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Management Information Systems
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Published: Sep 18, 2018
Words: 2768 | Pages: 5 | 14 min read
- Routines and business processes: Standard operating procedures have been developed that allow the organization to become productive and efficient thereby reducing costs over time.
- Organizational politics: Divergent viewpoints about how resources, rewards, and punishments should be distributed bring about political resistance to organization change.
- Organizational culture: Assumptions that define the organizational goals and products create a powerful restraint on change, especially technological change.
- Organizational environments: Reciprocal relationships exist between an organization and environments; information systems provide organizations a way to identify external changes that might require an organizational response.
- Organizational structure: Information systems reflect the type of organizational structure - entrepreneurial, machine bureaucracy, divisionalized bureaucracy, professional bureaucracy, or adhocracy.
- traditional competitors
- new market entrants
- substitute products and services
- Low-cost leadership: Lowest operational costs and the lowest prices.
- Product differentiation: Enable new products and services, or greatly change the customer convenience in using existing products and services.
- Focus on market niche: Enable a specific market focus and serve this narrow target market better than competitors.
- Strengthen customer and suppliers: Tighten linkages with suppliers and develop intimacy with customers. Describe how information systems can support each of these competitive strategies and give examples.
- Low-cost leadership: Use information systems to improve inventory management, supply management, and create efficient customer response systems. Example: Wal-Mart.
- Product differentiation: Use information systems to create products and services that are customized and personalized to fit the precise specifications of individual customers. Example: Google, eBay, Apple, Lands’ End.
- Focus on market niche: Use information systems to produce and analyze data for finely tuned sales and marketing techniques. Analyze customer buying patterns, tastes, and preferences closely in order to efficiently pitch advertising and marketing campaigns to smaller target markets. Example: Hilton Hotels, Harrah’s.
- Strengthen customer and supplier intimacies: Use information systems to facilitate direct access from suppliers to information within the company. Increase switching costs and loyalty to the company.
- What is the structure of the industry in which the firm is located? Analyze the competitive forces at work in the industry; determine the basis of competition; determine the direction and nature of change within the industry; and analyze how the industry is currently using information technology.
- What are the business, firm, and industry value chains for this particular firm? Decide how the company creates value for its customers; determine how the firm uses best practices to manage its business processes; analyze how the firm leverages its core competencies; verify how the industry supply chain and customer base are changing; establish the benefit of strategic partnerships and value webs; clarify where information systems will provide the greatest value in the firm’s value chain.
- Have we aligned IT with our business strategy and goals? Articulate the firm’s business strategy and goals; decide if IT is improving the right business processes and activities in accordance with the firm’s strategy; agree on the right metrics to measure progress toward the goals.
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Essay on Management Information System: Top 9 Essays
Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Management Information System’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Management Information System’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Management Information System
- Essay on the Limitations of MIS
Essay # 1. Definition of M IS:
MIS has been understood and described in a number of ways. It is popularly known as information System, the information and decision System, the computer based information system.
Some of the definitions of MIS are:
Management Information System (MIS) is basically concerned with the process of collecting, processing, storing and transmitting relevant information to support the management operations in any organizations.
MIS also refers to the organization that develops and maintains most or all of the computer systems in the enterprise so that managers can make decisions. The goal of the MIS organization is to deliver information systems to the various levels of corporate managers.
Management Information Systems (MIS) sometimes referred to as Information Management and Systems, is the discipline covering the application of people, technologies, and procedures collectively called information systems to solving business problems.
Information management is the process whereby data are collected and analyzed for the purpose of planning, evaluating, and monitoring systems.
A Management Information System (MIS) is an integrated user-machine system for providing information to support operations, management and decision making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computers, manual procedures, models for analysis, planning, control and decision-making, and a database.
Essay # 2. Evolution of MIS:
Organisations have always had some kind of management information system, even if it was not recognised as such. In the past, these systems were of a highly informal nature in their setup and utilisation. Not until the advent of computers, with their ability to process and condense large quantities of data, did the design of MIS become a formal process and field of study.
When computers were first introduced into organisations, they were used mainly to process data for a few organisational functions—usually accounting and billing. As the speed and ease of processing data grew, other data processing and information management tasks were computerized. The growth of EDP departments spurred managers to plan their organisation information systems more rationally.
These efforts led to the emergence of the concept of computer-based information systems (CBIS), which became better known as computer based MIS-or simply MIS. Recent advances in computers have made it possible for EDP/MIS experts, and then for managers, to gain on-line or real-time access to the data bases in CBISs.
The near future will witness the widespread use of expert systems using artificial intelligence to diagnose problems, recommend strategies to avert or solve these problems, offer a rationale for these recommendations, and learn from each experience. In effect, the expert system acts like a human expert in analyzing unstructured situations.
Essay # 3. Concept of MIS :
The Concept of Management Information Systems (MIS) originated in the 1960s and contains three individual concepts namely management, information and system.
It is the essential part of any group activity. An organization cannot survive without management. Management is defined as the art of getting things done through others. The basic functions, which a manager performs in an organization are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Decision-making is a major requirement of each of these managerial functions.
Information is the central concept of MIS. Information consists of data that have been processed and are meaningful to a user. Information is something which management expects to know at a given time. Information includes knowledge acquired by some means.
The information is needed to plan, organize, direct and control the business. The effectiveness of any information is dependent on the timing and the content of the information presented and management action. The need for management information is felt when the managers have to make decisions.
A system may be defined as a set of elements, which are joined together to achieve a common objective. A system includes an orderly arrangement according to some common principles or rules. A system is a plan or method of doing something. The elements of a system are input, process and output as shown in Fig. 16.2.
For example in any manufacturing organization, the input to the system is raw material, which is processed by various processing facilities to convert it into finished product which is output of the system. When feedback and control elements are attached to any system, to make itself regulating and self-monitoring, it is known as cybernetic system as shown in Fig. 16.3.
Thus from the above three components of management i.e., management, information and system, it has been found that decision making is the essence of management and for taking decisions information is an essential and vital input. Further to obtain information, there is need of information system. Thus MIS is a system that allows managers to make decisions for the successful operation of businesses.
Essay # 4. Need for MIS :
A majority of workers today are knowledge workers. They spend their time by creating, distributing, or using information. For example bankers, coordinators, counselors, community organizers, programmers etc. Some examples of MIS includes airline reservations (seat, booking, payment, schedules, boarding list, special needs, etc.), train reservation, bank operations (deposit, transfer, withdrawal) etc.
