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21 Nature vs Nurture Examples

nature vs nurture examples and definition

The nature vs. nurture debate is the long-standing argument over whether heredity (nature) or environment (nurture) plays a greater role in developing human characteristics and behaviors. 

Nature refers to the biological characteristics we are born with, including genetic predispositions toward certain traits. In contrast, nurture includes external influences that shape us, such as culture, relationships, and everyday experiences.

For example, when it comes to personality development, some people believe that genetics play a stronger role than environmental factors; this would be considered a nature-focused perspective. 

Others may view the environment as more important. In this case, a nurturing upbringing could help individuals develop their personalities. Therefore, both sides can have valid arguments for their respective positions in the debate.

The Nature Perspective

In the context of the nature vs. nurture debate, nature refers to biological heredity and genetic predispositions inherited by individuals from their parents at birth. 

Buheji (2018) states that:

“in the “nature vs. nurture” debate, nature refers to an individual’s innate qualities (nativism)” (p. 221).

This includes physical characteristics such as eye color, facial features, personality traits, and behavioral tendencies.

Genes determine the unique physical characteristics of each individual while also influencing psychological and social behavior.

Some research implies that roughly 50% of an individual’s personality and disposition are pre-determined by genetics (Bouchard & Loehlin, 2001).

However, Krueger and colleagues (2008) state that the interplay between gene-environment interactions has a consequential effect on one’s character traits. Hence, the heritability of personality isn’t always precisely 50%.

So, nature is the hereditary and genetic characteristics pre-determined at birth and influence a person’s behavior.

The Nurture Perspective

Nurture, in the context of the nature vs. nurture debate, is used to describe environmental factors that influence an individual’s development. 

According to Coon and Mitterer (2014), nurture:

“…refers to the sum of all external conditions that affect a person” (p. 100).

This includes a variety of influences such as parenting style, educational experiences, cultural background, and exposure to different environmental conditions over time.

While “nurture” may naturally invoke ideas of childhood and parental care, environmental components and life experience can shape human mental, emotional, and physical health throughout their lives (Harsha et al., 2020).

For example, lifestyle choices have been found to impact a person’s risk for developing certain diseases and their level of immunity against illness. 

Furthermore, addiction susceptibility can be impacted by environmental factors such as peer group that has been observed throughout an individual’s life (Ducci & Goldman, 2012).

Simply, nurture is an umbrella term for any environmental influences that shape the development of a person’s mental, physical, and emotional health. 

Examples of Nature vs Nurture

Nature examples.

  • Eye color : A person’s eye color is determined by their genetic makeup and inherited from their parents.
  • Height : As with eye color, height is a physical trait that is determined by a person’s genes and largely determines an individual’s adult height.
  • Risk of D iseases : A person’s risk for developing certain diseases can be partially attributed to their genetic predisposition for that illness and influenced by lifestyle factors and personal environment.
  • Immune S ystem F unctionality : Genetic predisposition plays an important role in determining an individual’s resistance to disease through the strength of their immune system. However, lifestyle choices can also influence this trait over time (e.g., diet and exercise).
  • Hair Color: Hair color is determined by genetic factors. Recessive genes, like the red hair gene, generally have to be present in both parents for the recessive gene to become dominant.
  • Balding: Going bald is an inherited trait. Some groups – such as male British Anglo-Saxons – are more likely to go bald in their 30s than the average.
  • Adrenaline response : An individual’s ability to react quickly in dangerous situations—their “fight or flight” response—tends to be innate in all of us.

Nurture Examples

  • Ethics and Parenting style : An individual’s upbringing and the parenting style they are exposed to can shape their behavior, emotional reactions, and psychological outlook throughout life.
  • Linguistic Determinism Theory : In this theory, the language we are taught as a child will determine the ways we think and interact with the world. It goes some way to explaining how people of differing language groups may have differing values and belief systems .
  • Values and Cultural background : Depending on their cultural background, different individuals may be exposed to different values and belief systems, which can impact their attitudes toward certain issues or topics/ideas/beliefs.
  • Anxiety and Exposure to T rauma : Experiences with violence or traumatic events can have long-term effects on an individual’s psychology which could manifest outwardly as symptoms of anxiety or difficulty coping under pressure in later stages of life.
  • Positivity and Social E nvironment : The people an individual interacts with can either positively or negatively affect their development. Individuals need to surround themselves with positive influences while avoiding those that might lead them down the wrong path in life.
  • Relationship E xperiences and Sense of Security : Positive relationships throughout a person’s life will tend to improve outlook and well-being. In contrast, unhealthy relationships could leave long-term psychological damage that might need professional help before it can be addressed adequately by an individual suffering firsthand.

Nature and Nurture Examples

  • Personality traits: The role of genetics (nature) in determining personality traits, such as extraversion or conscientiousness is balanced against the influence of upbringing and life experiences (nurture).
  • Aggression: There is debate over whether aggressive behavior is primarily influenced by genetic factors (nature) or by environmental factors, such as upbringing, social learning , and exposure to violence (nurture).
  • Athletic ability: The role of genetics (nature) determines a lot of our natural talent in sports but the importance of training, motivation, and exposure to physical activity (nurture) takes us the rest of the way.
  • Musical talent: Musical ability may be affected by genetic predisposition (nature) but also environmental factors, such as exposure to music at a young age, education, and practice (nurture).
  • Attachment styles: It is debatable whether a person’s attachment style (secure, anxious, or avoidant) is impacted by genetics (nature) versus the influence of early childhood experiences and caregiver relationships (nurture).
  • Empathy and emotional intelligence: The capacity for empathy and emotional intelligence is debatably determined by both genetics (nature) and the result of upbringing, social exposure, and life experiences (nurture).
  • Spiritual beliefs: Theological determinism holds that god has pre-selected his chosen people who will be true believers (nature) while others think that belief in god is a choice and we must raise our children to maintain a belief in god (nurture).
  • Learning styles: In the 1980s, there was extensive debate over whether preferred learning styles, such as visual, auditory, or kinesthetic, are determined by genetic factors (nature) or influenced by educational experiences and personal development (nurture). Today, most education theorists believe that learning preferences are based on nurture over nature.
  • Addiction susceptibility : Scientists have identified genes related to addiction susceptibility, even though this trait is also heavily influenced by the environment (Ducci & Goldman, 2012).
  • Intelligence : Education can significantly impact traits such as intelligence levels and knowledge base, with certain experiences inspiring curiosity or creativity in individuals later in life.

Origins of Nature vs. Nurture Debate

The debate surrounding the extent to which human development is influenced by nature (heredity) or nurture (environmental factors) has been around since ancient times.

Plato, the renowned Greek philosopher, argued that beneficial traits in humans were attributable to both nature and nurture. He believed people could adapt to external occurrences throughout their lifetime (Englander, 2010).

However, his mentor Socrates leaned more towards genetics as the primary factor of human development – a notion known as Nativism, which was coined by both philosophers together.

In the late 1800s, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and Sir Francis Galton’s article “Hereditary Talent and Character” sparked a resurgence in interest in this topic (Galton, 1865)

So, Galton (1865) suggested hereditary influences to be at least as important as the environment when determining an individual’s outcomes in life.

The debate continued through subsequent decades, with psychologist John B. Watson’s revolutionary suggestion that environment—what he called “nurture”—was more important than hereditary factors or biology (Herrnstein, 1998).

In recent years, researchers have realized that both internal (genetic) and external (environmental) factors play a role in how individuals develop physically and psychologically. 

As such, most experts now subscribe to an approach that looks at how both genetic inheritance and environmental influences work together throughout life to shape each person’s unique character traits and behaviors.

The Role of Epigenetics in the Nature vs. Nurture Debate

Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression caused by environmental factors, such as diet and exposure to toxins, without altering the underlying sequences of DNA .

It is an emerging field of research that has been gaining prominence in recent years as scientists try to uncover how and to what extent the environment can shape genetic expression (Harvard University, 2019).

Epigenetic influences are now considered a significant factor in the nature vs. nurture debate, particularly in how individuals develop physically and psychologically throughout life. 

Evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can be used to modulate gene expression depending on the environment, thus having a direct influence on an individual’s characteristics and behaviors (Harvard University, 2019).

This means that while both genetics and environment may play a role in determining an individual’s outcomes in life, epigenetics provides an additional layer of complexity by allowing environmental factors to interact with gene expression.

Nature vs. nurture is a decades-old debate that continues to be studied in various fields. 

Nativists state that genetics play a major role in determining characteristics and behaviors. For example, a person may have inherited certain traits from their family. 

However, empiricists suggest that external factors, such as upbringing and lifestyle choices, can also have a significant influence.

From ancient philosophers to modern-day scientists, this debate has gone through various iterations and continues to evolve today with the introduction of epigenetics. 

More recently, epigenetics have emerged as a key factor in the debate. Its  mechanisms can be used to modulate gene expression depending on the environment, thus having a direct influence on an individual.

So, it appears that both nature and nurture are important factors in determining an individual’s outcomes in life. 

Bouchard, T. J., & Loehlin, J. C. (2001). Genes, evolution, and personality.  Behavior Genetics ,  31 (3), 243–273.

Buheji, M. (2018).  Understanding the power of resilience economy . Mohamed Buheji.

