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How to Write a Research Synopsis: Template, Examples, & More

Last Updated: February 12, 2024 Fact Checked

Research Synopsis Template

  • Organizing & Formatting
  • Writing Your Synopsis
  • Reviewing & Editing

This article was reviewed by Gerald Posner and by wikiHow staff writer, Raven Minyard, BA . Gerald Posner is an Author & Journalist based in Miami, Florida. With over 35 years of experience, he specializes in investigative journalism, nonfiction books, and editorials. He holds a law degree from UC College of the Law, San Francisco, and a BA in Political Science from the University of California-Berkeley. He’s the author of thirteen books, including several New York Times bestsellers, the winner of the Florida Book Award for General Nonfiction, and has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in History. He was also shortlisted for the Best Business Book of 2020 by the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 226,814 times.

A research synopsis describes the plan for your research project and is typically submitted to professors or department heads so they can approve your project. Most synopses are between 3,000 and 4,000 words and provide your research objectives and methods. While the specific types of information you need to include in your synopsis may vary depending on your department guidelines, most synopses include the same basic sections. In this article, we’ll walk you step-by-step through everything you need to know to write a synopsis for research.

Things You Should Know

  • Begin your research synopsis by introducing the question your research will answer and its importance to your field.
  • List 2 or 3 specific objectives you hope to achieve and how they will advance your field.
  • Discuss your methodology to demonstrate why the study design you chose is appropriate for your research question.

research synopsis writing

Organizing Your Research Synopsis

Step 1 Follow the formatting guidelines provided by your instructor.

  • Find out what citation format you’re supposed to use, as well as whether you’re expected to use parenthetical references or footnotes in the body of your synopsis.
  • If you have questions about anything in your guidelines, ask your instructor or advisor to ensure you follow them correctly.

Step 2 Set up the headings for your sections.

  • Title: the title of your study
  • Abstract: a summary of your research synopsis
  • Introduction: identifies and describes your research question
  • Literature Review: a review of existing relevant research
  • Objectives: goals you hope to accomplish through your study
  • Hypotheses: results you expect to find through your research
  • Methodology and methods: explains the methods you’ll use to complete your study
  • References: a list of any references used in citations

Tip: Your synopsis might have additional sections, depending on your discipline and the type of research you're conducting. Talk to your instructor or advisor about which sections are required for your department.

Step 3 Format your references.

  • Keep in mind that you might not end up using all the sources you initially found. After you've finished your synopsis, go back and delete the ones you didn't use.

Writing Your Research Synopsis

Step 1 Format your title page following your instructor’s guidelines.

  • Your title should be a brief and specific reflection of the main objectives of your study. In general, it should be under 50 words and should avoid unneeded phrases like “an investigation into.”
  • On the other hand, avoid a title that’s too short, as well. For example, a title like “A Study of Urban Heating” is too short and doesn’t provide any insight into the specifics of your research.

Step 2 Identify your research problem with the introduction.

  • The introduction allows you to explain to your reader exactly why the question you’re trying to answer is vital and how your knowledge and experience make you the best researcher to tackle it.
  • Support most of the statements in your introduction with other studies in the area that support the importance of your question. For example, you might cite a previous study that mentions your problem as an area where further research needs to be done.
  • The length of your introduction will vary depending on the overall length of your synopsis as well as the ultimate length of your eventual paper after you’ve finished your research. Generally, it will cover the first page or two of your synopsis.

Step 3 In your literature review, describe the work done by other researchers.

  • For example, try finding relevant literature through educational journals or bulletins from organizations like WHO and CDC.
  • Typically, a thorough literature review discusses 8 to 10 previous studies related to your research problem.
  • As with the introduction, the length of your literature review will vary depending on the overall length of your synopsis. Generally, it will be about the same length as your introduction.
  • Try to use the most current research available and avoid sources over 5 years old.

Step 4 Set forth the goals or objectives for your research project.

  • For example, an objective for research on urban heating could be “to compare urban heat modification caused by vegetation of mixed species considering the 5 most common urban trees in an area.”
  • Generally, the overall objective doesn’t relate to solving a specific problem or answering a specific question. Rather, it describes how your particular project will advance your field.
  • For specific objectives, think in terms of action verbs like “quantify” or “compare.” Here, you’re hoping to gain a better understanding of associations between particular variables.

Step 5 List your hypotheses for your research project.

  • Specify the sources you used and the reasons you have arrived at your hypotheses. Typically, these will come from prior studies that have shown similar relationships.
  • For example, suppose a prior study showed that children who were home-schooled were less likely to be in fraternities or sororities in college. You might use that study to back up a hypothesis that home-schooled children are more independent and less likely to need strong friendship support networks.

Step 6 Discuss the methodology and methods you’ll use in your research.

  • Expect your methodology to be at least as long as either your introduction or your literature review, if not longer. Include enough detail that your reader can fully understand how you’re going to carry out your study.
  • This section of your synopsis may include information about how you plan to collect and analyze your data, the overall design of your study, and your sampling methods, if necessary. Include information about the study setting, like the facilities and equipment that are available to you to carry out your study.
  • For example, your research work may take place in a hospital, and you may use cluster sampling to gather data.

Step 7 Complete your abstract last.

  • Use between 100 and 200 words to give your readers a basic understanding of your research project.
  • Include a clear statement of the problem, the main goals or objectives of your study, the theories or conceptual framework your research relies upon, and the methods you’ll use to reach your goals or objectives.

Tip: Jot down a few notes as you draft your other sections that you can compile for your abstract to keep your writing more efficient.

Reviewing and Editing Your Research Synopsis

Step 1 Take a break before you start editing.

  • If you don’t have that kind of time because you’re up against a deadline, at least take a few hours away from your synopsis before you go back to edit it. Do something entirely unrelated to your research, like taking a walk or going to a movie.

Step 2 Edit for clarity and concision.

  • Eliminate sentences that don’t add any new information. Even the longest synopsis is a brief document—make sure every word needs to be there and counts for something.
  • Get rid of jargon and terms of art in your field that could be better explained in plain language. Even though your likely readers are people who are well-versed in your field, providing plain language descriptions shows you know what you’re talking about. Using jargon can seem like you’re trying to sound like you know more than you actually do.

Tip: Free apps, such as Grammarly and Hemingway App, can help you identify grammatical errors as well as areas where your writing could be clearer. However, you shouldn't rely solely on apps since they can miss things.

Step 3 Check the format of your references.

  • Reference list formatting is very particular. Read your references out loud, with the punctuation and spacing, to pick up on errors you wouldn’t have noticed if you’d just read over them.
  • Compare your format to the one in the stylebook you’re using and make sure all of your entries are correct.

Step 4 Proofread your synopsis carefully.

  • Read your synopsis backward by starting on the last word and reading each word separately from the last to the first. This helps isolate spelling errors. Reading backward sentence by sentence helps you isolate grammatical errors without being distracted by the content.
  • Print your synopsis and circle every punctuation mark with a red pen. Then, go through them and focus on whether they’re correct.
  • Read your synopsis out loud, including the punctuation, as though you were dictating the synopsis.

Step 5 Share your paper with classmates and friends for review.

  • Have at least one person who isn’t familiar with your area of study look over your synopsis. If they can understand your project, you know your writing is clear. If any parts confuse them, then that’s an area where you can improve the clarity of your writing.

Step 6 Do a second round of editing and proofreading.

Expert Q&A

  • If you make significant changes to your synopsis after your first or second round of editing, you may need to proofread it again to make sure you didn’t introduce any new errors. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

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  • ↑ https://admin.umt.edu.pk/Media/Site/iib1/FileManager/FORMAT%20OF%20SYNOPSIS%2012-10-2018.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.scientificstyleandformat.org/Tools/SSF-Citation-Quick-Guide.html
  • ↑ https://numspak.edu.pk/upload/media/Guidelines%20for%20Synopsis%20Writing1531455748.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279917593_Research_synopsis_guidelines
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/
  • ↑ https://www.cornerstone.edu/blog-post/six-steps-to-really-edit-your-paper/

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Research Method

Home » Research Summary – Structure, Examples and Writing Guide

Research Summary – Structure, Examples and Writing Guide

Table of Contents

Research Summary

Research Summary


A research summary is a brief and concise overview of a research project or study that highlights its key findings, main points, and conclusions. It typically includes a description of the research problem, the research methods used, the results obtained, and the implications or significance of the findings. It is often used as a tool to quickly communicate the main findings of a study to other researchers, stakeholders, or decision-makers.

Structure of Research Summary

The Structure of a Research Summary typically include:

  • Introduction : This section provides a brief background of the research problem or question, explains the purpose of the study, and outlines the research objectives.
  • Methodology : This section explains the research design, methods, and procedures used to conduct the study. It describes the sample size, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques.
  • Results : This section presents the main findings of the study, including statistical analysis if applicable. It may include tables, charts, or graphs to visually represent the data.
  • Discussion : This section interprets the results and explains their implications. It discusses the significance of the findings, compares them to previous research, and identifies any limitations or future directions for research.
  • Conclusion : This section summarizes the main points of the research and provides a conclusion based on the findings. It may also suggest implications for future research or practical applications of the results.
  • References : This section lists the sources cited in the research summary, following the appropriate citation style.

How to Write Research Summary

Here are the steps you can follow to write a research summary:

  • Read the research article or study thoroughly: To write a summary, you must understand the research article or study you are summarizing. Therefore, read the article or study carefully to understand its purpose, research design, methodology, results, and conclusions.
  • Identify the main points : Once you have read the research article or study, identify the main points, key findings, and research question. You can highlight or take notes of the essential points and findings to use as a reference when writing your summary.
  • Write the introduction: Start your summary by introducing the research problem, research question, and purpose of the study. Briefly explain why the research is important and its significance.
  • Summarize the methodology : In this section, summarize the research design, methods, and procedures used to conduct the study. Explain the sample size, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques.
  • Present the results: Summarize the main findings of the study. Use tables, charts, or graphs to visually represent the data if necessary.
  • Interpret the results: In this section, interpret the results and explain their implications. Discuss the significance of the findings, compare them to previous research, and identify any limitations or future directions for research.
  • Conclude the summary : Summarize the main points of the research and provide a conclusion based on the findings. Suggest implications for future research or practical applications of the results.
  • Revise and edit : Once you have written the summary, revise and edit it to ensure that it is clear, concise, and free of errors. Make sure that your summary accurately represents the research article or study.
  • Add references: Include a list of references cited in the research summary, following the appropriate citation style.

Example of Research Summary

Here is an example of a research summary:

Title: The Effects of Yoga on Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis

Introduction: This meta-analysis examines the effects of yoga on mental health. The study aimed to investigate whether yoga practice can improve mental health outcomes such as anxiety, depression, stress, and quality of life.

Methodology : The study analyzed data from 14 randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of yoga on mental health outcomes. The sample included a total of 862 participants. The yoga interventions varied in length and frequency, ranging from four to twelve weeks, with sessions lasting from 45 to 90 minutes.

Results : The meta-analysis found that yoga practice significantly improved mental health outcomes. Participants who practiced yoga showed a significant reduction in anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as stress levels. Quality of life also improved in those who practiced yoga.

Discussion : The findings of this study suggest that yoga can be an effective intervention for improving mental health outcomes. The study supports the growing body of evidence that suggests that yoga can have a positive impact on mental health. Limitations of the study include the variability of the yoga interventions, which may affect the generalizability of the findings.

Conclusion : Overall, the findings of this meta-analysis support the use of yoga as an effective intervention for improving mental health outcomes. Further research is needed to determine the optimal length and frequency of yoga interventions for different populations.

References :

  • Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Langhorst, J., Dobos, G., & Berger, B. (2013). Yoga for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Depression and anxiety, 30(11), 1068-1083.
  • Khalsa, S. B. (2004). Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: a bibliometric analysis of published research studies. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 48(3), 269-285.
  • Ross, A., & Thomas, S. (2010). The health benefits of yoga and exercise: a review of comparison studies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(1), 3-12.

Purpose of Research Summary

The purpose of a research summary is to provide a brief overview of a research project or study, including its main points, findings, and conclusions. The summary allows readers to quickly understand the essential aspects of the research without having to read the entire article or study.

Research summaries serve several purposes, including:

  • Facilitating comprehension: A research summary allows readers to quickly understand the main points and findings of a research project or study without having to read the entire article or study. This makes it easier for readers to comprehend the research and its significance.
  • Communicating research findings: Research summaries are often used to communicate research findings to a wider audience, such as policymakers, practitioners, or the general public. The summary presents the essential aspects of the research in a clear and concise manner, making it easier for non-experts to understand.
  • Supporting decision-making: Research summaries can be used to support decision-making processes by providing a summary of the research evidence on a particular topic. This information can be used by policymakers or practitioners to make informed decisions about interventions, programs, or policies.
  • Saving time: Research summaries save time for researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and other stakeholders who need to review multiple research studies. Rather than having to read the entire article or study, they can quickly review the summary to determine whether the research is relevant to their needs.