The need for management information system arises because of the following reasons:
a. About 80% of an executive’s time is devoted to information receiving, communicating, and using it.
b. Information is the basis for virtually all activities performed in an organization
c. People and information are the two key ingredients that are best used in the organizations.
d. Effective utilization of information systems in management.
e. Productive use of information.
f. Information is a resource to increase efficiency, effectiveness and competitiveness of an enterprise.
g. Support of its business process and operations.
h. Support of decision-making by its employees and managers.
Essay # 5. Types of Management Information Systems :
(i) Transaction-Processing Systems.
(ii) Operations Information Systems.
(iii) Decision Support Systems (DSS).
(iv) Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence.
(i) Transaction-Processing Systems :
Transaction-processing systems are designed to handle a large volume of routine, recurring transactions. They were first introduced in the 1960s with the advent of mainframe computers. Transaction-processing systems are used widely today. Banks use them to record deposits and payments into accounts. Supermarkets use them to record sales and track inventory. Managers often use these systems to deal with such tasks as payroll, customer billing and payments to suppliers.
(ii) Operations Information Systems :
Operations information systems were introduced after transaction-processing systems. An operations information system gathers comprehensive data, organizes it and summarizes it in a form that is useful for managers. These types of systems access data from a transaction-processing system and organize it into a usable form. Managers use operations information systems to obtain sales, inventory, accounting and other performance-related information.
Operations information systems are of following types:
a. Accounting Management Information Systems.
b. Financial Management Information Systems.
c. Manufacturing Management Information Systems.
d. Marketing Management Information Systems.
e. Human Management Information Systems.
(a) Accounting Management Information Systems:
In these types of systems, all accounting reports are shared by all levels of accounting managers.
(b) Financial Management Information Systems:
The financial management information system provides financial information to all financial managers within an organization including the chief financial officer. The chief financial officer analyzes historical and current financial activity; projects future financial needs, and monitors and controls the use of funds over time using the information developed by the MIS department.
(c) Manufacturing Management Information Systems:
A manufacturing management information system provides manufacturing information to the different levels of management regarding inventory levels, production processes, rejections etc.
(d) Marketing Management Information Systems:
A marketing management information system supports managerial activity in the area of product development, distribution, pricing decisions, promotional effectiveness, and sales forecasting.
(e) Human Management Information Systems:
Human resources management information systems are concerned with activities related to workers, managers, and other individuals employed by the organization. Because the personnel function relates to all other areas in business, the human resources management information system plays a valuable role in ensuring organizational success. Activities performed by the human resources management information systems include, work-force analysis and planning, hiring, training, and job assignments.
(iii) Decision Support Systems (DSS) :
A DSS is an interactive computer system that can be used by managers without help from computer specialists. A DSS provides managers with the necessary information to make informed decisions.
A DSS has three fundamental components:
a. Database Management System (DBMS):
Database Management System (DBMS), which stores large amounts of data relevant to problems the DSS has been designed to tackle;
b. Model-Based Management System (MBMS):
Model-Based Management System (MBMS) which transforms data from the DBMS into information that is useful in decision-making; and
c. Dialog Generation and Management System (DGMS):
Dialog Generation and Management System (DGMS) which provides a user-friendly interface between the system and the managers who do not have extensive computer training.
(iv) Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence :
Expert systems and artificial intelligence use human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that ordinarily need human expertise. Mimicking human expertise and intelligence requires the computer to do the following: recognize, formulate and solve a problem; explain solutions; and learn from experience.
These systems explain the logic of their advice to the user; hence, in addition to solving problems they also can serve as a teacher. They use flexible thinking processes and can accommodate new knowledge.
Essay # 6. Steps for Development of MIS :
The development of MIS consists of the following stages/steps:
(i) Establish the Need for System:
The need for a system often exists but it is not acted upon until the conditions become intolerable. For example need for information system in a manufacturing organization is because of excessive inventories, high production costs, poor delivery performance, large number of rejections etc.
(ii) Conduct a Feasibility Study:
After establishing the need of the system, next step is to conduct a feasibility study. The feasibility study is undertaken to know the usefulness of the system to the organization. Technical and economical feasibility of the proposed system is carried out.
Technical feasibility considers things such as development of hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of the proposed system. Economic feasibility considers things such as evaluation of costs and returns to know whether the returns justify the investment in the system.
(iii) Obtain Management Approval:
After conducting the feasibility study, the next step is to take approval from the top management for development of the proposed system.
(iv) System Analysis:
Analysis is a detailed study of various operations of a system, along with its boundaries. This step involved detailed study of the information needs of the organization and its end users, existing and expecting information systems.
(v) System Design:
System design refers to the technical specifications that will be implied in constructing the system.
(vi) System Construction and Testing :
The next step after design is the construction and testing of the system. The construction involves physical creation of the system. The system analyst test the system to check its working as per the expectations or not. He corrects the flaws in the system if any.
(vii) System Implementation :
Implementation is the most crucial phase of the development process because this step is very important in assuring the success of any new developed system. This step involves hardware and software acquisition, site preparation, user training and installation of the system.
(viii) System Evaluation :
After the system has been operating smoothly for a short period of time, an evaluation of each step in the design and of the final system performance is made. This is a feedback about the system.
(ix) System Maintenance :
The last step is the maintenance of the installed system. It involves the monitoring, evaluating and modifying a system to make necessary improvements. The maintenance of the system is done to reduce the errors due to design, or environmental changes.
Essay # 7. Importance of M IS:
The overall purpose of MIS is to provide profitability and related information to help managers and staff understands business performance and plans its future direction.
The importance of MIS can be seen from the following points:
a. MIS is always management oriented and keeps in view every level of management and gets the desired information.
b. MIS is useful for planning as every organization makes log-term and short-term plans with the help of information like sales and production, capital investments, stocks etc.
c. Effective MIS helps the management to know deviations of actual performance from preset targets and control things.
d. MIS is important for increasing efficiency.
e. MIS provides updated results of various departments to management.
f. MIS is highly computerized so it provides accurate results.
g. MIS adds to the intelligence, alertness, and awareness of managers by providing them information in the form of progress and review reports of an on-going activity.
h. MIS helps managers in decision-making.