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. (2014).  Psychology: A journey . Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Ducci, F., & Goldman, D. (2012). The genetic basis of addictive disorders.  Psychiatric Clinics of North America ,  35 (2), 495–519.

Englander, M. (2010).  The nature and nurture of learners . AuthorHouse.

Galton, F. (1865).  Hereditary talent and character . University of Bristol Library.

Harsha, N., Ziq, L., Lynch, M. A., & Giacaman, R. (2020). Assessment of parental nurturing and associated social, economic, and political factors among children in the West Bank of the occupied Palestinian territory.  BMC Pediatrics ,  20 (1).

Harvard University. (2019).  What is epigenetics? The answer to the nature vs. nurture debate . Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University; Harvard University.

Herrnstein, R. J. (1998). Nature as nurture: Behaviorism and the instinct doctrine.  Behavior and Philosophy ,  26 (1/2), 73–107.

Krueger, R. F., South, S., Johnson, W., & Iacono, W. (2008). The heritability of personality is not always 50%: Gene-environment interactions and correlations between personality and parenting.  Journal of Personality ,  76 (6), 1485–1522.

Viktoriya Sus

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Viktoriya Sus is an academic writer specializing mainly in economics and business from Ukraine. She holds a Master’s degree in International Business from Lviv National University and has more than 6 years of experience writing for different clients. Viktoriya is passionate about researching the latest trends in economics and business. However, she also loves to explore different topics such as psychology, philosophy, and more.

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The Nature vs. Nurture Debate

Genetic and Environmental Influences and How They Interact

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

nature vs nurture discursive essay

Verywell / Joshua Seong

  • Definitions
  • Interaction
  • Contemporary Views

Nature refers to how genetics influence an individual's personality, whereas nurture refers to how their environment (including relationships and experiences) impacts their development. Whether nature or nurture plays a bigger role in personality and development is one of the oldest philosophical debates within the field of psychology .

Learn how each is defined, along with why the issue of nature vs. nurture continues to arise. We also share a few examples of when arguments on this topic typically occur, how the two factors interact with each other, and contemporary views that exist in the debate of nature vs. nurture as it stands today.

Nature and Nurture Defined

To better understand the nature vs. nurture argument, it helps to know what each of these terms means.

  • Nature refers largely to our genetics . It includes the genes we are born with and other hereditary factors that can impact how our personality is formed and influence the way that we develop from childhood through adulthood.
  • Nurture encompasses the environmental factors that impact who we are. This includes our early childhood experiences, the way we were raised , our social relationships, and the surrounding culture.

A few biologically determined characteristics include genetic diseases, eye color, hair color, and skin color. Other characteristics are tied to environmental influences, such as how a person behaves, which can be influenced by parenting styles and learned experiences.

For example, one child might learn through observation and reinforcement to say please and thank you. Another child might learn to behave aggressively by observing older children engage in violent behavior on the playground.

The Debate of Nature vs. Nurture

The nature vs. nurture debate centers on the contributions of genetics and environmental factors to human development. Some philosophers, such as Plato and Descartes, suggested that certain factors are inborn or occur naturally regardless of environmental influences.

Advocates of this point of view believe that all of our characteristics and behaviors are the result of evolution. They contend that genetic traits are handed down from parents to their children and influence the individual differences that make each person unique.

Other well-known thinkers, such as John Locke, believed in what is known as tabula rasa which suggests that the mind begins as a blank slate . According to this notion, everything that we are is determined by our experiences.

Behaviorism is a good example of a theory rooted in this belief as behaviorists feel that all actions and behaviors are the results of conditioning. Theorists such as John B. Watson believed that people could be trained to do and become anything, regardless of their genetic background.

People with extreme views are called nativists and empiricists. Nativists take the position that all or most behaviors and characteristics are the result of inheritance. Empiricists take the position that all or most behaviors and characteristics result from learning.

Examples of Nature vs. Nurture

One example of when the argument of nature vs. nurture arises is when a person achieves a high level of academic success . Did they do so because they are genetically predisposed to elevated levels of intelligence, or is their success a result of an enriched environment?

The argument of nature vs. nurture can also be made when it comes to why a person behaves in a certain way. If a man abuses his wife and kids, for instance, is it because he was born with violent tendencies, or is violence something he learned by observing others in his life when growing up?

Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology

Throughout the history of psychology , the debate of nature vs. nurture has continued to stir up controversy. Eugenics, for example, was a movement heavily influenced by the nativist approach.

Psychologist Francis Galton coined the terms 'nature versus nurture' and 'eugenics' and believed that intelligence resulted from genetics. Galton also felt that intelligent individuals should be encouraged to marry and have many children, while less intelligent individuals should be discouraged from reproducing.

The value placed on nature vs. nurture can even vary between the different branches of psychology , with some branches taking a more one-sided approach. In biopsychology , for example, researchers conduct studies exploring how neurotransmitters influence behavior, emphasizing the role of nature.

In social psychology , on the other hand, researchers might conduct studies looking at how external factors such as peer pressure and social media influence behaviors, stressing the importance of nurture. Behaviorism is another branch that focuses on the impact of the environment on behavior.

Nature vs. Nurture in Child Development

Some psychological theories of child development place more emphasis on nature and others focus more on nurture. An example of a nativist theory involving child development is Chomsky's concept of a language acquisition device (LAD). According to this theory, all children are born with an instinctive mental capacity that allows them to both learn and produce language.

An example of an empiricist child development theory is Albert Bandura's social learning theory . This theory says that people learn by observing the behavior of others. In his famous Bobo doll experiment , Bandura demonstrated that children could learn aggressive behaviors simply by observing another person acting aggressively.

Nature vs. Nurture in Personality Development

There is also some argument as to whether nature or nurture plays a bigger role in the development of one's personality. The answer to this question varies depending on which personality development theory you use.

According to behavioral theories, our personality is a result of the interactions we have with our environment, while biological theories suggest that personality is largely inherited. Then there are psychodynamic theories of personality that emphasize the impact of both.

Nature vs. Nurture in Mental Illness Development

One could argue that either nature or nurture contributes to mental health development. Some causes of mental illness fall on the nature side of the debate, including changes to or imbalances with chemicals in the brain. Genetics can also contribute to mental illness development, increasing one's risk of a certain disorder or disease.

Mental disorders with some type of genetic component include autism , attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder , major depression , and schizophrenia .

Other explanations for mental illness are environmental. This includes being exposed to environmental toxins, such as drugs or alcohol, while still in utero. Certain life experiences can also influence mental illness development, such as witnessing a traumatic event, leading to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Nature vs. Nurture in Mental Health Therapy

Different types of mental health treatment can also rely more heavily on either nature or nurture in their treatment approach. One of the goals of many types of therapy is to uncover any life experiences that may have contributed to mental illness development (nurture).

However, genetics (nature) can play a role in treatment as well. For instance, research indicates that a person's genetic makeup can impact how their body responds to antidepressants. Taking this into consideration is important for getting that person the help they need.

Interaction Between Nature and Nurture

Which is stronger: nature or nurture? Many researchers consider the interaction between heredity and environment—nature with nurture as opposed to nature versus nurture—to be the most important influencing factor of all.

For example, perfect pitch is the ability to detect the pitch of a musical tone without any reference. Researchers have found that this ability tends to run in families and might be tied to a single gene. However, they've also discovered that possessing the gene is not enough as musical training during early childhood is needed for this inherited ability to manifest itself.

Height is another example of a trait influenced by an interaction between nature and nurture. A child might inherit the genes for height. However, if they grow up in a deprived environment where proper nourishment isn't received, they might never attain the height they could have had if they'd grown up in a healthier environment.

A newer field of study that aims to learn more about the interaction between genes and environment is epigenetics . Epigenetics seeks to explain how environment can impact the way in which genes are expressed.

Some characteristics are biologically determined, such as eye color, hair color, and skin color. Other things, like life expectancy and height, have a strong biological component but are also influenced by environmental factors and lifestyle.

Contemporary Views of Nature vs. Nurture

Most experts recognize that neither nature nor nurture is stronger than the other. Instead, both factors play a critical role in who we are and who we become. Not only that but nature and nurture interact with each other in important ways all throughout our lifespan.

As a result, many in this field are interested in seeing how genes modulate environmental influences and vice versa. At the same time, this debate of nature vs. nurture still rages on in some areas, such as in the origins of homosexuality and influences on intelligence .

While a few people take the extreme nativist or radical empiricist approach, the reality is that there is not a simple way to disentangle the multitude of forces that exist in personality and human development. Instead, these influences include genetic factors, environmental factors, and how each intermingles with the other.

Schoneberger T. Three myths from the language acquisition literature . Anal Verbal Behav . 2010;26(1):107-31. doi:10.1007/bf03393086

National Institutes of Health. Common genetic factors found in 5 mental disorders .

Pain O, Hodgson K, Trubetskoy V, et al. Identifying the common genetic basis of antidepressant response . Biol Psychiatry Global Open Sci . 2022;2(2):115-126. doi:10.1016/j.bpsgos.2021.07.008

Moulton C. Perfect pitch reconsidered . Clin Med J . 2014;14(5):517-9 doi:10.7861/clinmedicine.14-5-517

Levitt M. Perceptions of nature, nurture and behaviour . Life Sci Soc Policy . 2013;9:13. doi:10.1186/2195-7819-9-13

Bandura A, Ross D, Ross, SA. Transmission of aggression through the imitation of aggressive models . J Abnorm Soc Psychol. 1961;63(3):575-582. doi:10.1037/h0045925

Chomsky N. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax .

Galton F. Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development .

Watson JB. Behaviorism .

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Nature vs. Nurture Debate In Psychology

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Editor-in-Chief for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, PhD., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years of experience in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Learn about our Editorial Process

Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

On This Page:

The nature vs. nurture debate in psychology concerns the relative importance of an individual’s innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. While early theories favored one factor over the other, contemporary views recognize a complex interplay between genes and environment in shaping behavior and development.

Key Takeaways

  • Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors.
  • Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception, e.g., the product of exposure, life experiences, and learning on an individual.
  • Behavioral genetics has enabled psychology to quantify the relative contribution of nature and nurture concerning specific psychological traits.
  • Instead of defending extreme nativist or nurturist views, most psychological researchers are now interested in investigating how nature and nurture interact in a host of qualitatively different ways.
  • For example, epigenetics is an emerging area of research that shows how environmental influences affect the expression of genes.
The nature-nurture debate is concerned with the relative contribution that both influences make to human behavior, such as personality, cognitive traits, temperament and psychopathology.

Examples of Nature vs. Nurture

Nature vs. nurture in child development.

In child development, the nature vs. nurture debate is evident in the study of language acquisition . Researchers like Chomsky (1957) argue that humans are born with an innate capacity for language (nature), known as universal grammar, suggesting that genetics play a significant role in language development.

Conversely, the behaviorist perspective, exemplified by Skinner (1957), emphasizes the role of environmental reinforcement and learning (nurture) in language acquisition.

Twin studies have provided valuable insights into this debate, demonstrating that identical twins raised apart may share linguistic similarities despite different environments, suggesting a strong genetic influence (Bouchard, 1979)

However, environmental factors, such as exposure to language-rich environments, also play a crucial role in language development, highlighting the intricate interplay between nature and nurture in child development.

Nature vs. Nurture in Personality Development

The nature vs. nurture debate in personality psychology centers on the origins of personality traits. Twin studies have shown that identical twins reared apart tend to have more similar personalities than fraternal twins, indicating a genetic component to personality (Bouchard, 1994).

However, environmental factors, such as parenting styles, cultural influences, and life experiences, also shape personality.

For example, research by Caspi et al. (2003) demonstrated that a particular gene (MAOA) can interact with childhood maltreatment to increase the risk of aggressive behavior in adulthood.

This highlights that genetic predispositions and environmental factors contribute to personality development, and their interaction is complex and multifaceted.

Nature vs. Nurture in Mental Illness Development

The nature vs. nurture debate in mental health explores the etiology of depression. Genetic studies have identified specific genes associated with an increased vulnerability to depression, indicating a genetic component (Sullivan et al., 2000).

However, environmental factors, such as adverse life events and chronic stress during childhood, also play a significant role in the development of depressive disorders (Dube et al.., 2002; Keller et al., 2007)

The diathesis-stress model posits that individuals inherit a genetic predisposition (diathesis) to a disorder, which is then activated or exacerbated by environmental stressors (Monroe & Simons, 1991).

This model illustrates how nature and nurture interact to influence mental health outcomes.

Nature vs. Nurture of Intelligence

The nature vs. nurture debate in intelligence examines the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to cognitive abilities.

Intelligence is highly heritable, with about 50% of variance in IQ attributed to genetic factors, based on studies of twins, adoptees, and families (Plomin & Spinath, 2004).

Heritability of intelligence increases with age, from about 20% in infancy to as high as 80% in adulthood, suggesting amplifying effects of genes over time.

However, environmental influences, such as access to quality education and stimulating environments, also significantly impact intelligence.

Shared environmental influences like family background are more influential in childhood, whereas non-shared experiences are more important later in life.

Research by Flynn (1987) showed that average IQ scores have increased over generations, suggesting that environmental improvements, known as the Flynn effect , can lead to substantial gains in cognitive abilities.

Molecular genetics provides tools to identify specific genes and understand their pathways and interactions. However, progress has been slow for complex traits like intelligence. Identified genes have small effect sizes (Plomin & Spinath, 2004).

Overall, intelligence results from complex interplay between genes and environment over development. Molecular genetics offers promise to clarify these mechanisms. The nature vs nurture debate is outdated – both play key roles.

Nativism (Extreme Nature Position)

It has long been known that certain physical characteristics are biologically determined by genetic inheritance.

Color of eyes, straight or curly hair, pigmentation of the skin, and certain diseases (such as Huntingdon’s chorea) are all a function of the genes we inherit.

eye color genetics

These facts have led many to speculate as to whether psychological characteristics such as behavioral tendencies, personality attributes, and mental abilities are also “wired in” before we are even born.

Those who adopt an extreme hereditary position are known as nativists.  Their basic assumption is that the characteristics of the human species as a whole are a product of evolution and that individual differences are due to each person’s unique genetic code.

In general, the earlier a particular ability appears, the more likely it is to be under the influence of genetic factors. Estimates of genetic influence are called heritability.

Examples of extreme nature positions in psychology include Chomsky (1965), who proposed language is gained through the use of an innate language acquisition device. Another example of nature is Freud’s theory of aggression as being an innate drive (called Thanatos).

Characteristics and differences that are not observable at birth, but which emerge later in life, are regarded as the product of maturation. That is to say, we all have an inner “biological clock” which switches on (or off) types of behavior in a pre-programmed way.

The classic example of the way this affects our physical development are the bodily changes that occur in early adolescence at puberty.

However, nativists also argue that maturation governs the emergence of attachment in infancy , language acquisition , and even cognitive development .

Empiricism (Extreme Nurture Position)

At the other end of the spectrum are the environmentalists – also known as empiricists (not to be confused with the other empirical/scientific  approach ).

Their basic assumption is that at birth, the human mind is a tabula rasa (a blank slate) and that this is gradually “filled” as a result of experience (e.g., behaviorism ).

From this point of view, psychological characteristics and behavioral differences that emerge through infancy and childhood are the results of learning.  It is how you are brought up (nurture) that governs the psychologically significant aspects of child development and the concept of maturation applies only to the biological.

For example, Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory states that aggression is learned from the environment through observation and imitation. This is seen in his famous bobo doll experiment (Bandura, 1961).

bobo doll experiment

Also, Skinner (1957) believed that language is learned from other people via behavior-shaping techniques.

Evidence for Nature

  • Biological Approach
  • Biology of Gender
  • Medical Model

Freud (1905) stated that events in our childhood have a great influence on our adult lives, shaping our personality.

He thought that parenting is of primary importance to a child’s development , and the family as the most important feature of nurture was a common theme throughout twentieth-century psychology (which was dominated by environmentalists’ theories).

Behavioral Genetics

Researchers in the field of behavioral genetics study variation in behavior as it is affected by genes, which are the units of heredity passed down from parents to offspring.

“We now know that DNA differences are the major systematic source of psychological differences between us. Environmental effects are important but what we have learned in recent years is that they are mostly random – unsystematic and unstable – which means that we cannot do much about them.” Plomin (2018, xii)

Behavioral genetics has enabled psychology to quantify the relative contribution of nature and nurture with regard to specific psychological traits. One way to do this is to study relatives who share the same genes (nature) but a different environment (nurture). Adoption acts as a natural experiment which allows researchers to do this.

Empirical studies have consistently shown that adoptive children show greater resemblance to their biological parents, rather than their adoptive, or environmental parents (Plomin & DeFries, 1983; 1985).

Another way of studying heredity is by comparing the behavior of twins, who can either be identical (sharing the same genes) or non-identical (sharing 50% of genes). Like adoption studies, twin studies support the first rule of behavior genetics; that psychological traits are extremely heritable, about 50% on average.

The Twins in Early Development Study (TEDS) revealed correlations between twins on a range of behavioral traits, such as personality (empathy and hyperactivity) and components of reading such as phonetics (Haworth, Davis, Plomin, 2013; Oliver & Plomin, 2007; Trouton, Spinath, & Plomin, 2002).


Jenson (1969) found that the average I.Q. scores of black Americans were significantly lower than whites he went on to argue that genetic factors were mainly responsible – even going so far as to suggest that intelligence is 80% inherited.

The storm of controversy that developed around Jenson’s claims was not mainly due to logical and empirical weaknesses in his argument. It was more to do with the social and political implications that are often drawn from research that claims to demonstrate natural inequalities between social groups.

For many environmentalists, there is a barely disguised right-wing agenda behind the work of the behavioral geneticists.  In their view, part of the difference in the I.Q. scores of different ethnic groups are due to inbuilt biases in the methods of testing.

More fundamentally, they believe that differences in intellectual ability are a product of social inequalities in access to material resources and opportunities.  To put it simply children brought up in the ghetto tend to score lower on tests because they are denied the same life chances as more privileged members of society.

Now we can see why the nature-nurture debate has become such a hotly contested issue.  What begins as an attempt to understand the causes of behavioral differences often develops into a politically motivated dispute about distributive justice and power in society.

What’s more, this doesn’t only apply to the debate over I.Q.  It is equally relevant to the psychology of sex and gender , where the question of how much of the (alleged) differences in male and female behavior is due to biology and how much to culture is just as controversial.