Characteristics of Research Summary

The following are some of the key characteristics of a research summary:

  • Concise : A research summary should be brief and to the point, providing a clear and concise overview of the main points of the research.
  • Objective : A research summary should be written in an objective tone, presenting the research findings without bias or personal opinion.
  • Comprehensive : A research summary should cover all the essential aspects of the research, including the research question, methodology, results, and conclusions.
  • Accurate : A research summary should accurately reflect the key findings and conclusions of the research.
  • Clear and well-organized: A research summary should be easy to read and understand, with a clear structure and logical flow.
  • Relevant : A research summary should focus on the most important and relevant aspects of the research, highlighting the key findings and their implications.
  • Audience-specific: A research summary should be tailored to the intended audience, using language and terminology that is appropriate and accessible to the reader.
  • Citations : A research summary should include citations to the original research articles or studies, allowing readers to access the full text of the research if desired.

When to write Research Summary

Here are some situations when it may be appropriate to write a research summary:

  • Proposal stage: A research summary can be included in a research proposal to provide a brief overview of the research aims, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes.
  • Conference presentation: A research summary can be prepared for a conference presentation to summarize the main findings of a study or research project.
  • Journal submission: Many academic journals require authors to submit a research summary along with their research article or study. The summary provides a brief overview of the study’s main points, findings, and conclusions and helps readers quickly understand the research.
  • Funding application: A research summary can be included in a funding application to provide a brief summary of the research aims, objectives, and expected outcomes.
  • Policy brief: A research summary can be prepared as a policy brief to communicate research findings to policymakers or stakeholders in a concise and accessible manner.

Advantages of Research Summary

Research summaries offer several advantages, including:

  • Time-saving: A research summary saves time for readers who need to understand the key findings and conclusions of a research project quickly. Rather than reading the entire research article or study, readers can quickly review the summary to determine whether the research is relevant to their needs.
  • Clarity and accessibility: A research summary provides a clear and accessible overview of the research project’s main points, making it easier for readers to understand the research without having to be experts in the field.
  • Improved comprehension: A research summary helps readers comprehend the research by providing a brief and focused overview of the key findings and conclusions, making it easier to understand the research and its significance.
  • Enhanced communication: Research summaries can be used to communicate research findings to a wider audience, such as policymakers, practitioners, or the general public, in a concise and accessible manner.
  • Facilitated decision-making: Research summaries can support decision-making processes by providing a summary of the research evidence on a particular topic. Policymakers or practitioners can use this information to make informed decisions about interventions, programs, or policies.
  • Increased dissemination: Research summaries can be easily shared and disseminated, allowing research findings to reach a wider audience.

Limitations of Research Summary

Limitations of the Research Summary are as follows:

  • Limited scope: Research summaries provide a brief overview of the research project’s main points, findings, and conclusions, which can be limiting. They may not include all the details, nuances, and complexities of the research that readers may need to fully understand the study’s implications.
  • Risk of oversimplification: Research summaries can be oversimplified, reducing the complexity of the research and potentially distorting the findings or conclusions.
  • Lack of context: Research summaries may not provide sufficient context to fully understand the research findings, such as the research background, methodology, or limitations. This may lead to misunderstandings or misinterpretations of the research.
  • Possible bias: Research summaries may be biased if they selectively emphasize certain findings or conclusions over others, potentially distorting the overall picture of the research.
  • Format limitations: Research summaries may be constrained by the format or length requirements, making it challenging to fully convey the research’s main points, findings, and conclusions.
  • Accessibility: Research summaries may not be accessible to all readers, particularly those with limited literacy skills, visual impairments, or language barriers.

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Crafting a compelling research synopsis is vital for researchers across various disciplines. Whether you’re a seasoned academic or a novice researcher, effectively summarizing your research findings informatively is essential for disseminating knowledge and garnering interest in your work. This comprehensive guide will delve into the intricacies of writing a  research synopsis , exploring ten essential steps that will elevate your synopsis from mundane to masterful.

Table of Contents

Step 1: Define Your Research Synopsis Objective

The first step in crafting a compelling research synopsis is clearly defining its objective. Before delving into the specifics of your research, take a moment to articulate the purpose of your synopsis. Are you providing a brief overview of your findings? Are you seeking to persuade readers of the significance of your research? By establishing a clear objective, you can tailor your synopsis to communicate your intended message effectively.

Step 2: Conduct Thorough Research

A compelling  research synopsis  is built upon a foundation of thorough research. Before attempting to summarize your findings, it’s essential to immerse yourself in the existing literature surrounding your topic. Conduct a comprehensive review of relevant studies, identify key themes and gaps in the literature, and familiarize yourself with the latest developments in your field. By deeply understanding the existing research landscape, you can ensure that your synopsis is informed, insightful, and relevant.

Step 3: Structure Your Synopsis

Structure is critical to a  well-crafted research synopsis . Begin by outlining the key sections of your synopsis, including an introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Identify the main points you intend to convey within each section and organize them logically and coherently. Pay attention to the flow of your synopsis, ensuring that each section seamlessly transitions to the next. A well-structured synopsis not only enhances readability but also facilitates understanding and comprehension.

Step 4: Select Relevant Details

When summarizing your research findings, it can be tempting to include every detail and nuance of your study. However, effective summarization requires a reasonable selection of relevant information. Focus on highlighting key findings, significant observations, and noteworthy insights that contribute to the overall understanding of your research. Be selective in your choice of details, prioritizing those most pertinent to your synopsis objective.

Step 5: Craft a Compelling Introduction

The introduction is the gateway to your research synopsis, setting the following stage. Craft a compelling introduction that clearly articulates the purpose and significance of your research. Provide context for your study, outline the research questions or objectives, and offer a brief overview of your methodology and findings. By engaging readers from the start, you lay the foundation for a synopsis that commands attention.

Step 6: Summarize Your Findings

At the heart of any research synopsis lies the summary of findings. This section briefly overviews your study’s key outcomes and conclusions—Distill complex data and analysis into clear, concise statements highlighting the most salient points. Avoid delving into excessive detail or technical jargon, focusing instead on conveying the essence of your research in a digestible format. Whether presenting quantitative results, qualitative insights, or a combination of both, ensure that your summary accurately reflects the core contributions of your study.

Step 7: Address the Methodology

In addition to summarizing your findings, providing insight into the methodology employed in your research is essential. Briefly describe your study’s research design, data collection methods, and analytical techniques . Highlight any innovative approaches or novel methodologies, emphasizing their relevance to the research questions. By elucidating the method behind your study, you provide readers with a deeper understanding of the rigor and validity of your findings.

Step 8: Discuss Implications and Applications

Research findings do not exist in a vacuum; they have real-world implications and applications that extend beyond the confines of the academic sphere. In this section of your synopsis, explore the broader implications of your research and its potential impact on society, policy, or practice. Discuss how your findings contribute to existing knowledge, address pressing issues, or open up new avenues for exploration. Consider the practical implications of your research and how it can be applied to address real-world challenges or inform decision-making processes.

Step 9: Ensure Clarity and Conciseness

Crafting a research synopsis demands the utmost clarity and conciseness. Aim to convey your ideas clearly and succinctly, avoiding unnecessary verbosity or ambiguity. Use plain language and straightforward prose to ensure your synopsis is accessible to readers from diverse backgrounds. Be mindful of your word choice and sentence structure, striving for clarity and precision in your communication. Remember, brevity is the soul of wit, and a well-crafted synopsis should convey maximum impact with minimal fuss.

Step 10: Revise and Refine

Revising and refining your work is the final step in writing a good research synopsis. Set aside time to review your synopsis critically, emphasizing clarity, coherence, and accuracy. Ensure that each section flows smoothly into the next and that the overall structure is logical and cohesive. Look for opportunities to tighten your prose, eliminate redundant phrases, and polish your writing perfectly. Consider seeking feedback from colleagues or mentors to gain fresh perspectives and identify areas for improvement. By embracing the iterative process of revision and refinement, you can transform your synopsis into a polished and professional document that effectively communicates your research findings to a broader audience.

Mastering the art of writing a research synopsis requires careful attention to detail, clarity of expression, and a deep understanding of your subject matter. By following the ten steps outlined in this guide, you can craft a compelling synopsis showcasing your research’s significance and impact. Whether you’re a seasoned researcher or a novice scholar, these steps provide a roadmap for effectively summarizing and communicating your findings to a broader audience. Remember, a well-crafted research synopsis can captivate readers, spark interest in your work, and leave a lasting impression on the academic community.

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How to Write a Great Synopsis for Thesis

A synopsis is a structured outline of a research thesis and the steps followed to answer the research question. The goal of writing a synopsis is to clearly and thoroughly explain the need to investigate a certain problem using particular practical methods to conduct the study. One of the main components of this written work is an extensive literature review containing strong evidence that the proposed research is feasible.

Establishing the Background

A supervisor may ask you to write a synopsis for one or more reasons:

  • to help you improve your critical thinking and writing skills
  • to help you understand how to design a comprehensive synopsis
  • to encourage you to write a comprehensive literature review to make sure that the research problem has not been answered yet
  • to make you conduct a logical analysis of the steps that should be followed to meet the objectives of the research

A synopsis should be coherent in terms of research design. Thus, you should ensure that the research problem, aims, and research methods are logically linked and well-considered. Note that all synopses should contain answers for several crucial questions:

  • Why should research on the proposed problem be undertaken?
  • What is expected to be achieved?
  • What has been done by other researchers on the proposed topic?
  • How will the objectives of the study be achieved?

The Writing Process

Before proceeding, consider answering the following questions:

  • Why am I going to study this topic?
  • Why do I consider it to be important?
  • Have I conducted an extensive literature review on the topic?
  • What problem will the research help to solve?
  • How do I incorporate previous studies on the topic?

The structure of a synopsis should correspond to the structure of qualifying research work, and the word count should be 2,500–3,000 words (Balu 38). The basic elements of a synopsis include a title page, contents page, an introduction, background, literature review, objectives, methods, experiments and results, conclusions, and references.


As this comprises the first part of the main text, the introduction should convince readers that the study addresses a relevant topic and that the expected outcomes will provide important insights. Also, this section should include a brief description of the methods that will be used to answer the research question. Usually, the introduction is written in 1–3 paragraphs and answers the following questions:

  • What is the topic of the research?
  • What is the research problem that needs to be meaningfully understood or investigated?
  • Why is the problem important?
  • How will the problem be studied?

In this section, you should set the scene and better introduce the research topic by proving its scientific legitimacy and relevance. It is important to establish a clear focus and avoid broad generalizations and vague statements. If necessary, you may explain key concepts or terms. Consider covering the following points in this section:

  • Discuss how the research will contribute to the existing scientific knowledge.
  • Provide a detailed description of the research problem and purpose of the research.
  • Provide a rationale for the study.
  • Explain how the research question will be answered.
  • Be sure to discuss the methods chosen and anticipated implications of the research.

Literature Review

A review of existing literature is an important part of a synopsis, as it:

  • gives a more detailed look at scientific information related to the topic
  • familiarizes readers with research conducted by others on a similar subject
  • gives insight into the difficulties faced by other researchers
  • helps identify variables for the research based on similar studies
  • helps double-check the feasibility of the research problem.

When writing the literature review, do not simply present a list of methods researchers have used and conclusions they have drawn. It is important to compare and contrast different opinions and be unafraid to criticize some of them. Pay attention to controversial issues and divergent approaches used to address similar problems. You may discuss which arguments are more persuasive and which methods and techniques seem to be more valid and reliable. In this section, you are expected not to summarize but analyze the previous research while remembering to link it to your own purpose.

Identify the objectives of the research based on the literature review. Provide an overall objective related to the scientific contribution of the study to the subject area. Also include a specific objective that can be measured at the end of the research.

When writing this section, consider that the aim of the research is to produce new knowledge regarding the topic chosen. Therefore, the research methodology forms the core of your project, and your goal is to convince readers that the research design and methods chosen will rationally answer the research questions and provide effective tools to interpret the results correctly. It may be appropriate to incorporate some examples from your literature review into the description of the overall research design.

When describing the research methodology, ensure that you specify the approaches and techniques that will be used to answer the research question. In addition, be specific about applying the chosen methods and what you expect to achieve. Keep in mind that the methods section allows readers to evaluate the validity and feasibility of the study. Therefore, be sure to explain your decision to adopt specific methods and procedures. It is also important to discuss the anticipated barriers and limitations of the study and how they will be addressed. Specify what kind of contribution to the existing knowledge on the topic is expected, and discuss any ethical considerations that are relevant to the research.

Experiments and Results

Logically present and analyze the results of the study using tables or figures.

In this section, you should again state the significance of the research and summarize the study. Be sure to mention the study objectives and methods used to answer the research questions. Also, discuss how the results of the study contribute to the current knowledge on the problem.