Essay # 8. Advantages of MI S:
An MIS provides the following advantages:
a. It facilitates planning i.e., MIS improves the quality of plans by providing relevant information for sound decision making.
b. It helps in efficient management of large volumes of information and records.
c. MIS helps in measuring performance and making necessary changes in the organizational plans and procedures.
d. It brings co-ordination i.e., MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments.
e. It makes control easier i.e., MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance.
f. MIS assembles, process, stores, retrieves, evaluates and disseminates the information.
Essay # 9. Limitations of MIS :
Though management information systems are becoming increasing beneficial, there are certain limitations to these systems:
a. MIS leads to unemployment as humans are replaced by systems.
b. MIS systems are expensive to install and maintain.
c. These systems cost more and require more time than estimated.
d. Once installed, these systems become difficult and expensive to improve with changing management objectives.
e. The problems of accuracy and reliability become critical, as the organization becomes more dependent on these systems.
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95 Information Management Topics for Essays
🏆 best information management topics for essays, ✍️ information management essay topics for college, 👍 good information management research topics & essay examples, 🎓 great information management topics for research papers, ✒️ excellent information system thesis topics, 💡 most interesting topics related to information systems.
- Amazon’s Information Management System: Description and Analysis
- Types of Health Information Management Systems
- Lenovo Group Ltd.’s Operations and Information Management
- The Healthcare Manager’s Role in Information Technology Management
- Infosys Firm’s Information Systems Management
- United Parcel Service: Information Technology Management Plan
- Walmart: Information Management System
- Planning at McDonald’s: Information Resources Management Planning is an estimate of future turnover and guest count based on current trends and past data, such as seasonal events and programs that have been held in the past.
- Disaster Planning and Health Information Management This paper discusses promising measures and practices to help the organization to avoid situations with loosing all health information in case of future disastrous events.
- Choice of Career: Health Information Management The present-day world dictates conditions to specialists, and its primary orientation is technological development as well as its practical implementation within healthcare facilities.
- Strategic Information Management: 99 Cents Only Store Strategic information management is defined as the handling of information in an organization to provide value, maintain competitive advantage, and streamline core functions.
- Managing Information of Sakhr Software Co This paper would consider the concepts of managing information of Sakhr Software, which is a popular language software company.
- System Implementation: The Health Information Management Systems The Health Management Information System is a fundamental domain in strengthening the health systems, it helps plan management, analysis, making policies, and making decisions.
- Information Technology-Based Data Management in Retail The following paper discusses the specificities of data management and identifies the most apparent ethical considerations using retail as an example.
- Information Management Systems: E-Business of Transport for London This paper explores the benefits accrued by organizations or institutions by embracing the modern methods of managing information.
- Business Process & Information Technology: Supply Chain Management IT based Grid technology powered supply chain relies on network boosted through World Wide Web, internet and intranet.
- Health Information Technology Service Management One of the aspects of using new technology in medicine is HIT service management, which is a process of establishing a framework for IT-related systems and activities.
- Healthcare Information Project Management The development of a healthcare IT project is likely to require the collaboration of informatics professionals (IP) and the clinical staff to ensure its success.
- Information Management and Related Issues in Business Business organizations should embrace the use of technology. It is virtually impossible for any organization to operate without technology.
- Information Sharing in Supply Chain Management This paper will describe two articles on information sharing in a supply chain, explain how they relate to Porter’s five competitive forces model.
- Information Management System Practical Solutions An effective information management system involves planning, proper alignment, and efficient management. Its periodical review ensures it suites the technological changes.
- Information Systems Management This paper will explain the SI background, communication software, database, electronic health product choice, enterprise resource planning, business intelligence, etc.
- Managing Project Teams: Leadership and Information Systems Development Each participant in the project solves individual tasks set by the project manager, but some tasks can be solved exclusively through collective interaction.
- Health Information and Office Management The health information management system is essential in the healthcare industry. It helps make better decisions, organize data efficiently, and solve health-related issues.
- Universal Information Security Management Measures The cloud computing approach has become the dominant technology paradigm across the entire enterprise IT infrastructure.
- Information Technologies & Risk Management in Business The key point of risk management is their constant monitoring and prevention, ideally coordinated with the duration of project development cycles.
- Integration of Health Information Management System (HIMS) into Healthcare This paper aims to research the integration of the Health Information Management System (HIMS) into healthcare. The HIMS chosen for this project are the EHR and EMR.
- Information Management Improving Patient Care Technology Information management allows each patient’s data to be recorded, stored, and easily retrieved by health professionals when needed.
- Hospital Information Management Systems Hospital information management systems (HIMSs) are vital for improving healthcare quality, and they let healthcare professionals make data-driven decisions.
- System Analysis of Health Information Management The purpose of this paper is to examine the current health information management system utilized by the ABC Clinic and to propose a new approach in this regard.
- Amazon.com: The State of Information Technology and Management At Amazon.com, the state of information system reveals that the company has gained a competitive advantage as the largest online retailer by using an e-commerce model of business.
- FansivOps International: Information Security and Risk Management FansivOps needs to formulate a proper and effective information security and risk management policy regarding opening a new branch office in the southern region of Sudan, Africa.
- Managing Information Systems Strategy and Security Risks in EasyShopping Ltd The goal of this paper is to examine the EasyShoping Ltd strategy to employ information systems through online shopping sites, to enhance its competitive advantages.
- Information Systems and Project Management Performance The authors assert that requirements instability and requirements diversity are related to stakeholder perception gaps and this can be tied in with project performance.
- Operations and Information Management of CC Music The given report outlines the main features of CC Music, a company founded by Chris and Clive. It focuses on the provision of specific services to bands that include social media marketing.
- Information Technology Project Portfolio Management Project portfolio management (PPM) is beneficial to IT professionals in several ways apart from an overall increase in efficiency of monitoring and evaluation of ongoing projects.
- Information Management in Different Organizations The paper examines the information management systems in the Military of the United Arab Emirates and their advantages and disadvantages.
- Real Estate Company’s Information Management The report addresses the concerns and constraints that real estate firms have to face during the implementation of their key objectives and management of customers’ needs.
- Emeco Company’s Information Management Information management plays a critical role in modern business. The presented paper is devoted to the investigation of the furniture industry and the problem Emeco experiences.