Polygenic Inheritance

Rather than the presence or absence of single genes being the determining factor that accounts for psychological traits, behavioral genetics has demonstrated that multiple genes – often thousands, collectively contribute to specific behaviors.

Thus, psychological traits follow a polygenic mode of inheritance (as opposed to being determined by a single gene). Depression is a good example of a polygenic trait, which is thought to be influenced by around 1000 genes (Plomin, 2018).

This means a person with a lower number of these genes (under 500) would have a lower risk of experiencing depression than someone with a higher number.

The Nature of Nurture

Nurture assumes that correlations between environmental factors and psychological outcomes are caused environmentally. For example, how much parents read with their children and how well children learn to read appear to be related. Other examples include environmental stress and its effect on depression.

However, behavioral genetics argues that what look like environmental effects are to a large extent really a reflection of genetic differences (Plomin & Bergeman, 1991).

People select, modify and create environments correlated with their genetic disposition. This means that what sometimes appears to be an environmental influence (nurture) is a genetic influence (nature).

So, children that are genetically predisposed to be competent readers, will be happy to listen to their parents read them stories, and be more likely to encourage this interaction.

Interaction Effects

However, in recent years there has been a growing realization that the question of “how much” behavior is due to heredity and “how much” to the environment may itself be the wrong question.

Take intelligence as an example. Like almost all types of human behavior, it is a complex, many-sided phenomenon which reveals itself (or not!) in a great variety of ways.

The “how much” question assumes that psychological traits can all be expressed numerically and that the issue can be resolved in a quantitative manner.

Heritability statistics revealed by behavioral genetic studies have been criticized as meaningless, mainly because biologists have established that genes cannot influence development independently of environmental factors; genetic and nongenetic factors always cooperate to build traits. The reality is that nature and culture interact in a host of qualitatively different ways (Gottlieb, 2007; Johnston & Edwards, 2002).

Instead of defending extreme nativist or nurturist views, most psychological researchers are now interested in investigating how nature and nurture interact.

For example, in psychopathology , this means that both a genetic predisposition and an appropriate environmental trigger are required for a mental disorder to develop. For example, epigenetics state that environmental influences affect the expression of genes.


What is Epigenetics?

Epigenetics is the term used to describe inheritance by mechanisms other than through the DNA sequence of genes. For example, features of a person’s physical and social environment can effect which genes are switched-on, or “expressed”, rather than the DNA sequence of the genes themselves.

Stressors and memories can be passed through small RNA molecules to multiple generations of offspring in ways that meaningfully affect their behavior.

One such example is what is known as the Dutch Hunger Winter, during last year of the Second World War. What they found was that children who were in the womb during the famine experienced a life-long increase in their chances of developing various health problems compared to children conceived after the famine.

Epigenetic effects can sometimes be passed from one generation to the next, although the effects only seem to last for a few generations. There is some evidence that the effects of the Dutch Hunger Winter affected grandchildren of women who were pregnant during the famine.

Therefore, it makes more sense to say that the difference between two people’s behavior is mostly due to hereditary factors or mostly due to environmental factors.

This realization is especially important given the recent advances in genetics, such as polygenic testing.  The Human Genome Project, for example, has stimulated enormous interest in tracing types of behavior to particular strands of DNA located on specific chromosomes.

If these advances are not to be abused, then there will need to be a more general understanding of the fact that biology interacts with both the cultural context and the personal choices that people make about how they want to live their lives.

There is no neat and simple way of unraveling these qualitatively different and reciprocal influences on human behavior.

Epigenetics: Licking Rat Pups

Michael Meaney and his colleagues at McGill University in Montreal, Canada conducted the landmark epigenetic study on mother rats licking and grooming their pups.

This research found that the amount of licking and grooming received by rat pups during their early life could alter their epigenetic marks and influence their stress responses in adulthood.

Pups that received high levels of maternal care (i.e., more licking and grooming) had a reduced stress response compared to those that received low levels of maternal care.

Meaney’s work with rat maternal behavior and its epigenetic effects has provided significant insights into the understanding of early-life experiences, gene expression, and adult behavior.

It underscores the importance of the early-life environment and its long-term impacts on an individual’s mental health and stress resilience.

Epigenetics: The Agouti Mouse Study

Waterland and Jirtle’s 2003 study on the Agouti mouse is another foundational work in the field of epigenetics that demonstrated how nutritional factors during early development can result in epigenetic changes that have long-lasting effects on phenotype.

In this study, they focused on a specific gene in mice called the Agouti viable yellow (A^vy) gene. Mice with this gene can express a range of coat colors, from yellow to mottled to brown.

This variation in coat color is related to the methylation status of the A^vy gene: higher methylation is associated with the brown coat, and lower methylation with the yellow coat.

Importantly, the coat color is also associated with health outcomes, with yellow mice being more prone to obesity, diabetes, and tumorigenesis compared to brown mice.

Waterland and Jirtle set out to investigate whether maternal diet, specifically supplementation with methyl donors like folic acid, choline, betaine, and vitamin B12, during pregnancy could influence the methylation status of the A^vy gene in offspring.

Key findings from the study include:

Dietary Influence : When pregnant mice were fed a diet supplemented with methyl donors, their offspring had an increased likelihood of having the brown coat color. This indicated that the supplemented diet led to an increased methylation of the A^vy gene.

Health Outcomes : Along with the coat color change, these mice also had reduced risks of obesity and other health issues associated with the yellow phenotype.

Transgenerational Effects : The study showed that nutritional interventions could have effects that extend beyond the individual, affecting the phenotype of the offspring.

The implications of this research are profound. It highlights how maternal nutrition during critical developmental periods can have lasting effects on offspring through epigenetic modifications, potentially affecting health outcomes much later in life.

The study also offers insights into how dietary and environmental factors might contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

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Further Information

  • Genetic & Environmental Influences on Human Psychological Differences

Evidence for Nurture

  • Classical Conditioning
  • Little Albert Experiment
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Behaviorism
  • Social Learning Theory
  • Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
  • Social Roles
  • Attachment Styles
  • The Hidden Links Between Mental Disorders
  • Visual Cliff Experiment
  • Behavioral Genetics, Genetics, and Epigenetics
  • Epigenetics
  • Is Epigenetics Inherited?
  • Physiological Psychology
  • Bowlby’s Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis
  • So is it nature not nurture after all?

Evidence for an Interaction

  • Genes, Interactions, and the Development of Behavior
  • Agouti Mouse Study
  • Biological Psychology

What does nature refer to in the nature vs. nurture debate?

In the nature vs. nurture debate, “nature” refers to the influence of genetics, innate qualities, and biological factors on human development, behavior, and traits. It emphasizes the role of hereditary factors in shaping who we are.

What does nurture refer to in the nature vs. nurture debate?

In the nature vs. nurture debate, “nurture” refers to the influence of the environment, upbringing, experiences, and social factors on human development, behavior, and traits. It emphasizes the role of external factors in shaping who we are.

Why is it important to determine the contribution of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) in human development?

Determining the contribution of heredity and environment in human development is crucial for understanding the complex interplay between genetic factors and environmental influences. It helps identify the relative significance of each factor, informing interventions, policies, and strategies to optimize human potential and address developmental challenges.

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What Are Nature vs. Nurture Examples?

How is nature defined, how is nurture defined, the nature vs. nurture debate, nature vs. nurture examples, what is empiricism (extreme nurture position), contemporary views of nature vs. nurture.

Nature vs. nurture is an age-old debate about whether genetics (nature) plays a bigger role in determining a person's characteristics than lived experience and environmental factors (nurture). The term "nature vs. nature" was coined by English naturalist Charles Darwin's younger half-cousin, anthropologist Francis Galton, around 1875.

In psychology, the extreme nature position (nativism) proposes that intelligence and personality traits are inherited and determined only by genetics.

On the opposite end of the spectrum, the extreme nurture position (empiricism) asserts that the mind is a blank slate at birth; external factors like education and upbringing determine who someone becomes in adulthood and how their mind works. Both of these extreme positions have shortcomings and are antiquated.

This article explores the difference between nature and nurture. It gives nature vs. nurture examples and explains why outdated views of nativism and empiricism don't jibe with contemporary views. 

Thanasis Zovoilis / Getty Images

In the context of nature vs. nurture, "nature" refers to genetics and heritable factors that are passed down to children from their biological parents.

Genes and hereditary factors determine many aspects of someone’s physical appearance and other individual characteristics, such as a genetically inherited predisposition for certain personality traits.

Scientists estimate that 20% to 60% percent of temperament is determined by genetics and that many (possibly thousands) of common gene variations combine to influence individual characteristics of temperament.

However, the impact of gene-environment (or nature-nurture) interactions on someone's traits is interwoven. Environmental factors also play a role in temperament by influencing gene activity. For example, in children raised in an adverse environment (such as child abuse or violence), genes that increase the risk of impulsive temperamental characteristics may be activated (turned on).

Trying to measure "nature vs. nurture" scientifically is challenging. It's impossible to know precisely where the influence of genes and environment begin or end.

How Are Inherited Traits Measured?

“Heritability”   describes the influence that genes have on human characteristics and traits. It's measured on a scale of 0.0 to 1.0. Very strong heritable traits like someone's eye color are ranked a 1.0.