A synopsis should contain a list of all references used. Make sure the references are formatted according to the chosen citation style and each source presented in this section is mentioned within the body of the synopsis.

The purpose of writing a synopsis is to show a supervisor a clear picture of a proposed project and allow him or her to find any gaps that have not been considered previously. A concisely written synopsis will help you gain approval to proceed with the actual research. While no rigid rules for writing this type of paper have been established, a synopsis should be constructed in a manner to help a supervisor understand the proposed research at first glance.

Balu, R. “Writing a Good Ph.D Research Synopsis.” International Journal of Research in Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 4, 2015, pp. 38–48.

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How to Write a Synopsis for Your Research |Steps in the Ph.D. Process

What is a Synopsis? Why do you need a synopsis for your doctoral research? What is the importance of a synopsis? How do you write and format a synopsis for your Ph.D.?

A synopsis, simply put, is a detailed summary of your research work that you will be doing for your doctoral degree.A synopsis is different from an abstract. You will submit your synopsis at the start of your research work along with your thesis title.

In simple terms, your synopsis is a write up which contains what you will be researching, the significance of your research to the field and how you will go about conducting this research. This document will be submitted before you start your research work and acts as a summary of what you plan to do in your research. In contrast, an abstract is the summary of your whole research thesis and will be written after the research is done and will be included along with your thesis.

research synopsis writing

The most important or significant use of a synopsis or why you should submit a synopsis is because this is the document that convinces the academic committee of your university as to why they should approve your research proposal. This is why the significance or contribution from your research to that particular field is included in the synopsis.

Writing a synopsis for your Ph.D. is an easy process once you have a clear idea about your research. The format of your synopsis will depend upon the guidelines provided by your university but we will provide you with a general outline on how to write a synopsis for a Ph.D.

The format for a synopsis will be as follows:

  • Title of your research thesis: The title of your research project should be clearly defined in your synopsis. This will act as a clear indication of what your research is going to be.
  • Introduction:Your introduction will contain a summary of the current level of knowledge in your field of research, the gaps in this knowledge and what your research will contribute to fill these gaps.
  • Literature Review: Literature reviews are brief summaries of works that have already been published in journals and other academic forums which are concerned with the field of your research. You need to critically appraise what others have done and what they have found out pertaining to your field of research. Through this you can highlight where their work can be expanded on through your research.
  • Aims and Objectives: This part of your synopsis is clear from its title. What is the aim of your research? What are you trying to find out? What are the objectives you are trying to achieve by conducting this research? You need to be very clear and concise while writing the aims and objectives of your research in the synopsis.
  • Research Methodology: This is a very important part of your synopsis. Research methodology can be defined as“the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyse information about a topic”. In your synopsis you need to include the outline of your research process, i.e.: how you will be doing your research. In this section you need to include the tools and equipment you will be using, how you will collect your data, and the methods you will use to analyse this collected data. Your research methodology will provide an insight into whether your research is achievable.
  • References: You need to provide a list of all the material that you have referred to in the process of writing your synopsis. The format of how to list your references will be provided by your university.
  • Conclusion:In the conclusion of your research, you must once again briefly summarise your Ph.D. research that you will be undertaking and why your research is needed. You will also need to include the limitations of your research project in this section.

This is the basic format of how to write a Ph.D. synopsis in India. This may change from university to university so make sure you write it according to the guidelines your university has provided you with. On average, your synopsis will come to around 30 pages.

We hope that this post has provided you with a better understanding about what is a research synopsis, the importance of a research synopsis and how to write a synopsis for your Ph.D.

Eduflair will most certainly be with you as a guide in your journey to fulfil your dreams of a doctoral degree. We wish you luck on your research journey.

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research synopsis writing

Learn how to prepare and write a synopsis assignment.

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A synopsis is a brief summary which gives readers an overview of the main points. In an academic context, this is usually a summary of a text (a journal article, book, report etc) but in some instances you might be writing a synopsis of a talk, film or other form of presentation. A synopsis is a neutral summary, objectively capturing the main points, rather than your own perspective or critique, and it focusses directly on the text you’re summarising rather than being a wider discussion of a topic, as an essay might be.

A synopsis aims to give the reader a full, if brief, account of the whole text so that they can follow its main points without having to read it themselves. It’s not a ‘trailer’ designed to tempt your audience to read the text itself, so you don’t have to worry about ‘hooking’ them in with hints and high points or ‘spoiling the ending’ - give the whole text equal coverage, including the conclusions. You could add some commentary which gives the reader a bit of context about the text, including the authors and circumstances it was written in (for example, if it is part of a debate, particular school of thought or its significance and what impact it’s had).

Writing a good synopsis is a skill, and there are a number of challenges: 

  • Separating the main points from the minor detail
  • Knowing what to leave out as well as what to include
  • Giving a sense of the overall narrative as well as listing the key points
  • Covering the whole text within a small word limit
  • Knowing how closely to stick to the original, especially in terms of the wording
  • Whether to give all key points equal treatment, or cover some more briefly, even combining them
  • Rephrasing things concisely without losing the meaning or misrepresenting it
  • Not leaving out anything crucial to understanding the whole overall message

A good synopsis will allow the reader to feel as if they’d skimread the whole text themselves, understanding the overall gist and highlighting what they need to know. A poor synopsis will get bogged down in detail, giving a confused account of the whole story by just listing points, miss out major points or give an inaccurate or one-sided account or stick so closely to the original that it becomes plagiarism without demonstrating a real understanding by the person summarising it.  

How to prepare a synopsis

Boiling down the key points and overall narrative of the original means good reading and note-taking skills which aim to identify and boil down key points to their essence. You could try some of the following approaches: 

  • Read the whole text, and afterwards, without re-reading, jot down your first initial summary in 50 words to capture its overall point. You can check it back for accuracy or anything you left out, but stick within ca 50 words
  • Read the introduction and first line of each paragraph to get a sense of the overall structure and key points within it
  • Highlight one sentence in each paragraph that you think is essential detail to understanding that section
  • Alternatively, with a marker pen, cross out anything that isn’t essential to an understanding of the whole section or text 
  • Jot down only key words as a summary of each point rather than whole sentences
  • Read each paragraph and summarise it without looking, in one sentence of your own 
  • Consider how many points you can make within your word count, and reduce or combine your list of summarised points down to this number

You could start small, identifying just keywords or sentences at first and then work them up into phrases, bullet points and sentences as a rough plan or draft, or you could start big with the original text and reduce each section, paragraph and sentence summary again and again until you have boiled it down to its essence.  

When you start to prepare your first plan or draft, try to use your notes or memory and step away from the original as much as you can. You can go back and check it afterwards, but you need to create some distance to be able to create your own account and have confidence in the points you have identified as essential.

Writing a synopsis

The main decisions facing you as you write up your summary are about how closely to stick to the original in terms of structure and style, and how much attention to give to each point. 

  • You could begin your synopsis with a brief context, explaining who the authors are, the context and significance of their work, as well as anything you think might help the reader to understand the following summary
  • The most common structure is to follow that of the original text, to give a sense of its narrative flow as well as the key points within it. You could choose to depart from it a little though, perhaps glossing over some points faster than others, combining two sections which go together or aren’t enough in their own right, possibly even changing the order a little where it helps to combine two similar points. Careful use of signposting language will help the reader clearly follow the structure (and note anywhere you’ve changed it from the original) so they can identify the bit you’re talking about in the original if they want to
  • The style will naturally be strongly influenced by the original wording, but you should phrase it in your own words wherever possible. It’s harder to nibble away words from a much longer original than it is to start again and use your own concise phrasing, and you want to demonstrate your own understanding to the reader. You could use the odd original phrase or quotation here or there, but the synopsis needs to be more than a collage of quotations; it’s a thing in its own right rather than a cut-down version of the original
  • You can also show your own response to the text in the way you use language to guide the reader to what you feel are the key points and (briefly) why. Your own voice doesn’t need to be very obvious in the synopsis, as it’s about the text rather than your reaction to it, but you have made analytical decisions about what is important, and might want to explain to the reader why these points are significant in understanding the whole
  • What is the main purpose of this text? What did it aim to discover, explain or prove?
  • Why was this research done? How significant is it?
  • How was the research conducted? What kind of research is it?
  • What were the three (or four, five) main things I should be aware of from this paper?
  • What is their line of argument?
  • What is their overall conclusion, recommendation, finding? Why is that important?

Managing word count

The trick to writing a concise synopsis which keeps within your word limit is not to start from the much bigger original text, but from your own boiled down notes. If you’re over the word count, you could start cutting out words that don’t seem essential, but if you go too far, you end up with a text which does not read well and doesn’t hang together. It might be better to remove whole sentences and perhaps whole points, than nibble away at words here and there.

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Everything About Synopsis Writing: Tips, Structure, Purpose

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Synopsis Writing

Table of Content

Writing a synopsis is an essential skill for any PhD aspirant. Whether you are a novelist, a scriptwriter, or a researcher, a well-crafted synopsis is crucial to effectively communicate the essence of your work to potential readers, investors, or publishers. In this comprehensive blog, we will delve into the intricacies of synopsis writing , exploring its purpose, structure, and tips for creating an impressive synopsis. 

Understanding Synopsis Writing

Synopsis writing is condensing a more extensive work into a concise yet engaging summary, such as a novel, screenplay, or research paper. It aims to capture the core elements of the piece, highlighting its main plot, themes, characters, and critical events. A well-written synopsis should provide a compelling overview that intrigues the reader to explore the entire work. 

The Purpose of a Synopsis Writing

A synopsis serves multiple purposes, depending on the context. In the literary world, it is a marketing tool, helping agents and publishers evaluate a manuscript’s potential. In the film industry, a synopsis writing provides a snapshot of a screenplay or script, aiding producers in decision-making. In academia, a research synopsis outlines a study’s scope, methodology, and findings. Irrespective of the field, a synopsis is crucial in creating interest and capturing the target audience’s attention. 

Structure of a Synopsis Writing

To ensure clarity and coherence, a synopsis writing should follow a structured format. While there may be slight variations depending on the industry or specific requirements, a typical synopsis comprises the following elements: 

  • Introduction : Begin with a captivating hook that sets the tone and context of the work. 
  • Main Characters : Introduce the main characters and highlight their roles in driving the plot forward. Please don’t just introduce minor characters or digress into unnecessary details. 
  • Plot Summary: Provide a brief overview of the main events, focusing on the critical turning points and conflicts that drive the narrative. Please be careful not to tell every detail, maintaining an appropriate level of suspense. 
  • Theme and Message : Discuss the main themes or underlying messages conveyed through the work. This helps readers understand the deeper meaning behind the story or research. 
  • Resolution: Summarize the conclusion or resolution of the work, highlighting any significant revelations or solutions. 

Why is a Synopsis Required? 

  • Despite containing a research paper summary, a synopsis is not simply a summary. The overview includes all the essential facts, themes and messages the work conveys. 
  • The purpose of synopsis writing is to provide readers with enough information to decide whether they want to read the full text.  
  • A compelling synopsis should be clear and concise yet informative enough for readers. A synopsis is not a summary of the research paper’s events.  
  • It is an overview of the main points and arguments that you have made. It should be enough information for your readers to understand your paper and why paying attention is essential. 

Tips for Writing an Impressive Synopsis

  • Know your audience/readers: Build your synopsis to your intended readers’ specific requirements and interests. This will help you adapt your tone, language, and level of detail accordingly. 
  • Focus on the essentials: Avoid unnecessary details and subplots that distract or confuse the reader. I’d appreciate your staying true to your work’s core plot and central themes. 
  • Please ensure your synopsis writing is engaging, making readers eager to uncover more. Strike a balance between sharing enough information to pique curiosity while withholding enough to maintain intrigue. 
  • Craft a compelling beginning and ending: Start with an attention-grabbing opening line and end with a vital takeaway. These elements are crucial in creating a lasting impression. 
  • Edit and revise: Like any form of writing, editing and revising your synopsis is essential. Please ensure your language is clear, concise, and free from grammatical errors. 

Synopsis Structure

Let’s Wind Up with a Quick Example of a Synopsis Writing Piece

Synopsis writing example:, introduction:  .

“ The Last Voyage ” is a gripping science fiction novel set in a dystopian future where humanity faces its ultimate challenge – survival. This synopsis writing provides a glimpse into the story’s captivating plot, memorable characters, and the underlying themes of hope and resilience. 


In a world ravaged by environmental devastation and social collapse, “ The Last Voyage ” follows the journey of Emily, a courageous young scientist determined to save humanity from imminent extinction. As the planet teeters on the brink of an irreversible catastrophe, Emily embarks on a dangerous mission to discover a new habitable planet where survivors can rebuild their lives. 

The story begins in a decaying megacity known as New Haven, where Emily’s genius intellect and unwavering determination have made her a respected figure among the dwindling population. With advanced technology, Emily identifies a potential planet, code-named Aurora, located in a distant galaxy. Motivated by the dwindling resources and the desperation of her fellow citizens, Emily assembles a diverse team of scientists, engineers, and explorers to undertake the galactic voyage. 