- Issues of Information Systems Management and Accounting This paper outlines the issues in accounting and ratio analysis, business terms and budget, information systems, computer-based IS threats, and e-business and e-commerce.
- Azzaz Shop’s Operations and Information Management Azzaz is a mobile phone and accessories retailer based in England, owned by Lewis. The business started with a single shop, which Lewis has grown into a chain of eleven.
- E-Government and Information Age Management The gradual development of technological science in the contemporary world has remained the most anticipated issue in any developed and developing economy
- Global Information and Technical Management Information technology has the potential to coordinate a single customer service center in the company, which will take up the tasks that multiple customer service centers.
- Information Technology Project and Risk Management One technological risk is the shortage of indigenous information technology companies in the area of interest. This shortage leads to a deficiency of technically skilled staff.
- Marking Information System for Customer Management Marking Information System will ease the managers’ work with different groups of customers, allowing them to use an individual approach to clients.
- Applying Information Management Solutions Improvement of healthcare quality and provision of patient safety are the primary concerns of healthcare providers.
- The Current Information Management System Improvement The tools used for data analysis and the output is delivered by the staff members when adopting each of these devices can be considered the primary variables to be analyzed.
- Information Systems and Their Management The existence of numerous information systems, including closed corporate ones, allows for transferring the required information to the end user within moments.
- Accounting Information Management and Performance of Small Business Enterprises
- Information Management Model for Competencies and Learning Outcomes in an Educational Context
- Soft Information Management Effects on Lending Credit Terms in Japan
- How Technology Can Assist or Hinder Information Management Practices in Organizations
- The Impact, Challenge, and Solution of Information Management in Virtual Organizations
- Enhancing Information Management Through Data Mining Analytics
- Air Asia Operational Information Management in Strategy and Operations
- Organizational Performance Through Information Management
- Integrating Data and Information Management for Social Protection
- The Army’s Personnel and Recruiting Information Management Systems
- Information Management: Medical Record as a Legal Document
- The Cost and Information Management Effect in SMEs
- The Essence of Using Communications and Information Management Technologies
- Future Technologies and Applications Within Information Management
- The US American Health Information Management Association on the Adoption of the Electronic Databases
- Applying Meaningful Use Principles to Information Management Systems
- Information Management Strategies and Supply Chain Performance Under Demand Disruptions
- Cloud Computing: The Future of Business Information Management
- MNEs and Information Management: Structuring and Governing IT Resources in the Global Enterprise
- Harnessing the Infrastructure and Data Involved in Information Management
- Information Management for Public Participation in Co-design Processes
- Records and Information Management: Efficient and Systematic Control of Records
- Social Networks and Their Impact on Records and Information Management
- Understanding the US Generic Advertising System and Its Role in Information Management
- The Use of Machine Learning Algorithms in Optimizing Inventory Management in Accounting Information Technology
- Designing a Smart Healthcare System Using Wearable Devices and Data Analytics for Remote Patient Monitoring
- Assessing the Role of Cloud Computing in Optimizing Resource Allocation and Scalability in Enterprise Systems
- The Role of Machine Learning Models in Predicting Stock Market Trends in Computer Science Information Systems
- Developing a Smart City Framework Integrating IoT Devices and Data Analytics for Improved Urban Planning
- The Significance of User Experience (UX) Design in Improving the Usability of Information Systems
- Evaluating the Role of Data Visualization Techniques in Understanding Complex Information System Data
- Analyzing the Adoption and Integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) in Modern Information Systems
- The Challenges and Opportunities of Cloud Computing in Information System Management
- Investigating the Role of Artificial Intelligence in Personalizing User Experiences in Information Systems
- Integration of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems in Organizational Processes
- Potential of Blockchain Technology in Ensuring Data Integrity and Security in Supply Chain Management
- Information Systems in Disaster Management and Emergency Response
- Blockchain-Based Voting System for Secure and Transparent Elections
- The Role of Information Systems in Enabling Personalized and Targeted Marketing Strategies
- Predictive Analytics in Supply Chain Management for Demand Forecasting
- Gamification Techniques to Enhance User Engagement and Motivation in Online Learning Platforms
- Information Systems in Optimizing Energy Consumption and Promoting Sustainability in Organizations
- Data Governance in Ensuring Data Quality and Compliance in Organizations
- Quantum Computing in Solving Complex Problems in Information Systems
- Artificial Intelligence for Intelligent Document Management Systems
- Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence for Data-Driven Decision Making
- Knowledge Management System to Improve Organizational Learning and Innovation
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These essay examples and topics on Information Management were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.
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Management Information Systems Essay
Management information systems play a huge role in the success of business and organizations .Management information system is defined as a system using formalized procedures to provide management at all levels in all functions with appropriate information based on data from both internal and external sources, to enable them to make timely and effective decisions for planning, directing and controlling the activities for which they are responsible (Argyris, 2011). From the appearance of human language until the universal application of computer, mankind never stopped improving information technology. From the middle of last century people started associating information technology with computers. Nowadays, computers, data centers, servers, database management systems and specialized software applications are managed by information technology departments, systems and databases administrators. Information technology supports modern businesses and has become an important part of life (Alliance, 2011). Markgraf(2018) argues that in order to gain maximum benefits from an organization information system there is a need to exploit all of its capabilities. He suggest that increasing information systems effectiveness involves adding more data to make the information system more accurate or use the information system in a new way. The purpose of an information systems varies depending on the sector the system covers, but systems generally support operations and decisions made within organizations as well as helping with data storage and facilitating management. (Okundi, 2018) .
A management information system is generally thought of as an integrated, user-machine system providing information to support operations, management and decision-making functions in an organization (Adeoti, 2010) . As a matter of fact, an MIS is a special-purpose system useful for management in an organization. MIS is an accessible and rapid conveyor belt for appropriate high quality information from its generation to its users. The heart of an effective MIS, therefore, is a carefully conceived, designed and executed database. Its level corresponds to adaptive decisions. When you base your decisions on data available from management information systems, they reflect information that comes from the operations of your company. Management information systems take data generated by the working level and organize it into useful formats. Management information systems typically contain sales figures, expenses, investments and workforce data. If you need to know how much profit your company has made each year for the past five years to make a decision, management information systems can provide accurate reports giving you that information (Markgraf, 2018) . Any decisions you make result in changes in the projected company results and may require modifications to your business strategy and overall goals. Management information systems either have trend analysis built in or can provide information that lets you carry out such an analysis. Typical business strategies include projections for all fundamental operating results. A trend analysis allows you to show what these results would be in the current situation and how they will change once you have implemented the decisions you have taken. The new values form the basis of your strategic approach going forward.