Traits that have nothing to do with genetics, like speaking with a regional accent ranks a zero. Most human characteristics score between a 0.30 and 0.60 on the heritability scale, which reflects a blend of genetics (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors.

Thousands of years ago, ancient Greek philosophers like Plato believed that "innate knowledge" is present in our minds at birth. Every parent knows that babies are born with innate characteristics. Anecdotally, it may seem like a kid's "Big 5" personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness) were predetermined before birth.

What is the "Big 5" personality traits

The Big 5 personality traits is a theory that describes the five basic dimensions of personality. It was developed in 1949 by D. W. Fiske and later expanded upon by other researchers and is used as a framework to study people's behavior.

From a "nature" perspective, the fact that every child has innate traits at birth supports Plato's philosophical ideas about innatism. However, personality isn't set in stone. Environmental "nurture" factors can change someone's predominant personality traits over time. For example, exposure to the chemical lead during childhood may alter personality.

In 2014, a meta-analysis of genetic and environmental influences on personality development across the human lifespan found that people change with age. Personality traits are relatively stable during early childhood but often change dramatically during adolescence and young adulthood.

It's impossible to know exactly how much "nurture" changes personality as people get older. In 2019, a study of how stable personality traits are from age 16 to 66 found that people's Big 5 traits are both stable and malleable (able to be molded). During the 50-year span from high school to retirement, some traits like agreeableness and conscientiousness tend to increase, while others appear to be set in stone.

Nurture refers to all of the external or environmental factors that affect human development such as how someone is raised, socioeconomic status, early childhood experiences, education, and daily habits.

Although the word "nurture" may conjure up images of babies and young children being cared for by loving parents, environmental factors and life experiences have an impact on our psychological and physical well-being across the human life span. In adulthood, "nurturing" oneself by making healthy lifestyle choices can offset certain genetic predispositions.

For example, a May 2022 study found that people with a high genetic risk of developing the brain disorder Alzheimer's disease can lower their odds of developing dementia (a group of symptoms that affect memory, thinking, and social abilities enough to affect daily life) by adopting these seven healthy habits in midlife:

  • Staying active
  • Healthy eating
  • Losing weight
  • Not smoking
  • Reducing blood sugar
  • Controlling cholesterol
  • Maintaining healthy blood pressure

The nature vs. nurture debate centers around whether individual differences in behavioral traits and personality are caused primarily by nature or nurture. Early philosophers believed the genetic traits passed from parents to their children influence individual differences and traits. Other well-known philosophers believed the mind begins as a blank slate and that everything we are is determined by our experiences.

While early theories favored one factor over the other, experts today recognize there is a complex interaction between genetics and the environment and that both nature and nurture play a critical role in shaping who we are.

Eye color and skin pigmentation are examples of "nature" because they are present at birth and determined by inherited genes. Developmental delays due to toxins (such as exposure to lead as a child or exposure to drugs in utero) are examples of "nurture" because the environment can negatively impact learning and intelligence.

In Child Development

The nature vs. nurture debate in child development is apparent when studying language development. Nature theorists believe genetics plays a significant role in language development and that children are born with an instinctive ability that allows them to both learn and produce language.

Nurture theorists would argue that language develops by listening and imitating adults and other children.

In addition, nurture theorists believe people learn by observing the behavior of others. For example, contemporary psychologist Albert Bandura's social learning theory suggests that aggression is learned through observation and imitation.

In Psychology

In psychology, the nature vs. nurture beliefs vary depending on the branch of psychology.

  • Biopsychology:  Researchers analyze how the brain, neurotransmitters, and other aspects of our biology influence our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. emphasizing the role of nature.
  • Social psychology: Researchers study how external factors such as peer pressure and social media influence behaviors, emphasizing the importance of nurture.
  • Behaviorism: This theory of learning is based on the idea that our actions are shaped by our interactions with our environment.

In Personality Development

Whether nature or nurture plays a bigger role in personality development depends on different personality development theories.

  • Behavioral theories: Our personality is a result of the interactions we have with our environment, such as parenting styles, cultural influences, and life experiences.
  • Biological theories: Personality is mostly inherited which is demonstrated by a study in the 1990s that concluded identical twins reared apart tend to have more similar personalities than fraternal twins.
  • Psychodynamic theories: Personality development involves both genetic predispositions and environmental factors and their interaction is complex.

In Mental Illness

Both nature and nurture can contribute to mental illness development.

For example, at least five mental health disorders are associated with some type of genetic component ( autism ,  attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ,  bipolar disorder , major depression, and  schizophrenia ).

Other explanations for mental illness are environmental, such as:

  • Being exposed to drugs or alcohol in utero 
  • Witnessing a traumatic event, leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Adverse life events and chronic stress during childhood

In Mental Health Therapy

Mental health treatment can involve both nature and nurture. For example, a therapist may explore life experiences that may have contributed to mental illness development (nurture) as well as family history of mental illness (nature).

At the same time, research indicates that a person's genetic makeup may impact how their body responds to antidepressants. Taking this into consideration is important for finding the right treatment for each individual.

 What Is Nativism (Extreme Nature Position)?

Innatism emphasizes nature's role in shaping our minds and personality traits before birth. Nativism takes this one step further and proposes that all of people's mental and physical characteristics are inherited and predetermined at birth.

In its extreme form, concepts of nativism gave way to the early 20th century's racially-biased eugenics movement. Thankfully, "selective breeding," which is the idea that only certain people should reproduce in order to create chosen characteristics in offspring, and eugenics, arranged breeding, lost momentum during World War II. At that time, the Nazis' ethnic cleansing (killing people based on their ethnic or religious associations) atrocities were exposed.

Philosopher John Locke's tabula rasa theory from 1689 directly opposes the idea that we are born with innate knowledge. "Tabula rasa" means "blank slate" and implies that our minds do not have innate knowledge at birth.

Locke was an empiricist who believed that all the knowledge we gain in life comes from sensory experiences (using their senses to understand the world), education, and day-to-day encounters after being born.

Today, looking at nature vs. nature in black-and-white terms is considered a misguided dichotomy (two-part system). There are so many shades of gray where nature and nurture overlap. It's impossible to tease out how inherited traits and learned behaviors shape someone's unique characteristics or influence how their mind works.

The influences of nature and nurture in psychology are impossible to unravel. For example, imagine someone growing up in a household with an alcoholic parent who has frequent rage attacks. If that child goes on to develop a substance use disorder and has trouble with emotion regulation in adulthood, it's impossible to know precisely how much genetics (nature) or adverse childhood experiences (nurture) affected that individual's personality traits or issues with alcoholism.

Epigenetics Blurs the Line Between Nature and Nurture

"Epigenetics " means "on top of" genetics. It refers to external factors and experiences that turn genes "on" or "off." Epigenetic mechanisms alter DNA's physical structure in utero (in the womb) and across the human lifespan.

Epigenetics blurs the line between nature and nurture because it says that even after birth, our genetic material isn't set in stone; environmental factors can modify genes during one's lifetime. For example, cannabis exposure during critical windows of development can increase someone's risk of neuropsychiatric disease via epigenetic mechanisms.

Nature vs. nurture is a framework used to examine how genetics (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) influence human development and personality traits.

However, nature vs. nurture isn't a black-and-white issue; there are many shades of gray where the influence of nature and nurture overlap. It's impossible to disentangle how nature and nurture overlap; they are inextricably intertwined. In most cases, nature and nurture combine to make us who we are. 

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By Christopher Bergland Christopher Bergland is a retired ultra-endurance athlete turned medical writer and science reporter. 

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nature vs nurture discursive essay

Nature versus Nurture: the Simple Contrast Essay

Introduction, historical background of nature and nurture debate, the impact of charles darwin’s natural selection theory on the debate, francis galton’s position on nature versus nurture debate, the neutrality of darwin’s theory, reference list.

The relationship between nature and nurture has constantly raised controversial debates about the roles of the two factors in heredity and external behavior of a person. As a result, there has been confusion about the functions of nature and nurture in shaping human personality. Some psychologists have shown strong support for nature as a crucial factor that shapes human behavior due to genetic inheritance. However, other psychologists believe that nurture is responsible for the development of personality. This essay explores the nature and nurtures debate in an attempt to provide an insight into the factors that shape the personality of a person.

Nature and nurture debate has been going on for centuries. However, Francis Galton is deemed responsible for coining the nature versus nurture debate in 1869 (Stiles, 2011). Since then, psychologists have engaged in many studies to establish the role of nature and nurture in shaping the characters of individuals. Each side of the debate has brought forth substantial evidence to support their arguments.

The availability of evidence to support each side of the debate has almost resulted in an impossibility to reach a consensus. As a result, the question of the roles of nature and nurture in the determination of human behavior has remained a dilemma amongst psychologists. Scientists are still pondering on the subject by employing the latest technological proficiency to study the impact of nature and nurture on people in an attempt to establish how the two factors influence personality traits.

In the context of this essay, nature signifies the effect of genes in the DNA structure that are transferable from a parent to the offspring. The nativists, who are the proponents of nature, base their argument on the fact that behavior and personality are transferred to the offspring through the same biological principles (Stiles, 2011). Nurture is used to describe the conditions that characterize the environment in which a person grows. The kind of experiences that people go through since their birth has significant effects on personality traits. The empiricists, who are the proponents of nurture, believe that a person is born with a blank slate or tabula rasa. Eventually, different experiences fill the tabula rasa with diverse knowledge.