The crew faces countless challenges during their interstellar journey: malfunctioning equipment, hostile alien encounters, and the psychological toll of prolonged isolation. Their limited resources and the constant fear of failure weigh heavily on them. However, the collective determination and perseverance of the crew drive them forward, even as hope flickers amidst the darkest moments. 

As the spaceship approaches the Aurora system, the crew’s excitement gives way to trepidation. They navigate asteroid belts and unknown cosmic phenomena, facing near-fatal collisions and unexpected navigational challenges. Finally, they reach the habitable planet within the Aurora system, where they encounter a species of intelligent extraterrestrial beings. Through diplomacy and cautious collaboration, humans and aliens start working together to establish a new society. 

“The Last Voyage” explores themes of resilience, the indomitable human spirit, and the power of unity. The characters’ personal growth, as they confront their fears and forge deep bonds of camaraderie amidst the vastness of space, adds depth to the narrative. 

In the climax, Emily, her crew, and the alien allies successfully build a sustainable society on the newfound planet. Their achievements serve as a beacon of hope for humanity’s future, showing that unity and determination can triumph despite seemingly insurmountable challenges. 

In conclusion, synopsis writing requires careful thought and meticulous attention to detail. By following the structural guidelines and incorporating effective writing techniques, you can create a synopsis that captivates your readers and effectively conveys the essence of your work. Whether you seek publication, pitch a script, or present your research, a well-crafted synopsis will undoubtedly leave a lasting impression on your audience. So, embrace the art of synopsis writing and watch your work flourish in its summary form.  

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How to Write a Summary — Researcher's Guide

Sumalatha G

Table of Contents

Writing a summary can be a bit challenging if you're not familiar with the process. Thankfully, by following a few key steps, you can master the art of writing a summary effectively. In this article, we will explore the essential elements of summary writing, from understanding the basics to editing and proofreading your work. So, let's dive in and learn how to write a summary that captures the essence of your source material while keeping it concise and readable.

What is a Summary in research?

A summary is a condensed version of a longer text that captures its main points and ideas. It should provide a clear overview without getting into excessive detail. By understanding this foundational concept, you can effectively navigate the process of summary writing.

Now, there are several strategies you can follow to get an effective summary. Let’s dive into some of them.

Identify the Key Points of Your Source Material

To create an accurate summary, you must identify and extract the key points from your source material. This involves thorough reading or reviewing the text and highlighting the most important information. By doing so, you'll be able to effectively convey the main ideas and arguments in your summary.

One effective way to identify the key points is to read the source material multiple times. As you read, make sure to highlight or underline the sentences or paragraphs that stand out to you. These are likely to contain the most significant information. You can use AI research assistants to read and understand your source materials which saves plenty of your reading time.

Another helpful strategy is to take notes while reading. Jot down the main ideas and arguments as you encounter them. This not only helps you remember the key points but also allows you to organize your thoughts and structure your summary effectively.

Additionally, pay attention to any headings or subheadings in the source material. These can often indicate important sections or topics that should be included in your summary.

It's important to remember that summarizing is not about copying and pasting sentences from the source material. Instead, it involves condensing the information and presenting it in your own words. This requires a thorough understanding of the key points and the ability to express them concisely. Once you have identified the key points, you can begin crafting your summary.

Choose Your Words Carefully

When writing a summary, every word counts. It is essential to choose your words carefully to convey the message accurately. Aim for concise and clear language without sacrificing important details. By utilizing precise vocabulary and avoiding unnecessary jargon, you can ensure that your summary accurately represents the original text.

One important aspect to consider when choosing your words is the intended audience . Are you summarizing a scientific article for a group of experts in the field, or are you summarizing a news article for a general audience? Tailoring your language to suit the needs and understanding of your readers is crucial in effectively conveying your message.

Another factor to keep in mind is the tone of the original text. Is it formal and academic, or is it more conversational and informal? Adapting your language to match the tone of the original text can help maintain the intended meaning and style.

Furthermore, it is essential to pay attention to the context of the original text. Understanding the background and purpose of the work can provide valuable insights into how to summarize it effectively. By considering the broader context, you can ensure that your summary captures the main ideas and key points without omitting crucial information.

Additionally, when choosing your words, it is crucial to avoid personal biases or interpretations. A summary should present an objective overview of the original text, focusing on the author's ideas rather than your own opinions. By remaining impartial and objective, you can provide a fair and accurate representation of the message. While brevity is important, it is equally crucial to include enough information.

Moreover, a well-crafted summary should include the most significant details and ideas to provide a comprehensive understanding of your research work. Selecting the most relevant and impactful details will help readers grasp the main points without getting lost in unnecessary information.

Create an Outline Before Writing

Organizing your thoughts before you begin writing can significantly enhance the quality of your summary. Create a clear outline that follows the structure of your source material. By logically dividing your summary into sections, you'll ensure a coherent flow and make it easier for your readers to follow along.

Keep Your Summary Concise

A summary should capture the essence of the original text without unnecessary elaboration. Aim to condense the information into its most crucial points, omitting extraneous details. Keep your sentences clear and to the point, maintaining a concise and focused writing style.

Use the Right Tone and Voice

The tone and voice of your summary should match the original source material. Take note of the style from the source and reflect it in your writing. Whether the source material is formal or informal, academic or creative, ensuring consistency in tone and voice is key to an effective summary.

Check for Clarity and Readability

After completing your summary, take the time to review it for clarity and readability. Ensure that your sentences flow smoothly, providing a seamless reading experience. Pay attention to grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure, as these elements contribute to the overall clarity of your summary.

Make Sure You Include All the Important Points

While summarizing, it's vital to include all the necessary information. Double-check your summary against the source material to ensure that you haven't overlooked any important points. By capturing the essence of the original text accurately, you'll provide your readers with a comprehensive overview.

Edit and Proofread Your Summary

Before finalizing your summary, always take the time to edit and proofread. Trim down any unnecessary words or phrases and refine your sentences for clarity and conciseness. Additionally, check for spelling and grammatical errors. By investing effort into this final step, you'll ensure your summary is polished and professional.

Tips for Writing an Effective Summary

Lastly, here are some essential tips to keep in mind as you embark on your summary-writing journey:

  • Focus on conveying the central theme and main points.
  • Avoid personal opinions or interpretations.
  • Use your own words while faithfully representing the source material.
  • Read aloud your summary to ensure clarity and coherence.
  • Seek feedback from peers or mentors to improve your summarizing skills.

By incorporating these tips into your summary-writing process, you'll be well-equipped to create an effective summary that captures the essence of your source material.

In conclusion

Writing a summary requires an understanding of the basics, careful word choice, and a concise writing style. By following the steps outlined in this article and utilizing the provided tips, you can develop the necessary skills to write a good research summary.

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How To Prepare A Synopsis | How To Write A Synopsis

How To Prepare A Synopsis

If you are a beginner or just starting your research or Ph.D. journey and come across the step of synopsis wiring,

You’re on the right track, and we’ll walk you through the process of creating a synopsis and synopsis structure.

Actually, I have to choose this topic because I got lots of messages and mail that how to write a synopsis and it is really difficult for me to tell them all how to prepare a synopsis for them.

I better decided to prepare an article over this and I am going to prepare this in the English language only, but there is a language translation plugin in my blog and one who has any problem in English can switch to that language in which he/she is compatible with the description of synopsis writing.

What is a synopsis

It is an outline or summary of your research work to be conducted and this is the first stage of your research where you can start your research or your experiment or your work it is the most important step of research and the foremost thing in the synopsis is your topic you should choose the topic as of your interest because if you were not interested in the particular topic then it will be very difficult for you to experiment with that.

If you have no deep knowledge of that topic then it’s difficult for you to work on that particular topic and after choosing that relevant topic as per your the interest you should get an irrelevant guide and the guide should pick sport on that topic and it can be easier for you because, without a guide, it is just like you can’t easily conduct your research work.

So it’s better to choose a topic as per your convenience and your interest in the better guidance of export on that topic and when you provide the title for your topic.

The topic of research should be catchy and whenever you are talking about your topic with someone then they should express it oh wow you are working on this topic it’s a very good topic very interesting topic and if such types of expressions you must get for your topic you can get positive energy to work on that topic.

Different portions in a synopsis structure

  • Introduction
  • Review Of Literature
  • Scope of topic
  • Research Methods
  • Bibliography

Introduction in synopsis

Introduce your research topic in a very brief manner in an explanatory way so that even a student can easily understand or the one who doesn’t have any link with that topic can also understand and say oh you have chosen this topic.

This is your purpose of study all these points would be through very clear in your introduction your interests would be reflected in that topic and the positive point should be reflected in what you are going to face a problem it should be quite thoughtful from your introduction after introduction you will come to the literature review.

Literature review in a synopsis

After introducing your topic now the time you will explain, what has been done on the particular topic, and what were the outcomes or drawbacks of the topic with proper referencing.

What were the steps or techniques used to improve the results of the work which has already been conducted, and if any contradictory point is there on that topic then you should also explain it because it always creates an interest in your mind that yes this is contradicted.

How we can conduct our work on this topic and how to overcome this contradictory point should be well explained in them and while explaining the literature review you will also add the significance of your topic by comparing your literature review then after this, the most important thing about your synopsis is the objective

Objective in synopsis

The objective itself explains the whole process and road map of your work with a stepwise procedure in it. All the experiments are conducted stepwise in your research you will note that in the objective and from the objective points themselves viewers or a reader of your synopsis can easily understand what you are going to conduct and what you are going to get.

Like you have started with the first objective that which was going for the data collection or the sample collection in the next objective you have introduced and analyzed the data and samples from different sources and conclusions will perform in the third objective and after that your outcomes respectively. How you are going to continue your hypothesis and how you can get a result of your hypothesis?

Hypothesis in synopsis

Suppose you’re planning for some tool at that time, what do you do? we give the hypothesis, For example, if that will be the rainy season then we should be our reserve car or a sort of reserve vehicle to travel for sampling or instead of going with the hired one in such types of hypotheses you keep in your mind for your research work.

You will also take such a hypothesis that who much amount of sample is expected and this area is very much drawn to particular data or particular sample and you must focus on this particular area and after it is supposed that you will get a good result from that particular sampling or particular data .

In such type of hypothesis, you first came about that, and after you say that after analyzing a sample we can conclude this must of things.

Actually, you are enhancing without or with your imagination that how you can get how you are conducting your experiment in your imaginations you will give a certain hypothesis and after hypothesis, this is your synopsis.

After putting your hypothesis you will then perform your work on that particular hypothesis and then we are either accept or reject your hypothesis.

Scope of the topic in a synopsis

The scope of your topic is what you can get. What is the scope? Why you are conducting this research you are going to answer all why you were conducting this experiment and what is the scope of this experiment. If you are doing this research what are the positive results you are going to come and how it will affect you economically or socially to the environment?

Research methods in the synopsis

This is we can say the techniques you are going to use for your research and what are instrument you are going to apply on that path. When you are going to represent all these things and going to offer any experiment or any research work at that time you are associated with a particular Institute to get the result from the research methods with the help of tools and techniques.

During the research work, you decide whether the expert faculty in that Institute or not or whether you have to turn to an export of your tools from anywhere or whatever the financial status for your research is either you can get from your institute or not. These things can be cleared from the research methods and design .

You can frame a schedule that I am going to complete my first objective in this the first year or in six months and for other objects, you are going to give a tentative duration respectively and it will become specific to you to complete your work in that decision time and if you will not have any tentative durations or any limitations of timing in your research then what will happen you will keep on working on one thing and you will keep on doing out spend lots and lots of time at that particular topic.

You have a tentative duration of research and it should complete your work at that particular time and you should be very attentive to your research work for that, we then finally come to the bibliography

Bibliography in synopsis

This is the referring session and you can also provide a list of all sources you have used in the process of referring or design of your synopsis or writing your synopsis including the research papers, books, academic studies, etc.

All sources you have gone through during the synopsis preparation and updated about your topic and these all kinds of stuff should be included in the synopsis.

So this is all about “How to write a synopsis” and hopefully, this article helps you during the synopsis preparation and it would be easier for you to write a synopsis in the future. KRS is an academic collaborative research platform that regularly updates its information to aid in your professional development.

If this is your first visit to our site, we encourage you to share and subscribe in order to assist us in spreading the word. To gain additional assistance with electronic content and research, please visit our website or contact us via email at [email protected] to schedule a complimentary consultation.

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Related Articles:

General FAQ Related to Synopsis

Q 1. what is a synopsis in research.

A synopsis provides readers with a concise outline of the key ideas and progression of the proposed work.

Q 2. What are the main parts of the synopsis

The meaning and significance of the research

Q 3. Type of synopsis

Two types first is a research synopsis, and the second is a project synopsis.

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  • How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

Published on November 23, 2020 by Shona McCombes . Revised on May 31, 2023.