The study analyzed how information systems facilitate football clubs. To fulfill these purposes this study adopted a design strategy which contained theoretical and empirical parts. It gave a way on how to operate and improve works to solve and avoid problems in various sectors in order to facilitate football clubs. This study choose a suitable information system development methodology and designs a general football club information system model. In the empirical study a questionnaire survey was made to check and complete a general football club information system model. The Goal of this study was meant to help football club managers realize possible influence and significance brought by information systems. The study was done to be useful as a reference for football club managers and software developers when they try to establish or improve football club information system. This study proved that information systems can facilitate football clubs in business processes and operations, internal communication and decision-making; furthermore, it supports football club business strategies and helps establish a powerful human resource management project.
The study was conducted after noticing that increasingly, technological innovations was making an entrance within the sport sector. The National Basketball Association (NBA) in America has been the conductor of the train speeding into the sporting world's technological future, however little evidence of this development could be found in Belgian basketball. The main objective of the study was to provide insights into what factors determine the innovativeness of a basketball organization by investigating how the decision process with regard to technological innovations develops and what could serve as potential influences in this development. The study adopted a qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with key persons in multiple basketball organizations over Belgium, all of which participate in the first division of Belgian basketball. An intensive coding approach was performed to structure the data obtained by the interviews. A conceptual framework was developed that provides an overview of all relevant influencing factors of innovation within the organization, grouped in four categories.
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Essay On Management Information System
Type of paper: Essay
Topic: Business , Products , Management , Customers , Services papers , Supply Chain , Logistics , Quality
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Supply chain management involves the various strategies that are developed to ensure that particular products reach the desired consumer in the best condition. This very significant entity needs to be considered in any business since it is essential in guaranteeing the success of a business. For any business to prosper there is a need to ensure that the products or services being offered are of high quality. Research has proven that quality is an essential factor that needs to be considered in the setting up of any business. In this essence, supply chain management goes an extra mile to guaranteeing the success of a business through ensuring there is competence in service delivery. There have also been a number of changes that have been experienced in supply chain management over the years; this has been done to facilitate continuous quality assurance. This is attributed to the need to make sure that the relevant changes are made since there are diverse changes that take place in business every new financial year. Based on this perspective, these changes have contributed to diverse changes in supply chain management. These changes have led to the involvement of chain management in all activities that are involved in a business entity from, extraction, manufacturing and customer purchasing trends. It is through such evaluations that there currently exist better practices in relation to supply chain management.
Further changes that have been made include planning and forecasting. This is where there is complete evaluation of the intended product to ensure that there is guaranteed quality assurance. This is made through total evaluation of product assembling. This is because product assembling is a factor that needs to be seriously evaluated to ensure that the product manufactured or service being offered is of the best quality. Ensuring that there is quality in assembling is the most significant role of supply chain management. The moving of products is also a factor that is looked through SCM. This is because delivery is a factor that needs to be analyzed and properly strategized to ensure that the moving of the products is properly conducted. This ensures that the products reach the desired consumers in good condition. Storage is also well evaluated to ensure that the products are properly stored. Through this, it will be possible for the consumers to access the desired products while they are in good condition.
Customer service is also among the activities that have had significant changes in chain supply management. This is in the essence that customer care services are given serious consideration ensuring that that the customer need come first. This is where there has been the establishment of more appropriate standards and channels to let the diverse clients air their grievances. Changes that have taken place in customer services have involved the use of the internet through social media and research to receive client’s feedback. This has been an effective way in ensuring that the intended customers give their views regarding the services that are being offered. This has been significant in making sure that the relevant changes have been made to facilitate more appropriate customer care services.
Flexibility has also been among the diverse changes that have been made in supply chain management. Through this, the business can bring their services to people in different locations. Through such consideration, it is possible for the business to create a new customer group. Through the diverse changes that have been evaluated, it is evident that the changes have been made to facilitate prosperity in business.
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Managing Information System
I thank the Almighty Lord for granting me peace and grace in the period of my research. God has always been faithful, loving; he is a constant source of my endless love to him. May HIS love reign every day, AMEN.
I would also like to express my sincere appreciation for the professional guidance and academic support which have been offered by my lecturers. Their opinion has enabled me and given me the patience to carry out extensive research on the issue. Besides, I appreciate the contributions and support of my friends, my family members, and my partner who has remained solidly behind every move I make.
Thank you all.
I hereby declare that this report is my research except for the references as cited. The work has never been submitted previously, in whole or in part, to qualify for other assessments.
This paper explores an understanding of information management systems facing organizations in England and across the globe. Besides, the treatise applauds the ways by which these systems can be employed in ensuring organizational effectiveness and efficiency. Also, the paper defines the scope and objective requirements of an organization from which the information system is expected to operate. Besides, the paper expounds on a technical piece of advice on the introduction, use, and development of e-business and computer-oriented information systems. The paper highlights the tools, methodologies, and techniques relevant and applicable in managing information technology application projects. Besides, the paper expounds on the relationship between change and information system organization in the modern business environment. To understand the shift in methodology, the paper discusses the two main variables of information location and decision making criteria for organizations. In conclusion, this reflective module attempts to develop a comprehensive information management system of understanding enhanced organizational bundles of efficiencies supporting competitiveness.
Thus, this research paper presents a comprehensive information management system model that is most appropriate and sustainable for the smooth operation of Pampers Logistic Limited firm where I am working as the Information manager.
Keywords: Communication management systems, Models of communication management, and Operation of communication systems.
Background of the study.
Often, emerging paradigm shifts in organization and storage of information call for multiple complementary changes in the dimension of information and communication system modeling decisions to be made by the relevant management department in a firm. This is dependent on the cost of designing and maintaining a sustainable model of the information system, thus, the MIS solution of information transfer (Bocij, P.etal, 2003). As part of this evaluation, analysis of various organizational structures laid down to support, govern, and analyze implications of a paradigm shift in information and communication technology should be part of the decision criterion. Processing and transmission of information also depend on the design in place, decision faculty, and efficiency in the collocation of rights of information modeling. A sudden alteration in the information system model is projected to attract radical structure change for the better when the decisions for remodeling are made in an efficient insightful planning facet. In retrospect, there is a need to addresses the variant interaction facets influencing the implementation of different information management models (Chaffey, 2010).
