigation boutique Clare Locke, Harvard said in October that it would sue for "immense damages" if the Post published a story on the charges. It also "threatened to use legal means to out who had supplied the comparisons," according to the paper’s reporting .

That person, a professor at another university, whom the Free Beacon has identified and granted anonymity, is behind the Monday complaint to Harvard, as well as a separate complaint last month alleging around 40 cases of plagiarism. While several Harvard scholars have faced plagiarism allegations since the early 2000s, none have seen such a large percentage of their work implicated.

Beyond outlining the new charges against Gay, the latest complaint—25 pages of which are devoted to outlining the various examples of Gay's alleged plagiarism—argues that Harvard’s legal saber-rattling violated its research misconduct policy for faculty, which forbids retaliation against complainants.

"At one point Gay and Harvard asked the Post , ‘Why would someone making such a complaint be unwilling to attach their name to it,’" the Monday complaint reads. "I was unwilling because I feared that Gay and Harvard would violate their policies, behave more like a cartel with a hedge fund attached than a university, try to seek ‘immense’ damages from me and who knows what else."

Published under: claudine gay , Harvard , plagiarism

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CBSE Class 10 Science Pre-Board Sample Paper 2024: Download in PDF

Class 10 science pre-board sample paper: get the science sample paper to prepare for the upcoming cbse class 10 pre-boards 2024. download the sample paper in pdf here..

Gurmeet Kaur

CBSE Class 10 Science Pre-Board Sample Paper 2023-24:  The CBSE Class 10 Pre-Boards 2 will take place in January in almost all CBSE schools across the country. This is the high time when students should intensify their preparations, focus on targeted revision, and fine-tune their study strategies to ensure a confident and successful performance in the upcoming examinations. The pre-boards present the final opportunity to fine-tune your study strategies before facing the CBSE Class 10 Board Exam in February-March. Therefore, students must prepare diligently and systematically for the upcoming CBSE Class 10 pre-boards. For this, they can use the pre-board sample papers presented by Jagarn Josh.

In this article, we have provided the sample paper of CBSE Class 10 Science specifically. This sample question paper is designed by exam experts and adheres closely to the latest CBSE sample paper pattern. The questions are meticulously crafted, aligning with the latest CBSE Class 10 Science Syllabus. Thus solving the CBSE Class 10 Pre-Board Sample Paper will ensure a comprehensive revision of all prominent concepts covered in the curriculum. The sample paper is available here for download in PDF.

CBSE Class 10 Science Pre-Board Sample Paper 2023-24

  • This sample question paper consists of 39 questions divided into 5 sections.
  • Section A consists of 20 objective type questions carrying 1 mark each.
  • Section B consists of 6 Very Short Answer Type Questions carrying 02 marks each.
  • Section C consists of 7 Short Answer Type Questions carrying 03 marks each.
  • Section D consists of 3 Long Answer Type Questions carrying 05 marks each.
  • Section E consists of 3 source-based/case-based units of assessment of 04 marks each.

60 Day Study Plan To Score Above 90% Marks   in CBSE Class 10 Science Exam 2024

1. Which property of plaster of Paris powder makes it a suitable building material? Builders use plaster of Paris to make the surface layer of the inner walls of a building.

(a) It is lightweight.

(b) It is white in colour.

(c) It is found readily in nature.

(d) It gets hard when mixed with water.

2. In the redox reaction

MnO 2  + 4HCl → MnCl 2  + 2H 2 O + Cl 2

(a) MnO 2  is reduced to MnCl 2   and HCl is oxidized to H 2 O

(b) MnO 2  is reduced to MnCl 2  and HCl is oxidized to Cl 2

(c) MnO 2  is oxidized to MnCl 2  and HCl is reduced to Cl 2

(d) MnO 2 is oxidized to MnCl 2  and HCl is reduced to H 2 O

3. Some types of chemical reactions are listed below.

- decomposition

- combination

- displacement

- double displacement

Which two of the following chemical reactions are of the SAME type?

P) AgNO 3 + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO 3

Q) Mg + 2HCl → MgCl 2 + H 2

R) CH 4 + 2O 2 → CO 2  + 2H 2 O

S) 2KOH + H 2 SO 4 → K 2 SO 4 + H 2 O

(a) P and Q

(b) Q and R

(c) R and S

(d) P and S

4. Ishita immersed a zinc plate in an aqueous solution of copper sulphate. She noticed a thick layer of copper on the surface of the zinc plate after an hour.

sample of psychology research paper

What is the formula of the colourless solution formed after the reaction?

5. 2Al + 3H 2 O   →  Al 2 O 3 + Х

What is X in the reaction?

6. Anita added a drop each of diluted acetic acid and diluted hydrochloric acid on pH paper and compared the colors. Which of the following is the correct conclusion?

(a) pH of acetic acid is more than that of hydrochloric acid.

(b) pH of acetic acid is less than that of hydrochloric acid.

(c) Acetic acid dissociates completely in aqueous solution.