Summarizing , or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text.

There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary:

  • Read the text
  • Break it down into sections
  • Identify the key points in each section
  • Write the summary
  • Check the summary against the article

Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or evaluating the source . You should simply provide an accurate account of the most important information and ideas (without copying any text from the original).

Table of contents

When to write a summary, step 1: read the text, step 2: break the text down into sections, step 3: identify the key points in each section, step 4: write the summary, step 5: check the summary against the article, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about summarizing.

There are many situations in which you might have to summarize an article or other source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to show you’ve understood the material
  • To keep notes that will help you remember what you’ve read
  • To give an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review

When you’re writing an academic text like an essay , research paper , or dissertation , you’ll integrate sources in a variety of ways. You might use a brief quote to support your point, or paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.

But it’s often appropriate to summarize a whole article or chapter if it is especially relevant to your own research, or to provide an overview of a source before you analyze or critique it.

In any case, the goal of summarizing is to give your reader a clear understanding of the original source. Follow the five steps outlined below to write a good summary.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages:

  • Scan the article quickly to get a sense of its topic and overall shape.
  • Read the article carefully, highlighting important points and taking notes as you read.
  • Skim the article again to confirm you’ve understood the key points, and reread any particularly important or difficult passages.

There are some tricks you can use to identify the key points as you read:

  • Start by reading the abstract . This already contains the author’s own summary of their work, and it tells you what to expect from the article.
  • Pay attention to headings and subheadings . These should give you a good sense of what each part is about.
  • Read the introduction and the conclusion together and compare them: What did the author set out to do, and what was the outcome?

To make the text more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down into smaller sections.

If the text is a scientific paper that follows a standard empirical structure, it is probably already organized into clearly marked sections, usually including an introduction , methods , results , and discussion .

Other types of articles may not be explicitly divided into sections. But most articles and essays will be structured around a series of sub-points or themes.

Now it’s time go through each section and pick out its most important points. What does your reader need to know to understand the overall argument or conclusion of the article?

Keep in mind that a summary does not involve paraphrasing every single paragraph of the article. Your goal is to extract the essential points, leaving out anything that can be considered background information or supplementary detail.

In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part.

If the article takes a different form, you might have to think more carefully about what points are most important for the reader to understand its argument.

In that case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement —the central claim that the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the topic sentences that signal the main idea of each paragraph.

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Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to put them in your own words.

To avoid plagiarism and show you’ve understood the article, it’s essential to properly paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two.

The best way to do this is to put the article aside and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.

Examples of article summaries

Let’s take a look at an example. Below, we summarize this article , which scientifically investigates the old saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.”

Davis et al. (2015) set out to empirically test the popular saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Apples are often used to represent a healthy lifestyle, and research has shown their nutritional properties could be beneficial for various aspects of health. The authors’ unique approach is to take the saying literally and ask: do people who eat apples use healthcare services less frequently? If there is indeed such a relationship, they suggest, promoting apple consumption could help reduce healthcare costs.

The study used publicly available cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were categorized as either apple eaters or non-apple eaters based on their self-reported apple consumption in an average 24-hour period. They were also categorized as either avoiding or not avoiding the use of healthcare services in the past year. The data was statistically analyzed to test whether there was an association between apple consumption and several dependent variables: physician visits, hospital stays, use of mental health services, and use of prescription medication.

Although apple eaters were slightly more likely to have avoided physician visits, this relationship was not statistically significant after adjusting for various relevant factors. No association was found between apple consumption and hospital stays or mental health service use. However, apple eaters were found to be slightly more likely to have avoided using prescription medication. Based on these results, the authors conclude that an apple a day does not keep the doctor away, but it may keep the pharmacist away. They suggest that this finding could have implications for reducing healthcare costs, considering the high annual costs of prescription medication and the inexpensiveness of apples.

However, the authors also note several limitations of the study: most importantly, that apple eaters are likely to differ from non-apple eaters in ways that may have confounded the results (for example, apple eaters may be more likely to be health-conscious). To establish any causal relationship between apple consumption and avoidance of medication, they recommend experimental research.

An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. However, you’ll often want to give an even more concise summary of an article.

For example, in a literature review or meta analysis you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources. In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information.

Using national survey data, Davis et al. (2015) tested the assertion that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” and did not find statistically significant evidence to support this hypothesis. While people who consumed apples were slightly less likely to use prescription medications, the study was unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between these variables.

Citing the source you’re summarizing

When including a summary as part of a larger text, it’s essential to properly cite the source you’re summarizing. The exact format depends on your citation style , but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.

You can easily create your citations and references in APA or MLA using our free citation generators.

APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator

Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that:

  • You’ve accurately represented the author’s work
  • You haven’t missed any essential information
  • The phrasing is not too similar to any sentences in the original.

If you’re summarizing many articles as part of your own work, it may be a good idea to use a plagiarism checker to double-check that your text is completely original and properly cited. Just be sure to use one that’s safe and reliable.

If you want to know more about ChatGPT, AI tools , citation , and plagiarism , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • ChatGPT vs human editor
  • ChatGPT citations
  • Is ChatGPT trustworthy?
  • Using ChatGPT for your studies
  • What is ChatGPT?
  • Chicago style
  • Paraphrasing


  • Types of plagiarism
  • Self-plagiarism
  • Avoiding plagiarism
  • Academic integrity
  • Consequences of plagiarism
  • Common knowledge

A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words. Want to make your life super easy? Try our free text summarizer today!

A summary is always much shorter than the original text. The length of a summary can range from just a few sentences to several paragraphs; it depends on the length of the article you’re summarizing, and on the purpose of the summary.

You might have to write a summary of a source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to prove you understand the material
  • For your own use, to keep notes on your reading
  • To provide an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review
  • In a paper , to summarize or introduce a relevant study

To avoid plagiarism when summarizing an article or other source, follow these two rules:

  • Write the summary entirely in your own words by paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
  • Cite the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.

An abstract concisely explains all the key points of an academic text such as a thesis , dissertation or journal article. It should summarize the whole text, not just introduce it.

An abstract is a type of summary , but summaries are also written elsewhere in academic writing . For example, you might summarize a source in a paper , in a literature review , or as a standalone assignment.

All can be done within seconds with our free text summarizer .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, May 31). How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved April 16, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/working-with-sources/how-to-summarize/

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Shona McCombes

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Research Summary: What is it & how to write one

research summary

The Research Summary is used to report facts about a study clearly. You will almost certainly be required to prepare a research summary during your academic research or while on a research project for your organization.

If it is the first time you have to write one, the writing requirements may confuse you. The instructors generally assign someone to write a summary of the research work. Research summaries require the writer to have a thorough understanding of the issue.

This article will discuss the definition of a research summary and how to write one.

What is a research summary?

A research summary is a piece of writing that summarizes your research on a specific topic. Its primary goal is to offer the reader a detailed overview of the study with the key findings. A research summary generally contains the article’s structure in which it is written.

You must know the goal of your analysis before you launch a project. A research overview summarizes the detailed response and highlights particular issues raised in it. Writing it might be somewhat troublesome. To write a good overview, you want to start with a structure in mind. Read on for our guide.

Why is an analysis recap so important?

Your summary or analysis is going to tell readers everything about your research project. This is the critical piece that your stakeholders will read to identify your findings and valuable insights. Having a good and concise research summary that presents facts and comes with no research biases is the critical deliverable of any research project.

We’ve put together a cheat sheet to help you write a good research summary below.

Research Summary Guide

  • Why was this research done?  – You want to give a clear description of why this research study was done. What hypothesis was being tested?
  • Who was surveyed? – The what and why or your research decides who you’re going to interview/survey. Your research summary has a detailed note on who participated in the study and why they were selected. 
  • What was the methodology? – Talk about the methodology. Did you do face-to-face interviews? Was it a short or long survey or a focus group setting? Your research methodology is key to the results you’re going to get. 
  • What were the key findings? – This can be the most critical part of the process. What did we find out after testing the hypothesis? This section, like all others, should be just facts, facts facts. You’re not sharing how you feel about the findings. Keep it bias-free.
  • Conclusion – What are the conclusions that were drawn from the findings. A good example of a conclusion. Surprisingly, most people interviewed did not watch the lunar eclipse in 2022, which is unexpected given that 100% of those interviewed knew about it before it happened.
  • Takeaways and action points – This is where you bring in your suggestion. Given the data you now have from the research, what are the takeaways and action points? If you’re a researcher running this research project for your company, you’ll use this part to shed light on your recommended action plans for the business.

LEARN ABOUT:   Action Research

If you’re doing any research, you will write a summary, which will be the most viewed and more important part of the project. So keep a guideline in mind before you start. Focus on the content first and then worry about the length. Use the cheat sheet/checklist in this article to organize your summary, and that’s all you need to write a great research summary!

But once your summary is ready, where is it stored? Most teams have multiple documents in their google drives, and it’s a nightmare to find projects that were done in the past. Your research data should be democratized and easy to use.

We at QuestionPro launched a research repository for research teams, and our clients love it. All your data is in one place, and everything is searchable, including your research summaries! 

Authors: Prachi, Anas


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A Complete Guide to Writing a Research Summary

A summary is a key part of any research. So, how should you go about writing one?

You will find many guides on the Internet about writing research. But, any article seldom covers the prospect of writing a research summary. While many things are shortened versions of the original article, there’s much more to research summaries.

From descriptive statistics to writing scientific research, a summary plays a vital role in describing the key ideas within. So, it begs a few questions, such as:

  • What exactly is a research summary?
  • How do you write one?
  • What are some of the tips for writing a good research summary ?

In this guide, we’ll answer all of these questions and explore a few essential factors about research writing. So, let’s jump right into it.

What is a Research Summary?

A research summary is a short, concise summary of an academic research paper. It is often used to summarize the results of an experiment, summarize the major findings and conclusions, and provide a brief overview of the methods and procedures used in the study.

The purpose of a research summary is to provide readers with enough information about an article to decide whether they want to read it in its entirety. It should be no more than two paragraphs long and should include:

  • A brief introduction summarizing why the article was written
  • The main idea of the article
  • The major findings and conclusions
  • An overview of how the study was conducted

In order to write effective research summaries, it is important that you can capture the essential points of the research and provide a concise overview. The key step in writing a good summary is to read through the article and make notes of the key points.

This can be done by underlining or highlighting key phrases in the article. One essential thing is to organize these points into an outline format, which includes an introduction and conclusion paragraph.

Another best and quick way to generate a precise summary of your research paper is to take assistance from the online text summarizer, like Summarizer.org .

The online summarizing tool gets the research paper and creates a precise summary of it by taking the important points.

Finally, you must edit your work for grammar and spelling errors before submitting it for grading.

The purpose of the research summary is to provide a comprehensive sum of everything that’s in the research. This includes a summarization of scientific/literal research, as well as of the writer’s aim and personal thoughts.

As for the summary length, it shouldn’t be more than 10% of the entire content. So, if your research is around 1000-words or so, then your summary should be 100-words. But, considering how most research papers are around 3000-4000 words, it should be 300-400 words.

Key pillars of a Research Summary

The summary of any research doesn’t just include the summarized text of the entire research paper. It includes a few other key things, which we’ll explore later on in this article. But, the purpose of a summary is to give proper insights to the reader, such as:

  • The writer’s intention
  • sources and bases of research
  • the purpose & result.

That’s why it’s important to understand that the summary should tell your reader all these elements. So, the fundamentals of any summary include:

  • Write a section and state the importance of the research paper from your perspective. In this section, you will have to describe the techniques, tools, and sources you employed to get the conclusion.
  • Besides that, it’s also meant to provide a brief and descriptive explanation of the actionable aspect of your research. In other words, how it can be implemented in real life.
  • Treat your research summary like a smaller article or blog. So, each important section of your research should be written within a subheading. However, this is highly optional to keep things organized.
  • As mentioned before, the research summary shouldn’t exceed 300-400 words. But, some research summaries are known to surpass 10000-words. So, try to employ the 10% formula and write one-tenth of the entire length of your research paper.

These four main points allow you to understand how a research summary is different from the research itself. So, it’s like a documentary where research and other key factors are left to the science (research paper), while the narration explains the key points (research summary)

How do you write a Research Summary?

Writing a research summary is a straightforward affair. Yet, it requires some understanding, as it’s not a lengthy process but rather a tricky and technical one. In a research summary, a few boxes must be checked. To help you do just that, here are 6 things you should tend to separately:

A summary’s title can be the same as the title of your primary research. However, putting separate titles in both has a few benefits. Such as:

  • A separate title shifts attention towards the conclusion.
  • A different title can focus on the main point of your research.
  • Using two different titles can provide a better abstract.

Speaking of an abstract, a summary is the abstract of your research. Therefore, a title representing that very thought is going to do a lot of good too. That’s why it’s better if the title of your summary differs from the title of your research paper.