Purpose of the study
Despite quantifiable progress in the MIS solution, the interpretation of economic aspects of information management remains in infancy. Therefore, a successful, modern, and efficient information system model requires narrowing the gap between economic viability research and optimal performance of a chosen model of information system management. The midst of information system transformation is the organizational framework. In the modern business environment, organized firms present a hierarchical order of vertical integration and flexibility for industrial and internal departmental structures. Work is simplified by properly planned, well-executed, observable smaller units and networks controlled from a central point. For instance, a canonical example is the operation of a computer system (Bocij, 2003). Thus, this research study aims at developing a convenient, efficient, secure, and cost-effective information system for Pampers Logistics Limited. This is meant to ensure the firm remains relevant and competitive in service provision (International Journal of Information Management, 2011).
In the past, IBM and Digital Equipment dominated the industry of providing information management systems that were affordable to many firms operating on their market value chain. This included the production of processors operating in the vertically aligned management structure. However, in the recent past, this has been replaced by layers of system orientations arranged in series that are easy to monitor. This is necessitated by value coalitions of specialization to facilitate competence and tactical strategic operation. Internally, team structured system management is soon erasing the vertical order arrangement. To achieve security and efficiency in information management systems, there is a need to find out the most appropriate collection of information systems and models that can offer optimal Pareto efficiency in data management and communication network. (International Journal of Information Management, 2011).
According to Laudon ( 2007), Information systems are a set of components that retrieve, process, distribute and store information which is essential in the informed decision-making process and management of an organization( Laudon & Laudon, 2007). The main part of the communication system is the computer system consisting of software and hardware. Software controls the operating systems of a computer, while the hardware component forms the physical computer system. The software component is essential in developing security programs, operation systems, and utility support system management. Bocij (2003), states that software’s can be modified to perform the required information processing need and management while at the same time, monitoring security and access of the customized site (Bocij P.etal, 2003).
Networks in computer systems link computers to facilitate the sharing of sources and information within a location. Examples of a network include internet linking the entire globe, intranet for internal business network, and extranet for a private user either in a firm or an organization. Thus, the hypothesis of this study is to find out the most appropriate and secure information management system relevant to the business climate of the twenty-first century. (International Journal of Information Management, 2011).
Metamorphosis of information management systems.
Information systems have evolved over the past years due to technological innovations and the need to maintain relevance. In the period between 3500 BC and 1450 AD, written language dominated as a means of communication. After this era, mass publication in what was referred to as the Gutenberg press dominated until the mid of the 20 th century. After the Second World War, electric power facilitated the automation of communication systems until the early 80s (Bocij, et al, 2003). Following the launch of personal computers, microprocessors, spreadsheets, and word processing, mass interaction replaced automation for almost a decade. Alongside these inventions, the communication environment developed infrastructures to support the functioning of the mass interaction instruments. These structures included LAN, GUI, and WAN. As the population discovered the power of information, the internet, and the World Wide Web turned the world into a global IT village as the population universally endorsed the need for efficiency and effectiveness in communication. Besides, Silicon Valley has undergone a metamorphosis to its present venture capital form (Bocij et al, 2003).
Components and Expenditure on Information Systems
The various products of these changes include internet components such as eBay, Yahoo, and Google. Also, the software component of Silicon Valley includes the Sun, Oracle, and Electronic Arts which were used to develop social sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, among others (Bocij, P.etal, 2003). In the findings of Laudon’s research, the expenditure on information technology usage was forecasted at approximately $1,900 billion. The manufacturing echelon spent $ 433 billion followed by the financial services at $ 503 billion. Also, the communication, services, and retail trade spent 202, 172, and 211 billion dollars respectively during the same period. As a percentage, the financial service provision led at 26% followed by manufacturing. The retail segment was the least at 11 % (Bocij, P.etal, 2003). An Information System is an interrelated component and works simultaneously to process, distribute, and store information that is essential in supporting control and informed decision-making process. The choice of a model of information management in an organization is controlled by performance and optimal bundles of efficiency.
Performance of Management of information models
Neely (2002), asserts that financial models can be used in measuring the efficiency of an information management model for balancing output and inputs of the operational matrix. The right balance of quantitative and qualitative data facilitates decision making after an analysis, sorting, collation, interpretation, and dissemination of quantitative data bundles. A good information management team provides a strong supporting system for the interpolation of data (Kennerley and Neely, 2002). When an institution assembles a holistic team of performance management monitoring, solutions are within boundaries for such a company.
This system is quantifiable when determining the security of data and infrastructure support. A balanced information management system provides a succinct segmentation of organization structures monitoring performance. Due to its multiple dimensionalities, it can comprehensively integrate the hierarchy and functionality. When properly executed, the information management system can focus on costs, satisfactory levels, usage, and quality of services for mutual benefits. Consequently, this is a meaningful inconsistent and systematic review of signal indicators of security and confidentiality. This process becomes viable when interacted with strategic performance indicators for impact creation (Kennerley and Neely, 2002).
Ethical and Environmental in Information Management
Organizational culture is important in maintaining the identity and cutting a niche in the competitive market. Organizational culture involves the unique blend of expected behavior as stipulated by the company’s code of conduct (Managing Information Systems). These conducts are designed in consideration of ethics of work, the confidentiality of information, and responsibility with company property. Generally, ethics determine the nature and dynamism of a workforce. Therefore, proper ethics orientation promotes organizational culture. Communication lines and information systems is a stable choice for passing down information. For instance, a mid-size company can manage the use and misuse of their intranet by limiting and monitoring deviant behavior among employees. Upon installation of tracking software, an attempt to log into irrelevant sites is immediately detected and signals sent to the main server from where the IP address for that computer can be viewed (Laudon & Laudon, 2007). Here, information systems are more efficient in managing the privacy of the company’s data bank and monitoring the progress of departmental sections.