(d) Acetic acid is a strong acid

7. Which of these molecules contains a double bond?

(b) C 2 H 4

(c) C 3 H 8

(d) C 4 H 10

8. Which conducting tissue is responsible for multidirectional transport in plants

(c) Guard Cell

(d) Parenchyma

9. Observe the experimental setup shown below. Name the chemical indicated as ‘X’ that   can absorb the gas which is evolved as a byproduct of respiration.

sample of psychology research paper

(c) Ca(OH) 2

(d) K 2 CO 3

10. If a tall pea plant is crossed with a pure dwarf pea plant then, what percentage of F1 and   F2 generation respectively will be tall?

(a) 25%, 25%

(b) 50%, 50%

(c) 75%,100%

(d) 100%, 75%

  • Consider the following tips while solving the CBSE Class 10 Science Pre-Board Sample Paper to help you in effective exam preparation:
  • Understand the paper's structure, including the number of sections, types of questions, and marks distribution.
  • Solve the sample paper under exam-like conditions to improve time management.
  • Allocate specific time limits to different sections of the paper.
  • Revise your textbooks before attempting the sample paper.
  • Begin by answering the questions you find relatively easy.
  • Read the Instructions carefully before answering a question.
  • Follow a systematic approach to answer questions.
  • Add all necessary steps and calculations while solving Science and Maths papers.
  • Review your performance and identify the weak areas.
  • Seek help to clear your doubts.

Remember, your purpose of solving pre-board sample papers should not only be limited to self-assessment but also to refine your exam-taking strategies and build confidence. Make the most of this opportunity to learn, improve, and approach the actual exam with a well-prepared mindset.

Also Check|

CBSE Class 10 Pre-Board Sample Papers 2023-24

CBSE Class 10 Science Deleted Syllabus 2023-24

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  1. APA Sample Paper: Experimental Psychology

    Rhetorical Considerations and Style in Psychology Writing. Writing the Experimental Report: Overview, Introductions, and Literature Reviews. Writing the Experimental Report: Methods, Results, and Discussion. Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. References and Sources for More Information. APA Sample Paper: Experimental Psychology.

  2. PDF B.S. Research Paper Example (Literature Review)

    This is an example of a research paper that was written in fulfillment of the B.S. research paper requirement. It uses APA style for all aspects except the cover sheet (this page; the cover sheet is required by the department). It describes research that the author investigated while taking the PSYC 199 course. Development of Deception in Children

  3. Research Paper Structure

    Whether you are writing a B.S. Degree Research Paper or completing a research report for a Psychology course, it is highly likely that you will need to organize your research paper in accordance with American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Here we discuss the structure of research papers according to APA style.

  4. PDF Guide to Writing a Psychology Research Paper

    Guide to Writing a Research Report for Psychology Included in this guide are suggestions for formatting and writing each component of a research report as well as tips for writing in a style appropriate for Psychology papers.

  5. PDF Sample Paper: One-Experiment Paper

    Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) Writing. introduction, 2.05. Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional Information. Frequently, people encounter situations in their environment in which it is impossible to. attend to all available stimuli. It is therefore of great importance for one's attentional processes to.

  6. PDF B.S. Research Paper Example (Empirical Research Paper)

    This example was written by a student who had the opportunity to assist with multiple aspects of experimental research in a laboratory at UCSD (including completion of data collection and subsequent data analysis). For further information about the BS paper requirement, please visit:

  7. How to Write a Psychology Research Paper

    1 Decide What Kind of Paper You Are Going to Write PeopleImages.com / Digital Vision / Getty Images Before you begin, you should find out the type of paper your instructor expects you to write. There are a few common types of psychology papers that you might encounter. Original Research or Lab Report

  8. PDF Writing Your Psychology Research Paper

    My students tell me that writing research papers is hard for at least two reasons. First, a blank document is overwhelming—a 10-page paper feels unreachable, especially when the first page is coming along so slowly. Second, writing well—clear, coherent, and thoughtful prose—does not come naturally.

  9. PDF A Brief Guide to Writing the Psychology Paper

    Harvard College Writing Center WrITINg CeNTer BrIeF gUIde SerIeS A Brief Guide to Writing the Psychology Paper The Challenges of Writing in Psychology Psychology writing, like writing in the other sciences, is meant to inform the reader about a new idea, theory or experiment.

  10. Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA

    In some areas of psychology, the titles of many empirical research reports are informal in a way that is perhaps best described as "cute." ... For student papers that are not being submitted for publication—including theses—author notes are generally not necessary. The ... and 11.5 show some sample pages from an APA-style empirical ...

  11. Psychology Research Paper

    This sample psychology research paper features: 6000 words (approx. 20 pages), an outline, and a bibliography with 32 sources...

  12. How to Write an Introduction for a Psychology Paper

    Updated on November 11, 2023 Fact checked by Emily Swaim JHU Sheridan Libraries/Gado/Getty Images Table of Contents Research Introduce Summarize Hypothesis Writing Tips If you are writing a psychology paper, it is essential to kick things off with a strong introduction.