2. Abstract

The abstract is the summarization of scientific or research methods used in your primary paper. This allows the reader to understand the pillars of the study conducted. For instance, there has been an array of astrological research since James Webb Space Telescope started sending images and data.

So, many research papers explain this Telescope’s technological evolution in their abstracts. This allows the reader to differentiate from the astrological research made by previous space crafts, such as Hubble or Chandra .

The point of providing this abstract is to ensure that the reader grasps the standards or boundaries within which the research was held.

3. Introduction

This is the part where you introduce your topic. In your main research, you’d dive right into the technicalities in this part. However, you’ll try to keep things mild in a research summary. Simply because it needs to summarize the key points in your main introduction.

So, a lot of introductions you’ll find as an example will be extensive in length. But, a research summary needs to be as concise as possible. Usually, in this part, a writer includes the basics and standards of investigation.

For instance, if your research is about James Webb’s latest findings , then you’ll identify how the studies conducted by this Telescope’s infrared and other technology made this study possible. That’s when your introduction will hook the reader into the main premise of your research.

4. Methodology / Study

This section needs to describe the methodology used by you in your research. Or the methodology you relied on when conducting this particular research or study. This allows the reader to grasp the fundamentals of your research, and it’s extremely important.

Because if the reader doesn’t understand your methods, then they will have no response to your studies. How should you tend to this? Include things such as:

  • The surveys or reviews you used;
  • include the samplings and experiment types you researched;
  • provide a brief statistical analysis;
  • give a primary reason to pick these particular methods.

Once again, leave the scientific intricacies for your primary research. But, describe the key methods that you employed. So, when the reader is perusing your final research, they’ll have your methods and study techniques in mind.

5. Results / Discussion

This section of your research needs to describe the results that you’ve achieved. Granted, some researchers will rely on results achieved by others. So, this part needs to explain how that happened – but not in detail.

The other section in this part will be a discussion. This is your interpretation of the results you’ve found. Thus, in the context of the results’ application, this section needs to dive into the theoretical understanding of your research. What will this section entail exactly? Here’s what:

  • Things that you covered, including results;
  • inferences you provided, given the context of your research;
  • the theory archetype that you’ve tried to explain in the light of the methodology you employed;
  • essential points or any limitations of the research.

These factors will help the reader grasp the final idea of your research. But, it’s not full circle yet, as the pulp will still be left for the actual research.

6. Conclusion

The final section of your summary is the conclusion. The key thing about the conclusion in your research summary, compared to your actual research, is that they could be different. For instance, the actual conclusion in your research should bring around the study.

However, the research in this summary should bring your own ideas and affirmations to full circle. Thus, this conclusion could and should be different from the ending of your research.

5 Tips for writing a Research Summary

Writing a research summary is easy once you tend to the technicalities. But, there are some tips and tricks that could make it easier. Remember, a research summary is the sum of your entire research. So, it doesn’t need to be as technical or in-depth as your primary work.

Thus, to make it easier for you, here are four tips you can follow:

1. Read & read again

Reading your own work repeatedly has many benefits. First, it’ll help you understand any mistakes or problems your research might have. After that, you’ll find a few key points that stand out from the others – that’s what you need to use in your summary.

So, the best advice anyone can give you is to read your research again and again. This will etch the idea in your mind and allow you to summarize it better.

2. Focus on key essentials in each section

As we discussed earlier, each section of your research has a key part. To write a thoroughly encapsulating summary, you need to focus on and find each such element in your research.

Doing so will give you enough leverage to write a summary that thoroughly condenses your research idea and gives you enough to write a summary out of it.

3. Write the research using a summarizing tool

The best advice you can get is to write a summary using a tool. Condensing each section might be a troublesome experience for some – as it can be time-consuming.

To avoid all that, you can simply take help from an online summarizer. It gets the lengthy content and creates a precise summary of it by using advanced AI technology.

As you can see, the tool condenses this particular section perfectly while the details are light.

Bringing that down to 10% or 20% will help you write each section accordingly. Thus, saving precious time and effort.

4. Word count limit

As mentioned earlier, word count is something you need to follow thoroughly. So, if your section is around 200-word, then read it again. And describe it to yourself in 20-words or so. Doing this to every section will help you write exactly a 10% summary of your research.

5. Get a second opinion

If you’re unsure about quality or quantity, get a second opinion. At times, ideas are in our minds, but we cannot find words to explain them. In research or any sort of creative process, getting a second opinion can save a lot of trouble.

There’s your guide to writing a research summary, folks. While it’s not different from condensing the entire premise of your research, writing it in simpler words will do wonders. So, try to follow the tips, tools, and ideas provided in this article, and write outstanding summaries for your research.

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how to write a synopsis

How to Write a Synopsis

If you’re a writer, you definitely need to know how to write a synopsis for a book. Why? Because when you query an agent or publisher, you’ll need to include a synopsis with your submission.

But writers aren’t the only people who need to know how to write a synopsis. From students to scientists, all kinds of people will find themselves having to write one at some point. Thankfully, the process isn’t complicated. By following a few basic steps and guidelines, you’ll know how to write a synopsis in no time.

What a Synopsis Is

Forget about how to write a synopsis. First, you need to know what a synopsis is! Put simply, a synopsis is a detailed summary of all the important aspects of a book, project, or study. There are different types of synopses, but a book synopsis briefly explains the key points from the plot as well as things like setting, characters, tone, and any important themes.

What a Synopsis Isn’t

Knowing how to write a synopsis for a book means knowing not just what a synopsis is, but what a synopsis isn’t. Below, we’ll discuss some other types of summaries that differ from synopses.

Synopsis vs. outline

It’s important to know the difference between a synopsis and an outline. An outline is like a “skeleton” for your book that you can create to help you write by then fleshing out your outline with details. A synopsis, on the other hand, is a complete summary of your book that you use to give agents and editors an in-depth, complete account of all the key details from beginning to end.

Synopsis vs. abstract

An abstract is a short and general book summary and doesn’t include every detail. The goal of an abstract is to give a brief and general summary of the book. A synopsis goes into every detail, with a deeper dive into specifics.

A good synopsis vs. abstract rule of thumb is to consider whether you need a very general summary or a specific and detailed one. If you need a detailed one, then you need to know how to write a synopsis.

Synopsis vs. pitch

When considering the question of synopsis vs. pitch, remember that a pitch is the shortest type of summary, and a synopsis is one of the longest. A pitch is designed to make your book sound appealing in just a few sentences, so it’s designed for maximum impact—sort of like a marketing tagline or log line. Pitches are quick and impactful, whereas synopses give all the important details.

Sometimes a synopsis is a dry, straight summary that is written for informational purposes rather than emotional impact. Other times, it is written to be entertaining and showcase the writer’s creative voice. This will depend on the target audience of your synopsis.

Types of Synopsis

There are several different types of synopses, depending on what you are writing about.

Project synopsis

A project synopsis is often used in science and engineering fields and summarizes a project’s goals, processes, and conclusions. It often starts with a statement summarizing the problem that the project aims to solve. It delves into methods used and other details that are important to the project, such as relevant details about the project’s participants.

Research synopsis

Of the three main types of synopses, research and project synopses are most often used by research and scientific institutions. Like a project synopsis, a research synopsis summarizes the problem or question the research is attempting to solve and then describes how the research was conducted.

Research synopses also give details on the researchers themselves, such as any relevant academic degrees they hold.

Literary synopsis

A literary synopsis is a synopsis of a work of fiction. It summarizes all the critical elements of a book so that an agent or publisher understands, to a high level of detail, what a book is about without having read it.

stack of books

How to Write a Synopsis for Your Finished Manuscript in Five Easy Steps

  • Make a list of your book’s key elements.  These include the most critical story and plot points, conflict, characters, settings, themes, and tone. For the plot, go through each chapter, and write down one to three of the most important plot developments from each. Then flesh out each item on your list with any other important details.
  • Write a good opening sentence.  This should summarize your character, setting, and the immediate conflict, ensuring you make it clear what’s at stake. Then link together your detailed list from step 1 to form a first draft of your synopsis.
  • Read through the synopsis.  Then add any details you may have forgotten. Also, look for details you included that are not critical—and cut them.
  • Read through it again.  Ensure that the plot and character arcs are clearly defined.
  • Give it a final edit and proofread. A one-page synopsis is often ideal, but publishers may request a synopsis of three to five pages or specify some other length.

That’s it! Now you know how to write a synopsis.

One-Page Synopsis

A one-page synopsis has to be even leaner than a three- or four-page synopsis, so it’s important that it contain only the most important details. If you find that your synopsis is too long, find ways to be more succinct, cutting out any information that isn’t absolutely critical to understanding the book. For example, did you describe characters that aren’t essential to the most important plot plots? Did you include details that do nothing to move the actual story along? Cut them out to strengthen—and shorten—your synopsis.

Once you know how to write a synopsis for a book, research project, or study, the process is the same every time. So whether you’re a budding novelist or a student working on an English-class project, use the information in this post to build a formula for writing different types of synopses.

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research synopsis writing

  • Library Guides
  • Literature Reviews
  • Writing the Review

Literature Reviews: Writing the Review

Outline of review sections.

research synopsis writing

Your Literature Review should not be a summary and evaluation of each article, one after the other. Your sources should be integrated together to create a narrative on your topic.

Consider the following ways to organize your review:

  • By themes, variables, or issues
  • By varying perspectives regarding a topic of controversy
  • Chronologically, to show how the topic and research have developed over time

Use an outline to organize your sources and ideas in a logical sequence. Identify main points and subpoints, and consider the flow of your review. Outlines can be revised as your ideas develop. They help guide your readers through your ideas and show the hierarchy of your thoughts. What do your readers need to understand first? Where might certain studies fit most naturally? These are the kinds of questions that an outline can clarify.

An example outline for a Literature Review might look like this:


  • Background information on the topic & definitions
  • Purpose of the literature review
  • Scope and limitations of the review (what is included /excluded)
  • Historical background 
  • Overview of the existing research on the topic
  • Principle question being asked
  • Organization of the literature into categories or themes
  • Evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of each study
  • Combining the findings from multiple sources to identify patterns and trends
  • Insight into the relationship between your central topic and a larger area of study
  • Development of a new research question or hypothesis
  • Summary of the key points and findings in the literature
  • Discussion of gaps in the existing knowledge
  • Implications for future research

Strategies for Writing

Annotated bibliography.

An annotated bibliography collects short descriptions of each source in one place. After you have read each source carefully, set aside some time to write a brief summary. Your summary might be simply informative (e.g. identify the main argument/hypothesis, methods, major findings, and/or conclusions), or it might be evaluative (e.g. state why the source is interesting or useful for your review, or why it is not).

This method is more narrative than the Literature Matrix talked about on the Documenting Your Search page.

Taking the time to write short informative and/or evaluative summaries of your sources while you are researching can help you transition into the drafting stage later on. By making a record of your sources’ contents and your reactions to them, you make it less likely that you will need to go back and re-read many sources while drafting, and you might also start to gain a clearer idea of the overarching shape of your review.


As you conduct your research, you will likely read many sources that model the same kind of literature review that you are researching and writing. While your original intent in reading those sources is likely to learn from the studies’ content (e.g. their results and discussion), it will benefit you to re-read these articles rhetorically.

Reading rhetorically means paying attention to how a text is written—how it has been structured, how it presents its claims and analyses, how it employs transitional words and phrases to move from one idea to the next. You might also pay attention to an author’s stylistic choices, like the use of first-person pronouns, active and passive voice, or technical terminology.

See  Finding Example Literature Reviews on the Developing a Research Question page for tips on finding reviews relevant to your topic.


Creating a mind-map is a form of brainstorming that lets you visualize how your ideas function and relate. Draw the diagram freehand or download software that lets you easily manipulate and group text, images, and shapes ( Coggle ,  FreeMind , MindMaple ).

Write down a central idea, then identify associated concepts, features, or questions around that idea. Make lines attaching various ideas, or arrows to signify directional relationships. Use different shapes, sizes, or colors to indicate commonalities, sequences, or relative importance.

research synopsis writing

This drafting technique allows you to generate ideas while thinking visually about how they function together. As you follow lines of thought, you can see which ideas can be connected, where certain pathways lead, and what the scope of your project might be. By drawing out a mind-map you may be able to see what elements of your review are underdeveloped and will benefit from more focused attention.



Thanks to Librarian Jamie Niehof at the University of Michigan for providing permission to reuse and remix this Literature Reviews guide.

Avoiding Bias

Reporting bias.

This occurs when you are summarizing the literature in an unbalanced, inconsistent or distorted way . 

Ways to avoid:

  • look for literature that supports multiple perspectives, viewpoints or theories 
  • ask multiple people to review your writing for bias
  • Last Updated: Apr 9, 2024 3:50 PM
  • URL: https://info.library.okstate.edu/literaturereviews

MIM Learnovate

How to Write a Synopsis for Research

research synopsis writing

  • Table of Contents

What is synopsis?