Charles Darwin is a great psychologist who is recognized for his famous work on the evolution theory. In his popular ‘survival for the fittest’ ideology, Darwin categorically pointed out that any creature must adapt to the changing environment to survive (Davidoff, Goldstein, & Roberson, 2009). In 1871, he developed an explanation of the emotional expressions in both man and animals based on evolution. In this context, expressions refer to the behaviors that are expressed by human beings that can be attributed to evolutionary biology. Evolutionary biology is the study of how evolution has brought about changes in the lives of human beings. It explains the parent-child evolutionary characteristics that make them assume resembling or dissimilar traits.

Darwin’s theory of natural selection upholds that some of the most suitable traits to bring about adaptation to the next generation are more transferable through inheritance than maladaptive features. From the genetic composition of the two parents, the most adaptive features are chosen to make up the offspring (Davidoff et al., 2009). This situation makes the offspring assume slight personality differences from those of the parents. Exclusively, different traits are bound to appear in the behavior of future generations due to the accumulation of minute differences over time.

The interventions of the natural selection theory have influenced the works of many psychologists. This situation has led to many questions about how much the selection is possible for adaptation. The natural selection theory holds that blind mutation is responsible for personality. According to Stiles (2011), this ideology supports that nature is a part of the factors that determine the personality characteristics of an individual.

A cousin of Darwin, Francis Galton, was impressed by the natural selection theory. This situation compelled him to pursue numerous studies to establish the role of nature and nurture in shaping personality traits, especially on the eminent people who lived in England at the time. He focused on the study of heredity and concluded that nature always prevailed enormously over nurture. His stand can be deduced from his innate views and nativism influences.

For instance, the two famous Indian feral sisters who were brought up by a wolf walked on fours and had a very sharp sense of sight, smell, and hearing (Goldhaber, 2012). Astonishingly, the feral sisters ate their food like the wolf and preferred fresh raw meat. This behavior is not ordinary in human society. The above examples have supported the development of a new school of thought, which holds that nature and nurture determine the character of a person independently.

Darwin’s theory of natural selection proves that nature assumes a vital role in the development of personality through evolutionary biology (Stiles, 2011). However, Darwin posits that human behavior is prone to change due to competition pressure. The reasoning is a product of intelligence that determines the way in which a person is nurtured by the surrounding environment. Both views in the Darwinism approach make his theory dualistic; hence, it is neutral to the debate. This situation makes the theory irrelevant in solving the nature versus nurture dilemma.

According to Goldhaber (2012), the controversial debate has compelled many psychologists to accept that both nature and nurture play special roles in personality creation. For instance, the behavior of direct twins who are separated immediately after birth is almost the same regardless of their exposure to different environments. This situation implies that their character is a product of genetic inheritance. On the other side, feral children have undoubtedly shown that life experiences that are acquired as a person grows are directly correlated with the kind of behavior they exhibit.

The nature versus nature debate cannot be solved easily. Empiricists such as Skinner, who managed to condition the behavior of pigeons and dogs have shown that nurture is crucial in shaping the personality of a person. Elsewhere, other psychologists in the twin study case have shown that nature plays a very crucial function in personality development. Galton proved that the powerful traits in geniuses are traceable through the family tree. His theory supports that heredity is responsible for the personality traits of an individual. Genes that are transferred to the offspring carry with them hereditary personality traits. Nonetheless, the environment in which a person lives leads to the adoption of other traits through reasoning.

Davidoff, J., Goldstein, J., & Roberson, D. (2009). Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , 102 (2), 246-50.

Goldhaber, D. (2012). The Nature-nurture Debate: Bridging the Gap . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stiles, J. (2011). Brain development and the nature versus nurture debate. Progress in Brain, 189 (1), 3-22.

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Nature vs. Nurture

Reviewed by Psychology Today Staff

The expression “nature vs. nurture” describes the question of how much a person's characteristics are formed by either “nature” or “nurture.” “Nature” means innate biological factors (namely genetics ), while “nurture” can refer to upbringing or life experience more generally.

Traditionally, “nature vs. nurture” has been framed as a debate between those who argue for the dominance of one source of influence or the other, but contemporary experts acknowledge that both “nature” and “nurture” play a role in psychological development and interact in complex ways.

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The wording of the phrase “nature vs. nurture” makes it seem as though human individuality— personality traits, intelligence , preferences, and other characteristics—must be based on either the genes people are born with or the environment in which they grew up. The reality, as scientists have shown, is more complicated, and both these and other factors can help account for the many ways in which individuals differ from each other.

The words “nature” and “nurture” themselves can be misleading. Today, “ genetics ” and “environment” are frequently used in their place—with one’s environment including a broader range of experiences than just the nurturing received from parents or caregivers. Further, nature and nurture (or genetics and environment) do not simply compete to influence a person, but often interact with each other; “nature and nurture” work together. Finally, individual differences do not entirely come down to a person’s genetic code or developmental environment—to some extent, they emerge due to messiness in the process of development as well.

A person’s biological nature can affect a person’s experience of the environment. For example, a person with a genetic disposition toward a particular trait, such as aggressiveness, may be more likely to have particular life experiences (including, perhaps, receiving negative reactions from parents or others). Or, a person who grows up with an inclination toward warmth and sociability may seek out and elicit more positive social responses from peers. These life experiences could, in turn, reinforce an individual’s initial tendencies. Nurture or life experience more generally may also modify the effects of nature—for example, by expanding or limiting the extent to which a naturally bright child receives encouragement, access to quality education , and opportunities for achievement.

Epigenetics—the science of modifications in how genes are expressed— illustrates the complex interplay between “nature” and “nurture.” An individual’s environment, including factors such as early-life adversity, may result in changes in the way that parts of a person’s genetic code are “read.” While these epigenetic changes do not override the important influence of genes in general, they do constitute additional ways in which that influence is filtered through “nurture” or the environment.

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Theorists and researchers have long battled over whether individual traits and abilities are inborn or are instead forged by experiences after birth. The debate has had broad implications: The real or perceived sources of a person’s strengths and vulnerabilities matter for fields such as education, philosophy , psychiatry , and clinical psychology. Today’s consensus—that individual differences result from a combination of inherited and non-genetic factors—strikes a more nuanced middle path between nature- or nurture-focused extremes.

The debate about nature and nurture has roots that stretch back at least thousands of years, to Ancient Greek theorizing about the causes of personality. During the modern era, theories emphasizing the role of either learning and experience or biological nature have risen and fallen in prominence—with genetics gaining increasing acknowledgment as an important (though not exclusive) influence on individual differences in the later 20th century and beyond.

“Nature versus nurture” was used by English scientist Francis Galton. In 1874, he published the book English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture , arguing that inherited factors were responsible for intelligence and other characteristics.

Genetic determinism emphasizes the importance of an individual’s nature in development. It is the view that genetics is largely or totally responsible for an individual’s psychological characteristics and behavior. The term “biological determinism” is often used synonymously.

The blank slate (or “tabula rasa”) view of the mind emphasizes the importance of nurture and the environment. Notably described by English philosopher John Locke in the 1600s, it proposed that individuals are born with a mind like an unmarked chalkboard and that its contents are based on experience and learning. In the 20th century, major branches of psychology proposed a primary role for nurture and experience , rather than nature, in development, including Freudian psychoanalysis and behaviorism.

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Modern scientific methods have allowed researchers to advance further in understanding the complex relationships between genetics, life experience, and psychological characteristics, including mental health conditions and personality traits. Overall, the findings of contemporary studies underscore that with some exceptions—such as rare diseases caused by mutations in a single gene—no one factor, genetic or environmental, solely determines how a characteristic develops.

Scientists use multiple approaches to estimate how important genetics are for any given trait, but one of the most influential is the twin study. While identical (or monozygotic) twins share the same genetic code, fraternal (or dizygotic) twins share about 50 percent of the same genes, like typical siblings. Scientists are able to estimate the degree to which the variation in a particular trait, like extraversion , is explained by genetics in part by analyzing how similar identical twins are on that trait, compared to fraternal twins. ( These studies do have limitations, and estimates based on one population may not closely reflect all other populations.) 

It’s hard to call either “nature” or “nurture,” genes or the environment, more important to human psychology. The impact of one set of factors or the other depends on the characteristic, with some being more strongly related to one’s genes —for instance, autism appears to be more heritable than depression . But in general, psychological traits are shaped by a balance of interacting genetic and non-genetic influences.

Both genes and environmental factors can contribute to a person developing mental illness. Research finds that a major part of the variation in the risk for psychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia can be attributed to genetic differences. But not all of that risk is genetic, and life experiences, such as early-life abuse or neglect, may also affect risk of mental illness (and some individuals, based on their genetics, are likely more susceptible to environmental effects than others).

Like other psychological characteristics, personality is partly heritable. Research suggests less than half of the difference between people on measures of personality traits can be attributed to genes (one recent overall estimate is 40 percent). Non-genetic factors appear to be responsible for an equal or greater portion of personality differences between individuals. Some theorize that the social roles people adopt and invest in as they mature are among the more important non-genetic factors in personality development.