  13. Free APA Journal Articles

    June 2015 by Matthew Fisher, Mariel K. Goddu, and Frank C. Keil Date created: 2016 Browse and read free articles from APA Journals across the field of psychology, selected by the editors as the must-read content.

  14. Sample papers

    These sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style show the format that authors should use to submit a manuscript for publication in a professional journal and that students should use to ... (but Not True) News Headlines," by B. Bago, D. G. Rand, and G. Pennycook, 2020, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 149(8), pp. 1608 ...

  15. PDF Sample APA Research Paper

    Thomas Delancy and Adam Solberg wrote the following research paper for a psychology class. As you review their paper, read the side notes and examine the following: The use and documentation of their numerous sources. The background they provide before getting into their own study results. The scientific language used when reporting their results.

  16. Writing Research Papers

    A well-written psychology research paper typically follows those guidelines. How to Write a Successful Research Paper in APA Style For more information on writing research papers in APA style, please checking out the following pages.

  17. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General: Sample articles

    February 2011. by Jeff Galak and Tom Meyvis. The Nature of Gestures' Beneficial Role in Spatial Problem Solving (PDF, 181KB) February 2011. by Mingyuan Chu and Sotaro Kita. Date created: 2009. Sample articles from APA's Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

  18. How to Write an Abstract in APA Format with Examples

    An APA abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of an article, research paper, dissertation, or report. ... The study sample comprised 4,228 students with SEND, aged 5-15, drawn from 305 primary and secondary schools across England. ... British journal of educational psychology, 87(2), 146-169. 5) Keywords.

  19. Psychology Research Paper Examples

    They include General Psychology (Division 1), the Study of Social Issues (Division 9), Clinical Psychology (Division 12), Pharmacology and Substance Abuse (Division 28), Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (Division 33), Media Psychology (Division 46), International Psychology (Division 52), and Trauma Psychology (Division 56).

  20. 50+ Topics of Psychology Research for Your Student Paper

    50+ Topics of Psychology Research How to Find Psychology Research Topics for Your Student Paper By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Updated on March 13, 2023 Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD Are you searching for a great topic for your psychology paper?

  21. Clinical Psychology Of Depression Research Paper

    Sample Clinical Psychology Of Depression Research Paper. Browse other research paper examples and check the list of research paper topics for more inspiration. iResearchNet offers academic assignment help for students all over the world: writing from scratch, editing, proofreading, problem solving, from essays to dissertations, from humanities to STEM.

  22. How to Write an Introduction for a Research Paper

    Step 4: Outline your Research Objectives. Having established the problem, it's time to outline your research objectives. Clearly define the goals your study aims to achieve, offering a roadmap for the reader. These objectives provide direction to your research and shape the narrative of your paper.

  23. Formatting Research Papers

    Most research papers that are written for psychology courses at UCSD, including the B.S. Degree Research Paper and the Honors Thesis, have to follow APA format. Here we discuss the formatting of research papers according to APA style. How to Format a Research Paper in APA Style

  24. Qualitative Psychology Sample articles

    February 2015. by Erin E. Toolis and Phillip L. Hammack. Lifetime Activism, Marginality, and Psychology: Narratives of Lifelong Feminist Activists Committed to Social Change (PDF, 93KB) August 2014. by Anjali Dutt and Shelly Grabe. Qualitative Inquiry in the History of Psychology (PDF, 82KB) February 2014. by Frederick J. Wertz.

  25. How to Write a Research Paper Title

    Scientific Paper Title. Here are 5 examples of research titles for scientific papers: "Exploring the Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity Patterns in Tropical Rainforests: A Multidisciplinary Analysis". "Quantifying the Influence of Microplastic Pollution on Aquatic Ecosystems: A Comprehensive Field Study".

  26. 2023's Mind-Bending Revelations in the Brain Sciences

    The past 12 months provided lots of examples of impressive advances for you to store in your working memory. Now here's a closer look at some of the standout mind and brain stories we covered in ...

  27. PDF How to Write APA Style Research Papers

    Use one-inch margins on all sides of the paper. 3. The text should be left-justified (a straight line), and the right side should be "ragged" (do not justify on both sides) 4. Paragraphs should be indented at the beginning (please use paragraphs!) 5.

  28. Harvard President Claudine Gay Hit With Six New Charges Of Plagiarism

    Beyond outlining the new charges against Gay, the latest complaint—25 pages of which are devoted to outlining the various examples of Gay's alleged plagiarism—argues that Harvard's legal ...

  29. CBSE Class 10 Science Pre-Board Sample Paper 2024: Download in PDF

    CBSE Class 10 Pre-Board Sample Papers 2023-24 . CBSE Class 10 Science Deleted Syllabus 2023-24. Top 7 Tips To Prepare for CBSE Pre-Boards 2023-24. Get here latest School, ...