The Synopsis is mainly the gist of your already planned research project submitted for approval from higher authorities. It shows a clear transparent view of your research work. On the other hand, it is the crux of a general survey that gives an idea about what a composition is all about. In other words, it is a brief view of the thorny work. It is a short outline of your thesis work. 

It shows what your research work is all about. Moreover, it gives you and your supervisor a clear view of the research topic and provides clarity behind the research aim. In this, you tell your supervisor why did you conduct this research ? You also describe your time frame.

This paper views the supervisor a brief precise overview of the whole dissertation as well. Most of the supervisors specifically read this in the research work. Thus, a synopsis is only a promo that shows whether the research work is excellent or dull. The structure of the Synopsis should be authentic and precise as well. 

Format Of writing synopsis

As we know, synopsis is imperative for all the researcher’s work. The supervisors’ primary focus in conducting the research papers is on this. Also, the format is a brief discussion of your project plan. There are various formats of Synopsis, varying from institution to institution. In addition, an institution offers many disciplines; sometimes, each field has its structure to conduct the research in real-time.  

This focus on the general format that almost entire educational institutions are following. This is the most popular format. Moreover, this has some heading to represent your topic truly. The format must be facile so that readers can easily understand it.

In this, you divide your whole plan or idea into components so you can not miss any information regarding the research paper. You can say that the format gives you an in-depth picture of the research in the various components. So, you must follow these guidelines while conducting the study:

The first page of your dissertation consists of the title. It should be precise, not too long or short. Therefore, this reflects your study objective and should be decided and written after completing the Synopsis. This should be a clear representation of your topic and give you an overview of your research as well, in addition. Always think about the concise and clear topic so that it can raise interest in the reader. 

 So, it covers the title on which you conduct your title. This should adequately describe the entire research content. The synopsis topic elaborates on this category as well. Also, your name (student name), registration number, supervisor’s name, and supervisor details like his job title (professor or assistant professor). Moreover, your university name and department name are also in it. 

The title is the central part of the synopsis that reads the most, and it should also be eye-catching. Because many readers first look at the title page. On the other hand, the catchy, unique topic creates a good image in the supervisor’s mind about the paper. 

Table Of Content s

Table of a content list the chapters and the central dissertation section alongside the page numbers. So, it is easy to see what carrier holds what chapter. You can save your time by adding this table to your paper. It also demonstrates to your supervisor the covered chapters or headings. 

Read More: How to Create Table of Contents for Research Paper?

You can generate an automatic table after formatting the whole paper or make a manual one. The synopsis should be reader friendly. The central synopsis part is this table, which also gives you a picture of the different research categories. 

This category gives a good impression and presents the paper with a professional look. Moreover, it is complicated to search for any heading without it. It arranges all the information in the best way so that a supervisor or a reader can quickly assess it. So, it is a road map in complex cases. For example, chapter one (Introduction) covers the research gap , problems, and many more. 

Chapter 1: Introduction

You add all the relevant detail to show that your topic is worth reading. This is named the first chapter in the synopsis writing. On the other hand, this is the central portion of the research study. So, the reader is more attentive during the reading of this portion. It would be the great if you state and follow such few headings in this first research chapter. 

Background Of The Study

You will have to write your study background in this section. In addition, it describes your research study area as well. This section gives a reader in depth study of the research topic and it give you an overview of the study. Moreover, never focus on the ambiguous side in this heading. This area should not be too long or short. This category length depends on the overall size of the research paper synopsis. It should cover approximately one page of research synopsis.

  • Research Gap

A research gap shows a problem not being reviewed or solved in the existing research studies or publications. Moreover, it can be a new idea and a thought process that you can prove in real-time. It should cover approximately two pages. But it depends on the number of variables, and the limit can exceed if you use more variables in your study. 

  • Research Problem

This is an area of the problem the researcher wants to address in the Synopsis. This is managed as a question mark in the Synopsis and should be a real-time problem . In addition, the problem should be measurable in real time as well. If we talk about the section length, it should cover a half page or one full page.

  • Research Questions

It helps to identify your research path. You first determine the total variables on which you want to conduct the study. Some are dependent, and some are independent variables. Also, some are mediators, and some are moderators. Therefore, you state the questions according to your variables. You will have to write down all your authentic research questions . The hypothesis is stated in this section.

Research Objectives

You will have to state the study’s objective. So, this is the end result researcher want to achieve. It will clearly state the study’s purpose and focus on real-time, and should be measurable. Moreover, it is the guideline of the research performance.

Significance Of The Study

It consists of Theoretical Contribution and Applied Contribution. It shows why this study is needed in the research field. Moreover, this section also elaborates on the research topic’s importance and impact on others. It justifies your research study, and if you talk about the length, this covers approximately half of the page. 

Chapter 2: Literature review

This is chapter two. It is the review of the existing research publication relevant to your topic. You also describe the variables and their relationship between them. So, you also add some researchers’ points of view with the citation to defend your statement regarding the topic. You will have to cover all the sections in it.

Independent Variables

First, you will have to define all the independent variables. You can manipulate and control these variables, and, in the study, these are not influenced by any other variables. This is the single variable, and you see their effect on the dependent variables in the study.

You will have to define the mediators’ variables. In addition, the mediators’ variables describe that how the two variables show relationship to each other. These are the intervening variables, which also show the relationship between the two variables.

Dependent variable

In this, you will have to state the definition of the dependent variable. This variable change with the independent variables’ manipulation. In addition, this is the variable being tested and measured in the research paper. So, this is the measurable variable in the study.

Read More: Chi-Square Test (Χ²) || Examples, Types, and Assumptions

Moderator 1

In the study there are at least two moderators should present. After the dependent and independent variables, you should also state the definition of the first moderator. Moreover, the moderator shows the strength and the direction of the journal. 

Moderator 2

Moderators modify the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Therefore, you will also have to define this variable in your study. It influences the relationship among the variables also. 

You will have to explain what theory supports your study and state the theory definition as well. Also, explain the proposed model based on your approach as well. The theoretical framework helps the investigation identify the real problem and show the impact of variables on each other.

  • Research Hypothesis

Afterward, you will have to propose the research hypothesis of your study in the Synopsis. Therefore, Hypothesis 1, Hypothesis 2, Hypothesis 3, and Hypothesis 4 should mention here by looking at the impact of the variables. Well, H1 shows the positive or negative relationship between the independent and dependent variables. And H2 shows the connection between the independent, mediator, and dependent variables. 

Read More: Directional vs. Non-Directional Hypothesis in Research

H3 shows the positive or negative relationship among the independent, moderator, and dependent variables. H4 shows the relationship between the mediator, moderator two, and the dependent variable. Other than that, it shows the independent variable impact positively or negatively on the other variable, and you will prove this through statistics. Moreover, this hypothesis should cover almost one page.

Research Mode l

Here you will show the clear diagram, which is the theoretical image of your research study. 

Chapter: 3 Research Methodology

It is chapter three. This section includes detail on how this study was carried out. It provides research design, sample size, and many others. This ensures the supervisor the reliability and the validity of the study.

Research Design

This covers the techniques chosen by the researcher. For example, the researcher will decide the tome horizon whether this research study will be cross-sectional or longitudinal . 

This is an extensive collection of individuals. Also, you will elaborate on what sector you focus on, like banking, education, textile, etc. 

Sample Size and Technique

There are many types of sampling techniques. Therefore, the researcher uses any of this according to the study’s nature and continence. You will state what sampling technique you use for your research study. 

Read more: T-test | Example, Formula | When to Use a T-test

Data Collection Procedure

In this section, you will decide how you will collect the information and how you will process all the data. Moreover, in this section, you will support your hypothesis based on the facts and the figures. 

It consists of the measurements of all your variables on which scale you are measuring your variables. You will also state which study you will be adopted to describe such variables. First, you will have to measure your independent variable, which was estimated by 14 item scale developed in the past study. So, this variable is measured by 7-point Likert Scale. 

 Mediators should measure by adopting 20 items scale developed in the past study. So, this variable will measure by 7-point Likert Scale (from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree). The dependent variable should measure by adopting 20 items scale developed in the past study. So, this variable will measure by 7-point Likert Scale (from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree).

 Moderator 1 should measure by adopting three items scale developed in the past study. So, this variable will measure by 7-point Likert Scale (from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree). So, Moderator 2 should measure by adopting 28 items scale developed in the past study. So, this variable will measure by 7-point Likert Scale (from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree)

You add other previous research contributions to your study, and it is important to mention them or give them credit by adding their journal links here in this category. You will have to add all the journal references from where you got all the data. Sites are in APA style, and the article link should also be authentic. 

  • How to Format APA Reference Page? APA Citations | Examples
  • What Are MLA Citations? Guidelines & Examples
  • Chicago Style Format: Examples | Tips To Avoid Mistakes 
  • Top AI Tools for Citation Management

It consists of the Questionnaire, starting with the questions of independent variables, then you will have to add mediators’ questions. Afterward, add questions of the dependent variable, then add moderato 1 and 2 questions. 

Other articles

Please read through some of our other articles with examples and explanations if you’d like to learn more about research methodology.

  • PLS-SEM model
  • Principal Components Analysis
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Friedman Test
  • Chi-Square Test (Χ²)
  • Effect Size


  • Research Methods
  • Quantitative Research
  • Qualitative Research
  • Case Study Research
  • Survey Research
  • Conclusive Research
  • Descriptive Research
  • Cross-Sectional Research
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Conceptual Framework
  • Triangulation
  • Grounded Theory
  • Quasi-Experimental Design
  • Mixed Method
  • Correlational Research
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Stratified Sampling
  • Ethnography
  • Ghost Authorship
  • Secondary Data Collection
  • Primary Data Collection
  • Ex-Post-Facto
  •   Dissertation Topic
  • Thesis Statement
  • Research Proposal
  • Types of Research Gaps
  • Operationalization of Variables
  • Literature Review
  • Questionnaire
  • Reliability
  • Measurement of Scale
  • Sampling Techniques
  • Acknowledgements

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Project Management

10 executive summary examples and how to write one yourself (with ai).

February 14, 2024

In a world where people have the attention span of a goldfish (or less), we don’t make time to read long, detailed documents unless they are valuable to us. So, how do we convince the reader that the document is valuable? That’s where the executive summary comes in.

What is an Executive Summary?

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An executive summary is a shorter version of a longer corporate document. It summarizes the salient points of a business plan, proposal, or report so executives can get the gist and read further about what matters to them.

In other words, the tl;dr (too long; didn’t read) version.

A typical executive summary includes:

  • Problem statement
  • Proposed solution
  • Expected outcomes

This might vary depending on what you write an executive summary for. Let’s take the example of a project report. You might have to replace the proposed solution and expected outcomes with execution solutions and actual outcomes achieved, respectively. Or, if you’re writing a business plan, research proposal, or market analysis, you might include your methodology, too.

Now that you know the purpose of an executive summary, let’s see how to write one.

How to Write Executive Summaries and Examples

While an executive summary is just a condensed version of a longer report, it isn’t easy to write. It needs to capture the essence of the report, outline the salient points, and tell a story as compelling as the full report. Here are some ways you can achieve that.

Just stating facts and data wouldn’t be a compelling read for anyone. So, identify the story that really impacts people’s lives. While industry terms like workflow optimization or cost control capture people’s attention, they don’t tell the real story behind your efforts. Focus on the latter.

If you’re writing the project executive summary in software development, you might begin with what matters to the reader as follows.

In 2020, the retail major was managing its inventory on spreadsheets. So, whenever a customer asked whether a product was in stock, a staff member had to walk across the 5000 sq. ft. store to check, often with the customer in tow. The new ABC digital inventory management system records stock in and out online in real time. The staff member can check and confirm in a flash. More pertinently, the customers themselves can check at any of the 25 kiosks throughout the store.

While the story is more important, data isn’t useless. Accurate and relevant data helps establish credibility. Your next section might say the following in the ABC digital inventory management system example.

Since the implementation of the ABC inventory management system, the retail major has seen: 85% decrease in time taken to check stock 75% decrease in time taken to find where stock is placed

The data demonstrates that there has been real improvement. However, for the reader to understand its impact, you must explain the benefits. This can be done with real-life scenarios or even quotes. For example,

Adrian, the customer service manager at the Central Park store, says, “Now, from anywhere—a kiosk, the checkout counter, or my mobile phone—I can quickly check stock and confirm we have the products the customer needs. I see that customers are delighted at getting their answers instantly.”

You can also use data to do this. For example, you can explain how the decreased time taken to check stock has increased staff productivity, customer satisfaction, or company revenue. Or you can include your suggestions here. Based on your observations, explain the process improvement methodologies you recommend.

This is the time to complete the story. Here, talk about how your project has delivered the changes in the present and sets up for an even more prosperous future. This could be something like:

The ABC inventory management system marks the first step in the retail major’s digital transformation journey. By Q2 next year, we will link the store solution to the e-commerce inventory platform to give 360-degree visibility into the stock situation. This would also enable a new sales channel in the form of Buy Online, Pick Up in Store (BOPIS), enabling same-day fulfillment.