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Nature versus nurture—on the origins of a specious argument

Robert o wright.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA

The concept of heritability parses out genetic and environmental causes of diseases and does not fit the underlying biology of complex diseases that arise from interactions among genetics and environment. Exposomics places environment on a similar scale as genomics and allows for more modern research approaches that estimate time-varying genome by exposome interactions. By addressing the biological underpinnings of disease comprehensively, we will find the “missing heritability” which is not solely based on genetic variation but is instead driven by time, life stage, and geographic variability in our exposome as it interacts with our genome.

Heritability studies are among the more common projects cited in the lay press. In most cases, the article will say something similar to “New Research shows that Disease ‘X’ is Genetic.” The lay press’s focus on heritability has contributed to a broad genocentric view of initiatives such as precision medicine. 1 , 2 Heritability studies are typically performed in twins, both identical and fraternal. Because identical twins have the exact same genetic variation, and fraternal twins share an average of 50% of their genetic variation, the rates of a disease in both types of twins can be compared with the primary goal of estimating the genetic contribution. In theory, the goal could be to estimate the environmental contribution, but if that has been emphasized, it is the exception, not the rule. Of course, a lot of assumptions have to be made about how to divide causation between genetics and environment, since more than just genes are shared between twins. All twins share an identical environment in pregnancy and even after birth they share very similar environments. The division of what arises from shared environment versus shared genetics is subjective at best. Regardless, these studies divide disease causation to a percentage due to genetics and a percentage due to environment. Although there have been many calls to include environment as a critical, modifiable contributor to preventing disease, the ‘elephant in the room’ of personalized medicine is that the field has grown ever more genocentric over time. 2 With the advent of exposomics, the field is beginning to shift toward an understanding that environment matters critically in all diseases as well.

Because they are simple to understand and explain, heritability studies make good soundbites. For this reason, we should consider the impact they have on the general public. If a newspaper article states that a study showed that asthma is 82% genetic 3 —most people would think this meant that out of every 100 people with asthma, 82 of them got it because of their genes and 18 got it because of environment. But it doesn’t mean that. In fact, there is no known “gene” or “cluster of genes” that causes asthma. Genetic variants provide increased risk, not cause. We also know that environment (pollen, animal dander, infections, air pollution, stress, and many, many others) plays a role as they all can trigger asthma attacks and most have been associated with its onset. This heritability study could make the public think that environment is not as important to asthma as genetics. Yet all asthma interventions, drugs, inhalers, allergen mitigation, etc. are designed to address environment. Gene therapy is not around the corner for asthma, nor is it likely to ever be.

Simplicity can be good for communicating scientific information, but oversimplification can be damaging. Biology is far too complicated to be boiled down to two percentages attributing cause to genes versus environment. Even more importantly, the real problem with the concept of heritability is that it assumes that our genes and our environment don’t work together. That’s the major flawed assumption—that they can be divided as causes. Focusing on heritability prevents us from moving science forward to understand what is really happening. Furthermore, we not only assume they are independent, we also routinely use language that suggests they work against each other (ie, Nature versus Nurture), and by doing so we create false impressions. Genes and environment always work hand in hand . How can anyone ever decide how much of a percentage to give out to each? It’s like deciding what percent of the Beatles success we should give to Ringo.

So how did we get here? The origin of this problem comes from that simple phrase we all learned in high school—‘nature versus nurture’. We use it to convey the idea that genetics plays a role in our health and so does environment. In theory that seems like a good communication strategy, except our language conveys a different message. The “versus” in Nature versus Nurture implies a contest—like a prize fight. Nature versus Nurture was first coined in the mid-1800s by an English statistician—Francis Galton (interestingly, he was Charles Darwin’s cousin) while writing about the influence of genetics and environment on intelligence. His 19th century concept is badly outdated. We know environment is key to intelligence and to test taking ability. In fact, the Flynn effect refers to the increase in population intelligence quotient (IQ) scores observed throughout the 20th century of about three IQ points per decade. Rapid changes like that cannot be explained by genetics. 4 “Nature versus nurture” has been kept alive far too long and continues to make us pick a side—genetics or environment.

In fact, Galton was positing that genes create or select an environment of wealth and privilege which is counter to Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection. While most people think of natural selection as a genetic theory, it is actually a theory about how genes and environment interact. Under natural selection, genes are selected if they provide an advantage for reproduction in a given environment. If we don’t reproduce, our genes “die” so to speak, as they cease to exist in subsequent generations. If our environment were ever to change to be harsh enough to kill a large number of us at an early age, perhaps due to famine, some genes might provide survival advantages. Maybe your genes would allow for a higher absorption of food during a famine, so you might survive longer than others, but famine hasn’t happened in America or Britain for a very long time and those genetic traits have no added value outside of famine. Galton was an aristocrat who believed that his genes selected his environment of wealth and education and that his progeny’s genes would do the same. Natural selection actually posits the opposite . Environment selects for genes that better survive in harsh conditions. Under natural selection, being poor and oppressed should select more adaptive, higher functioning traits over time than genes passed down multiple generations in a family that is rich through inherited wealth. In fact, many environmental factors, such as the great wealth of Galton’s family, are also inherited. The impact of his inherited wealth cannot be easily disentangled from the genetic variants that by chance came with it. His wealth made it seem to him like his genes functioned more highly than those in people without wealth, but his genes were just there for the ride, and were no different or better than working class people. Inherited wealth will make anyone’s inherited genes look better than they actually are.

We can even illustrate how environment and genes always interact, by using genetic diseases. Phenylketonuria or PKU—for short. It is a genetic disorder that arises from a mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. If a person has two copies of the mutated gene they cannot properly metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid, after it is ingested. Toxic forms of metabolism accumulate and can damage the developing brain. Untreated, PKU can lead to intellectual disability, seizures, and behavioral problems. However, the disease won’t occur if a newborn baby is given an environmental intervention—a special low phenylalanine formula. The same is true for any genetic disease, all genes have something in the environment that acts as a substrate. Sometimes that substrate is so common or essential that it cannot be easily regulated or avoided and penetrance is high (cystic fibrosis and electrolytes) or sometimes it is so variable in different environments that penetrance is highly variable (hemochromatosis and iron). More recent publications have stressed that heritability is not deterministic and is expected to vary across populations as the prevalence of genetic variants and environment factors nearly always vary across different populations and the genetic and environmental variance is tied to their prevalence. 5

What would happen if we studied the heritability of PKU using twins. While some may get missed during screening, the majority of fraternal twins with the PKU genotype would be treated, many of the identical twins would be too. This means the heritability of a disease we label as 100% genetic would be <100% if we did a twin study of PKU and developmental delays. That alone tells us that heritability is not dependent only on genetics. Ken Rothman, a famous epidemiologist, once wrote “all diseases are 100% genetic and 100% environmental.” 6 In other words, they are not fighting, they are working together and always do. While PKU has a relatively uncomplicated biological cause, complex diseases have many genetic and environmental risk factors, with the environmental factors being potentially time varying. Attempts at estimating shared environment in early life have been made in Twin Studies, which is a welcomed development. 7 However, we have not yet invested as a society in developing the technologies needed to measure the exposome on a scale similar to the genome, although many of the geospatial, instrumentation, and analytical infrastructure exists. Until we commit the resources to measure the exposome, we will have continue to fall back on dichotomous estimates of genetic and environmental contributors to disease. We need to measure the “E” in the ubiquitous “G by E” interactions that drive health and disease, not measuring G by E interactions is the reason genetics has not made our society healthier. We need to understand the environmental factors our genes interact with, otherwise nothing will ever change.

So the next time a study breaks down a disease into percentages of genetic and environmental causes, we should ask—can genes ever operate by themselves? Or do they operate by interacting with the world in which we live? There is no example of even one gene that doesn’t ultimately operate by interacting with something that we ingested, inhaled, or acquired then synthesized in some way inside our body. Every gene needs a substrate for the protein it encodes. That substrate comes from our environment—genes need environment to operate. If we expand our measures of the environment to the exposome, just as genetics expanded to genomics, we can begin understand the complex time-varying ways the genome and exposome interact.

Maybe this concept was best expressed by the neuropsychologist Donald Hebb, who researched language acquisition and learning in children. When he was asked ‘Which contributes more to personality—nature or nurture?’ he answered ‘Which contributes more to the area of a rectangle, its length or its width 8 ?’

This work was supported in part by the NIH grants P30ES023515, U2CES026561, and U2CES030859.

Conflict of interest statement : None declared.

Nature Vs Nurture Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on nature vs nurture.

The topic of nature vs nurture is always a great topic of debate among people. There are great men who did work hard to achieve great heights . But still, they are some people who didn’t work that hard yet still managed to be successful.

Nature Vs Nurture Essay

In other words, it is a debate between hard work and talent. In the grooming of a person, the nurturing is essential. However, still, there are some individuals who were never born in a great environment . Yet by their sense of knowledge and intellectualism created a special place in the hearts of people.

Nature has given us many things in life and one of them is talents. Either we are born as the only individual in our family or it is in our genes. Furthermore, nature plays a vital role in deciding the future of a child. Many singers in this era are born with beautiful voices. They did not need any nurturing. Their talent took them to heights they couldn’t even imagine.