Managers are entrusted with sound decision making on behalf of a company. Before a decision is adopted, swot analysis must be carried out to determine the consistency and viability of such a decision. For a decision to be viable, it must be positively skewed on Pareto efficiency bundles of operation. To develop a sound information management system, the managers are the focal point of designing systems. By use of open-ended questionnaires, the research target junior managers in the IT department who operates and monitor the intranet network. The use of questionnaires is the most appropriate method of data collection due to the smaller sample size. Questions to ask include the suggestion of the most appropriate information management system in the current business operation management. Besides, issues on security and performance of a variety of information models are included (Business Information Management). After collection, swot analysis using qualitative regression and correlation analysis of the various responses are factored in drawing an inference. The finding revealed that employees of Pampers Logistics Limited would rather prefer an internal network system to an outsourced hosting model (Keen, 2002).
Discussion and Analysis
Modelling influences on information management environment.
Explanations of the variance brought about by paradigm shift in information management systems vary across different firms. A flexible technological system is a prerequisite for optimal achievement of service provision. A good system should be low in overhead inventory maintenance charges (Business Information Management). Each firm is unique to the desired information management system. Thus, it would be unprofitable to adopt a piecemeal evolution for an organizational design. As a result of competitive pressure, Pampers Logistics Limited should operate with an intranet network system controlled from the main server. It would not be cost-effective to outsource the complex global model of information management system since it requires more manpower in control and operation.
Due to changes in consumer’s preferences e and spending habits, mass marketing can be easily facilitated by an intranet network. The growth of IT solution systems is a result of the need to operate efficiently and remain relevant, competitive, and profitable in the face of uncertainty. New information management technology allows managers to widen their scope of control, and multitask (Schniederjans & Others, 2004). Besides, a well-organized information system saves a firm the labor of involving many people to control, and keep data. The intranet system requires fewer numbers or levels of managerial hierarchies. In today’s business environment, companies face the challenge of balancing and flattening the managerial structure pyramid. The redundant and disorganized managers can be monitored from the main server. The constant growth of information against a slower rate of processing has led to companies experiencing information explosion (Schniederjans & Others, 2004).
It is necessary to put into consideration the cost of running an information management system against an economic activity as a means of tracking sustainability. Pampers Logistics Limited in this case is the information processing institution. By embracing a new information system, it liberates its departments and facilitates decentralization in decision making while monitoring management awareness (Swart & Kinnie, 2003). Generally, this can create a free atmosphere for creativity, ingenuity, and motivation. As the information manager, my duty would only then be to offer guidance and professional leadership, remodel information growth strategies, and revitalize goals and expectations from the staff (Tapscott & Others, 2008).
Often, new changes in information management are expected to bring on board fresh ideas and approaches for structural functioning. This distinctive structural separation organizes units of information economics and communication needs across minimized complexity. In the end, these work hand in hand to lower hidden costs to manageable levels. Moreover, the interaction between the old model and the new efficient model facilitates tradeoffs from the less flexible, low quality, and less responsive system to a more efficient, friendly, secure, and customized (Swart & Kinnie, 2003). Due to reduced costs, it is projected that the IT system will skew towards a stable networking system that can be connected to the client’s server. Such a computing relationship has been made possible by the organizational transition. Having the responsibility of unifying and securing the system, I intend to collectively develop an intra-organizational network.
Technology can positively shift decisions (Tapscott & Others, 2008). If not properly monitored, information management systems are prone to information overload. As the speed of computers increase, humans are substituted by information systems. Once these systems are filled with information, the company is assured of safety and accuracy in stored data for a very long period. Computers process information in larger quantities at a faster rate than human beings. Information systems can be used to carry out many transactions at the same time. For instance, computer-generated e-banking and online banking have transformed the financial sector from the traditional era to a fast, reliable, and cheaper option. In light of this research, information overload may be assigned for monotony when reviewing the manager’s information cost. Arranging for the most appropriate incentives for empowered employee’s networks (Tapscott & Others, 2008).
System recommendation and implementation
A combination of hardware, software, and networks forms a complete information system. Information systems are essential in strategic business management as key drivers of operational excellence in terms of quality and speed of data processing. I recommend the use of an intranet network system to be managed from the main server by the company’s IT experts. This is due to the following reasons (Brown, 2004).
Products and Services Marketing
A company in need of marketing manpower may resort to an online advertisement for their new and existing products, business models, and services (Newell & Others, 2002). This mode of advertisement is relatively cheaper and reaches an extensive network of potential customers within a shorter time frame. Notwithstanding, a customized information system can give an accurate decision provided that the program is compatible with the decision-making criterion bundle. A top-notch information system offers a competitive advantage over other competitors who luck ultra-modern business solution information technology applications. Also, the objective of survival and compliance with legal requirements can be met when an organization adopts a secured and reliable computer monitoring system (Newell & Others, 2002). A proper network system should have a data bank and a backup substitution. With an organized system, it is easier and more reliable to track the workforce, purchases, sales, and profitability within a set period. From these, an organization is empowered to forecast and project on Pareto efficiency and optimization as part of the sustainability objective (Sharp, 2011).
Benefits as a contemporary Asset
Apart from the above benefits information systems are a complementary asset to an organization. For instance, an online payroll software program has become a necessity in the accounting management business model (Newell & Others, 2009). To facilitate payment processing while at the same time tracking accuracy in record keeping, accountants, auditors, and managers are empowered by the information act to model appropriate business processes dependant on information systems. It is necessary to put into consideration the cost of running an information management system against an economic activity as a means of tracking sustainability. Pampers Logistics Limited in this case is the information processing institution. By embracing a new information system, it liberates its departments and facilitates decentralization in decision making while monitoring management awareness
Fostering Organizational Culture
Generally, ethics determine the nature and dynamism of a workforce. Therefore, proper ethics orientation promotes organizational culture (Newell & Others, 2009). Communication lines and information systems is a stable choice for passing down information. For instance, a mid-size company can manage the use and misuse of their intranet by limiting and monitoring deviant behavior among employees. Upon installation of tracking software, an attempt to log into irrelevant sites is immediately detected and signals sent to the main server from where the IP address for that computer can be viewed (Laudon & Laudon, 2007). Here, information systems are more efficient in managing the privacy of the company’s data bank and monitoring the progress of departmental sections.
Threats to this system and recommendations
This system of information management is secure and easy to manage. However, it is prone to manipulation by the administrators who have personal interests above the company’s agenda. Besides, they have full access to the network connected to the global internet. Thus, unprofessional and unethical issues of misuse of a certain site for personal entertainment may compromise this system. Since the system is managed from one point, challenges of information overloading may slow down its efficiency when many people are using the system at the same time. In the recent past, hacking has been a serious challenge towards securing and privatizing company information. Since the system uses simple assortments of intranet components, hackers may crack the system password and render its operation null and void. Also, this system requires technical know-how to coordinate and operate it. Also, the system is prone to misuse by employees who double up as its administrators since they can change passwords at will (Boddy, 2008).