While you write your executive summary, here are some best practices to remember.

Keep it short and simple : The length might depend on the report you’re summarizing, but it’s best to keep it under one page for quick reading. Also, avoid cliches and jargon; make it easy to read. A quick business plan under one page is the best first impression you can make.

Focus on the target audience : Not all executive summaries are read by business executives. Often, you might want to address your summary to peers, vendors, partners, or even teens. Know your target audience and customize your executive summary accordingly.

Use the right tool : You can, of course, use Notepad or Word doc to write your executive summaries. But give it a boost with modern document software like ClickUp Docs .

  • Use rich formatting features without jumping through hoops
  • Style the critical information with color-coded banners, buttons, and more
  • Collaborate in real time with comments, action items, and trackable tasks
  • Securely share with anyone with appropriate access controls

Pick a suitable template : If it’s your first time writing an executive summary, we’ve got your back. Fire up one of ClickUp’s executive summary templates or content writing templates , and kickstart your work.

Get the AI boost : If you’ve thoughtfully created your report, you can write your executive summary much quicker with one of the many AI writing tools . For instance, ClickUp AI offers a single-click summarize option right on ClickUp Docs.

What’s more? ClickUp AI supports you in brainstorming new ideas, writing the first drafts of your executive summaries, and proofreading them for good measure.

10 Executive Summary Examples

Now that we have discussed the theory of executive summary writing, let’s look at some examples to see what it looks like in practice. Here are ten to learn from or emulate.

ClickUp Board Report Template

Periodically, the board would expect to see a report on the organization’s performance. Various departments typically write their reports, which are consolidated into a board report. An effective executive summary of this would include the following.

  • Revenue and expenditure
  • Key areas of focus
  • Critical success factors
  • Financial information
  • Challenges and roadblocks

This ClickUp Board Report Summary Template brings all these aspects together to get you started on your executive summary right away. You can customize this free executive summary template to suit your needs and fill in the data as appropriate.

Mckinsey report

McKinsey, one of the world’s leading consulting firms, publishes dozens of research reports annually. For every one of them, they write executive summaries, often called ‘in brief.’

In this report titled, ‘ Performance through people: Transforming human capital into competitive advantage ,’ the executive summary takes a two-pronged approach. It presents key insights in text on one page and data in infographics on the next.

Insights in text : The report begins by directly addressing the primary purpose of the research. Below are the first few sentences.

How does developing talent affect financial returns for firms? This research finds that companies with a dual focus on developing human capital and managing it well have a performance edge.

This section summarizes the key insights from the research. The headlines of each section are presented in bold, making it easy for the reader to skim.

Data in visuals : The text section is followed by an infographic of the key findings from the data. Within one page, it presents all the graphs relevant to the reader engagingly.

Within two pages, McKinsey gives the reader a bird’s eye view of what to expect, customized for the target market, from the 40-page document.

You can read the executive summary of this report on McKinsey’s website .

The Adaptation Gap Report 2023 by the United Nations Environment Programme is a 112-page report with a rather detailed executive summary, stretching eight pages. The depth of information and seriousness of the topics covered demand an extended executive summary.

Yet, the writers make every effort to make it engaging with a combination of typography, design, and graphs. It begins with the following.

Despite the clear signs of accelerating climate risks and impacts worldwide, the adaptation finance gap is widening and now stands at between US$194 billion and US$366 billion per year. Adaptation finance needs are 10–18 times as great as current international public adaptation finance flows – at least 50 percent higher than previously estimated.

In the following pages, it presents graphs to demonstrate the underpinnings of these key findings.

UN report

Every project manager creates performance reports at the end of each week, month, or quarter. This typically includes the tasks tracking , burn up, burn down, hours spent, etc.

While this can be written down in a list, presenting this information as a slide with visual elements is far more effective.

One way to achieve this is to use ClickUp’s project summary templates , which offer custom-designed templates for various project management purposes.

The other way is to use the dynamic reports on the ClickUp Dashboard , which brings together all the key metrics and keeps them updated in real time for you to share with anyone you’d like to.

Burn up and burn down

Human resources or people management teams create payroll reports, typically in spreadsheets, for every payment period—bi-weekly or monthly. This data is also helpful for building financial projections. For the senior finance leaders, they often create an executive summary of critical information, such as:

  • Total salaries paid
  • Deductions across categories
  • Year-to-date salary expenses
  • Paid time off credits
  • Net pay summary

ClickUp’s Payroll Summary Report Template can save time by automatically gathering all relevant data from the platform. When data is unavailable on ClickUp, you can highlight any text to @mention team members who can fill in the correct information.

Once complete, you can update the Doc’s settings for access control and share it with the management team instantly.

A company description or how it projects itself is often important to stand out in a crowded market. Mailchimp stood out with its style guide. The guide is comprehensive and widely used by smaller content teams that don’t yet have their own.

Mailchimp has made it public and available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license for anyone to adapt to their needs.

While every section in this style guide is engaging and valuable, for the purposes of this article, we want to draw your attention to the tl;dr section , which acts as a quasi-executive summary.

It is a bulleted list of seven sub-sections, highlighting the foundations of Mailchimp’s writing style.

Mailchimp style guide

The striking thing about this tl;dr version is its simplicity. Even without any visual elements, infographics, or charts, this page gives readers a real and actionable summary of the entire style guide.

When we speak of executive summary, we almost always think of a smaller version of an entire document. It need not be so.

For a software engineering team, the release notes are a kind of executive summary of all the changes/upgrades made in the latest version.

clickup release notes 3.04

Take the example of ClickUp’s release notes 3.04 . Each release gets:

  • An organized yet concise summary of all the changes that have been made
  • “ClickTips” to help readers make the best use of new features
  • Visuals and app images to show how the changes look
  • Links to help pages of each of those features so the reader can learn more
  • A list of bugs fixed
  • And any other resources, such as on-demand webinars or training

These release notes inform users and developers of the latest upgrades to the ClickUp platform without overwhelming them with the details.

New Yorker article

The New Yorker Magazine wrote a 10,000-word profile of Geoffrey Hinton , a computer scientist and cognitive psychologist, for their November 20, 2023 issue, titled ‘Metamorphosis.’ Even in podcast form, it’s over 60 minutes long.

When it was published online, they needed a title and description that summarized the article in a way that attracted a lay reader’s attention to click and read. The headline captures the primary conflict explored in the article. The description introduces the protagonist.

While this is typically not what we’d categorize as an executive summary, it is a fantastic example of capturing the essence of a long article in a few powerful words.

This executive summary serves as an inspiration for writers, irrespective of what you’re writing about, to summarize their main points not just briefly but also powerfully and attractively.

In the spring of 2019, Harvard University conducted its first-ever survey about campus culture. The executive summary of the report on these survey responses makes for great reading. It is also a great example of how to honestly and authentically present key findings, even unpleasant ones.

Executive summary - Harvard report

The executive summary is honest on multiple fronts. It admits that:

  • 2019 was the first time in history that Harvard surveyed campus culture
  • Three in ten of the Harvard community don’t feel like they belong
  • 34% of students disagreed with the belief that Harvard will take appropriate action against incidents of harassment and discrimination
  • Those from historically underrepresented and disadvantaged groups reported less positive views

At the end of this, the executive summary outlines the specific steps Harvard will take to address these responses from the community.

Project managers can use this as inspiration for handling executive summaries of projects that have gone awry. It helps leaders take responsibility for what has occurred and build systems to prevent future mistakes.

Not all executive summaries have to be written manually by you. A free executive summary template is also something to explore. Plenty of tools offer it. Dozens of AI tools for automation can summarize text in seconds. Here’s what ClickUp AI returned when we inserted the article above and asked for a summary.

The article discusses the purpose and importance of an executive summary, which provides a brief overview of detailed documents, making them more palatable for readers with limited time. Executive summaries typically include problem statements, proposed solutions, expected outcomes, and a conclusion. To create a compelling summary, it’s crucial to identify the main story, incorporate relevant data, expand on benefits, and conclude powerfully. The use of modern document software like ClickUp Docs and AI tools like ClickUp AI can enhance the quality and efficiency of writing executive summaries. The article also provides practical examples of executive summaries across different fields, showcasing their versatility and applicability. This provides a great starting point for those who fear the blank page. You can now edit this to add details, add images, or insert a quote.

With ClickUp AI, you can choose the tone (from professional, straightforward, inspirational, optimistic, casual, confident, friendly, or humorous) and creativity (low, medium, and high) to customize the summary to your needs.

That’s not all! For project managers and business leaders, ClickUp AI offers a wide range of writing and summarizing tools for scope documents, project briefs, meeting agendas, statements of work, survey questions, and more.

You can tag people to invite input or feedback. You can also convert comments into tasks and manage them effortlessly, all in one place.

Never used AI for writing before? No worries there, too. Here are AI prompt templates that will get you started instantly.

With a custom-built AI assistant tailored to your role, you can work faster, write better, spark creativity, and be significantly more productive.

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Building, Architecture, Outdoors, City, Aerial View, Urban, Office Building, Cityscape

Creative Scientific Content Specialist

  • Madison, Wisconsin
  • Communications and Marketing
  • Partially Remote
  • Staff-Full Time
  • Opening at: Apr 15 2024 at 11:00 CDT
  • Closing at: Apr 29 2024 at 23:55 CDT

Job Summary:

The Research Impact and Outreach team is made of strategic communications professionals trained in art direction, copywriting, science writing, graphic design, scientific illustration, digital marketing, social media marketing, visual communication, and creative strategy. The team serves the research enterprise of the College of Engineering, by providing their clients (graduate and faculty researchers, education and outreach managers, and other center/institution staff and researchers) with the research, education, and outreach products (creative content) they request. The team works across a broad range of projects and is a crucial part of the research support structure, working alongside different departments and units to help researchers market their ideas in federal grant proposals, as well as market their research and outreach activities to a variety of scientific communities via a variety of channels (web, print, etc.).


  • 40% Creates, designs, and produces artwork per project specifications through various mediums
  • 5% Analyzes and identifies cost effective options to meet project requirements
  • 5% Schedules logistics, secures resources, organizes, and monitors art production projects adhering to established timelines and expectations
  • 5% Answers questions and provides information and problem resolution options to clients and stakeholders
  • 15% Applies creative expertise within established brand and style guidelines
  • 10% Works collaboratively with other creative professionals, engages in and responds to creative feedback, manages project workflow and timing, maintains files, and follows established work unit processes
  • 10% Develops, implements, and delivers communication materials through various mediums to designated audiences
  • 5% Plans, writes, and edits content for various internal and external stakeholders
  • 5% Assists in editing, revising, and proofreading materials and resolving errors or inconsistencies in style, syntax, grammar, and format

Institutional Statement on Diversity:

Diversity is a source of strength, creativity, and innovation for UW-Madison. We value the contributions of each person and respect the profound ways their identity, culture, background, experience, status, abilities, and opinion enrich the university community. We commit ourselves to the pursuit of excellence in teaching, research, outreach, and diversity as inextricably linked goals. The University of Wisconsin-Madison fulfills its public mission by creating a welcoming and inclusive community for people from every background - people who as students, faculty, and staff serve Wisconsin and the world. For more information on diversity and inclusion on campus, please visit: Diversity and Inclusion

Required Bachelor's Degree Graphic Design, Journalism, Strategic Communications, or related field preferred


Required: 1 year of experience in professional communications or graphic design. Experience with Creative Cloud (e.g. InDesign, Illustrator) suite. Experience creating graphics. Knowledge in applying graphic arts theory to develop informative and engaging content. Preferred: 2 years experience communicating complex concepts related to science, technology, engineering, and/or math. Creative marketing experience.

Full Time: 100% This position may require some work to be performed in-person, onsite, at a designated campus work location. Some work may be performed remotely (up to two days per week), at an offsite, non-campus work location.

Appointment Type, Duration:


Minimum $50,000 ANNUAL (12 months) Depending on Qualifications Employees in this position can expect to receive benefits such as generous vacation, holidays, and paid time off; competitive insurances and savings accounts; retirement benefits. Benefits information can be found at ( https://hr.wisc.edu/benefits/ )

How to Apply:

To apply for this position, please upload a single pdf that contains your cover letter, resume, a writing sample and a graphic design sample that best illustrate your ability to translate information into informative and engaging content.

Adrienne Nienow [email protected] 608-265-0504 Relay Access (WTRS): 7-1-1. See RELAY_SERVICE for further information.

Official Title:

Graphic Designer(CM017)



Employment Class:

Academic Staff-Renewable

Job Number:

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    Job Summary: The Research Impact and Outreach team is made of strategic communications professionals trained in art direction, copywriting, science writing, graphic design, scientific illustration, digital marketing, social media marketing, visual communication, and creative strategy. The team serves the research enterprise of the College of Engineering, by providing their clients (graduate ...