For instance, some of the great legends like Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Kishor Kumar had soulful voices. Also, they were the ones who sang from their childhood days. They started their careers and became successful at a very early age. Moreover, they did not get much teaching but still are the legends of all time.

Apart from singing, there are other talents that nature has given us. Various scientists like Albert Einstein , Isaac Newton , Galileo Galilei, started their work in their teenage years. They had amazing intellectualism, because of which they got recognition in their entire world. Furthermore, these scientists did not get any mentoring. They did everything on their own. Because they had extraordinary intelligence and ambition in life.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

On the other hand, the nurturing of a person is important. Because hard work beats talent. With proper mentoring and practice, a person can achieve success in life. If a person has an environment in which everybody is in the same profession and are successful in it.

Then there is a great chance that the person will land up in the same profession and will achieve heights. Because in that environment he will get proper nurturing.

Furthermore, he will also be able to perform better over the years. “ Hard work always pays off ”. This idiom is always true and nobody can deny that. If a person has true dedication then it can beat talent. Various singers, dancers, musicians, businessmen, entrepreneurs did work really hard for years.

And because of that, they got recognition in the entire world. In these categories, musicians are who achieved heights only with their hard work and constant practice.

It is true that there are no shortcuts to success. Various known legends like Bob Dylon. Lou Reed, Elvis Persley, Michael Jackson worked hard throughout their lives. As a result, they were some of the great personalities in the entire world.

Q1. What is the meaning of nurture?

A1. Nurture means the way a person grooms himself. This is done in order to achieve success. Nurturing is essential in a person’s life because it can be a way a person can cross the barrier and do something great. Moreover nurture also means the mentoring and care a person is getting in an environment.

Q2. What is the difference between Nature and Nurture?

A2. The main difference between nature and nurture is, nature is the talent a person inherits from his parents or is God gifted. While nurturing is hard work and mentoring of a person in a particular field. So that he may excel in that field.

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nature vs nurture discursive essay

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  1. Essay Sample: Nature Versus Nurture

    nature vs nurture discursive essay

  2. Nature Vs Nurture Essay: A Guide And Introduction

    nature vs nurture discursive essay

  3. Nature vs Nurture Essay

    nature vs nurture discursive essay

  4. Nature vs nurture Argumentative Essay

    nature vs nurture discursive essay

  5. Nature Vs Nurture Essay: A Guide And Introduction

    nature vs nurture discursive essay

  6. The Nature vs. Nurture Debate: Exploring the Dynamics of Human Behavior

    nature vs nurture discursive essay


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  1. Nature Vs Nurture

    Nature vs. Nurture Essay. Nature is the influence of genetics or hereditary factors in determining the individual's behavior. In other words, it is how natural factors shape the behavior or personality of an individual. In most cases, nature determines the physical characteristics which in effect influence the behavior of an individual.

  2. 80 Nature vs Nurture Essay Topics & Examples

    Here are some of the aspects that you might want to include in your essay on nature vs nurture. The importance of the topic. The debate on what influences one's personality, intelligence, and character is among the most prominent ones in psychology and other social sciences. Your task is to reflect this and to attempt to justify why the ...

  3. 21 Nature vs Nurture Examples (2024)

    In the context of the nature vs. nurture debate, nature refers to biological heredity and genetic predispositions inherited by individuals from their parents at birth. Buheji (2018) states that: "in the "nature vs. nurture" debate, nature refers to an individual's innate qualities (nativism)" (p. 221). This includes physical ...

  4. Nature vs. Nurture: Genetic and Environmental Influences

    The Nature vs. Nurture Debate. Nature refers to how genetics influence an individual's personality, whereas nurture refers to how their environment (including relationships and experiences) impacts their development. Whether nature or nurture plays a bigger role in personality and development is one of the oldest philosophical debates within ...

  5. The Nature vs Nurture Debate: [Essay Example], 603 words

    The nature vs nurture debate has been a long-standing topic in psychology. Though this essay affirms each perspective in this debate, it is important to consider that human development is a complicated process that involves both genetic and environmental factors, and the solutions to complex problems depend on recognizing this complexity. This ...

  6. Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology

    The nature vs. nurture debate in psychology concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. While early theories favored one factor over the other, contemporary views recognize a complex interplay between genes and environment in shaping ...

  7. Nature vs. Nurture: Meaning, Examples, and Debate

    Summary. Nature vs. nurture is a framework used to examine how genetics (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) influence human development and personality traits. However, nature vs. nurture isn't a black-and-white issue; there are many shades of gray where the influence of nature and nurture overlap. It's impossible to disentangle how ...

  8. Nature Vs Nurture in Psychology: [Essay Example], 644 words

    The debate between nature and nurture has been a long-standing one in the field of psychology. It pertains to the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities (nature) versus their personal experiences and environment (nurture) in determining behavior and mental processes. This essay aims to delve into this debate, exploring the ...

  9. Nature versus Nurture: the Simple Contrast Essay

    Francis Galton's position on Nature versus Nurture Debate. A cousin of Darwin, Francis Galton, was impressed by the natural selection theory. This situation compelled him to pursue numerous studies to establish the role of nature and nurture in shaping personality traits, especially on the eminent people who lived in England at the time.

  10. Nature vs. Nurture

    The expression "nature vs. nurture" describes the question of how much a person's characteristics are formed by either "nature" or "nurture." "Nature" means innate biological ...

  11. Nature versus Nurture Debate in Psychology

    The nature versus nurture debate in psychology deals with disagreements about the extent to which the development of traits in humans and animals reflects the relative influence of nature and nurture. It is commonly stated that psychologists have moved on from asking whether traits (or variation in traits) develop from nature or nurture, to ...

  12. Nature versus nurture

    Nature versus nurture is a long-standing debate in biology and society about the relative influence on human beings of their genetic inheritance (nature) ... In the Essay, Locke specifically criticizes René Descartes's claim of an innate idea of God that is universal to humanity. Locke's view was harshly criticized in his own time.

  13. Nature versus nurture—on the origins of a specious argument

    Nature versus Nurture was first coined in the mid-1800s by an English statistician—Francis Galton (interestingly, he was Charles Darwin's cousin) while writing about the influence of genetics and environment on intelligence. His 19th century concept is badly outdated. We know environment is key to intelligence and to test taking ability.

  14. (PDF) Nature Versus Nurture: The Timeless Debate

    The basis of the nature versus nurture debate dates back to 500 B.C., when Hippocrates and Aristotle were both searching for a way to explain human behavior and animation of the body.

  15. Nature Vs Nurture Essay for Students and Children

    A1. Nurture means the way a person grooms himself. This is done in order to achieve success. Nurturing is essential in a person's life because it can be a way a person can cross the barrier and do something great. Moreover nurture also means the mentoring and care a person is getting in an environment. Q2.

  16. Theories Of The Nature Versus Nurture Debate

    The nature versus nurture debate is one of the most convoluted in the field of psychology. In the 17th century, a French philosopher, René Descartes posited that "we all, as individual human beings, have certain innate ideas that enduringly underpin our approach to the world" (Crawford, 1989 p 64). The use of the terms "nature" and ...

  17. Argumentative Essay: Nature Vs. Nurture

    Nature vs nurture debate is an interesting discussion about whether genetics or parenting has a bigger impact on our lives. Nature is genetics a pretty big thing to make the person we are today. But then we have another big part, nurture, which is the environment we live in. My opinion is that nurture is more powerful, because it is how we are ...

  18. Nature Versus Nurture

    The great 'nature vs. nurture' debate has been argued by psychologists and scientists for many years. Some believe that personality, intelligence, and other character traits are due entirely to genetics. Other argue that people are born as 'blank slates,' and the environment influences their character traits. However, according to more ...

  19. How to Write a Discursive Essay: Tips, Dos & Don'ts

    3. For and against essay. Write it as a debate with opposing opinions. Describe each viewpoint objectively, presenting facts. Set the stage for the problem in your discursive essay intro. Explore reasons, examples, and facts in the main body. Conclude with your opinion on the matter.

  20. Nature Versus Nurture Essay

    Nature Vs. Nurture Essay Nature vs. Nurture Essay Throughout many years, scientists have been debating about whether nature or nurture is the driving force that shapes a person's cognitive abilities and personal traits. Before the ongoing debate can be explained, it is necessary to understand what nature and nurture actually are.

  21. Nature Vs Nurture Discursive Essay

    Nature Vs Nurture Discursive Essay, Great History Research Paper Topics, Essay On My Favourite Book In 300 Words, Short Essay On Independence Day Of Bangladesh, Poem Comparative Essay Example, What Is The Difference Between Solicited And Unsolicited Cover Letter, Pet Shop Business Plan. Gustavo Almeida Correia. #27 in Global Rating.

  22. Nature Vs Nurture Discursive Essay

    Be it anything, our writers are here to assist you with the best essay writing service. With our service, you will save a lot of time and get recognition for the academic assignments you are given to write. This will give you ample time to relax as well. Let our experts write for you. With their years of experience in this domain and the ...

  23. Nature Vs Nurture Discursive Essay

    Nature Vs Nurture Discursive Essay - Looking for something more advanced and urgent? Then opt-in for an advanced essay writer who'll bring in more depth to your research and be able to fulfill the task within a limited period of time. In college, there are always assignments that are a bit more complicated and time-taking, even when it's a ...