Conclusion and Recommendations
In summary, ethical issues in the information management system are key. Ethical facets include company culture, professionalism, and responsibility in the use of the system. Through the adoption of the Kaizen rule, the employees would be made aware of the consequences of information system misuse. Generally, the Kaizen rule provides a systematic guideline for what is considered professional and responsible assignment execution. The research paper has successfully discussed the most appropriate decision rights and information location. The default methodology to use depends on an individual. However, this must be in line with the laws governing information system management models.
The role of this system is to develop a scheme of operation that is efficient, organized, and informed when choosing from different bundles of decision making designates. It is important to note the difference between transferring decisions and transferring information. Each section of the paper addresses specific issues related to information technology. Insight is a product of explicit interaction. When an institution assembles a holistic team of performance management monitoring, solutions are within boundaries for such a company. This system is quantifiable when determining the security of data and infrastructure support. A balanced information management system provides a succinct segmentation of organization structures monitoring performance. Good communication and information management system should be accommodative, efficient, and secure in usage and data storage. I focus to implement this model within two years.
The literature used in this paper seeks to explore the performance of businesses. Introducing information and technology open brand new ways to handle and make business, it also helps increase and improve business processes, which turn out to be very effective, as well as reduce costs for handling businesses.
We have looked at various points, such as “highlighting the issues faced by managers in identifying, capturing, and systematizing information to improve organizational performance” (Sharp, 2011). The way to make organizational performance better through their exploring, and examining solutions to simplify problems have also been emphasized in the current paper.
Bij, P.et al 2003, Business Information Systems: Technology, Development and Management for e-business (2ndEdition), Harlow: Pearson Education.
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Brown C, et al 2004, Managing information technology. Web.
Chaffey, D, et al 2010, Business information management. Web.
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Keen, J & Digrius, B 2002, Making technology investments profitable: ROI roadmap to better business cases , New York: J. Wiley and Sons.
Laudon, K. & Laudon, J 2009, Management information systems: Managing the digital firm (11th Edition). Harlow: Pearson Education.
Laudon, K. & Laudon, J 2007, Management information systems: Managing the digital firm (10th Edition ). Harlow: Pearson Education.
Newell, S., Robertson, M., Scarbrough, H., & Swan, J 2002, Managing knowledge work . New York: Palgrave.
Newell, S., Robertson, M., Scarbrough, H., & Swan, J 2009. Managing knowledge work and innovation . New York: Palgrave.
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Tapscott, D. & Williams A. D 2008, “Wikinomics”: How mass collaboration changes everything . Penguin Group: Portfolio.
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Management Information Systems in Organizational Performance Essay
An information system is made up of hardware/machinery, software, users, data, and the processes needed by the users to produce useable information (Gaines et al 3). It also includes procedures used to store and retrieve information. Information systems can be classified into management information systems, transaction processing systems, office information systems, expert information systems, and decision support information systems.
Usually, organisations combine two or more information systems to meet their needs. Combination can significantly improve the performance of an organisation. This paper will identify and discuss information systems that exist in an organisation I am currently dealing with.
The organisation uses an integrated information system. Major components of the system are management information system (MIS) and transaction processing system (TPS). Office information system also plays a role in the integrated information system. However, the transaction processing system is more important to the organisation.
The system helps the organisation to run smoothly. The various components of the system play different roles. However, they all contribute to desirable effects like better customer satisfaction, improved efficiency, and cost effectiveness. The transaction processing system helps the organisation to document all the transactions in real time.
They particularly aid the organisation in the generation of invoices, inventory records, receipts, and order requests. All transactions and their specific details are captured by the system. The information generated is used both at the time of generation and later on during decision making.
The management information system component enables management to monitor organizational activities and put the requisite input at the right time. Information that is generated by the system can be accessed by other members of staff who do not have to be physically present at the point of data generation. This improves the flow of information through the organisation. It also safeguards against introduction of errors by subsequent data handlers.
The information system has enabled the organisation to solve problems like inappropriate use of time, increased expenditure, and customer dissatisfaction. Time-saving activities are important to both the organisation and the customers. Customers often give negative reviews if they are not attended to on time.
Information systems are used by organisations to support strategies like low-cost leadership and innovation. Management information system is an important tool that can be used to shift the cost of doing business (O’Brien & Marakas 56). It enables organisations to lower the cost of doing business by reducing the number of business processes.
The system lowers supplier costs by eliminating the need to travel frequently. Lower customer costs may also be achieved through adoption of information systems. Lower costs accompanied by desired quality of goods or services enable an organisation to win new customers and retain old ones. Reduced supplier and customer costs may benefit the organisation in the long run. Generally, information systems reduce both direct and indirect costs of an organisation.
Organisations can use information systems to create and improve relations with customers and suppliers (Jessup & Valacich 415). These strategic alliances may help an organisation to increase revenue in the long run. This can be done through development of applications that make customer experiences enjoyable.
For instance, applications that create customer forums may be developed to ease interaction between customers and the organisation’s employees. Due to their numerous benefits, information systems have become integral parts of modern day businesses.
Gaines et al 2011, Information systems as a strategic partner in organizational performance. PDF file. 30 th October 2013. < http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/11997.pdf >.
Jessup, Leonard & Joseph Valacich. Information Systems Today (3rd ed.), NY: Pearson Publishing, 2008. Print.
O’Brien, James & George Marakas. Management Information Systems (10 th ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.
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IvyPanda. (2019, August 20). Management Information Systems in Organizational Performance. https://ivypanda.com/essays/management-information-system-4/
"Management Information Systems in Organizational Performance." IvyPanda , 20 Aug. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/management-information-system-4/.
IvyPanda . (2019) 'Management Information Systems in Organizational Performance'. 20 August.
IvyPanda . 2019. "Management Information Systems in Organizational Performance." August 20, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/management-information-system-4/.
1. IvyPanda . "Management Information Systems in Organizational Performance." August 20, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/management-information-system-4/.
IvyPanda . "Management Information Systems in Organizational Performance." August 20, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/management-information-system-4/.
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