Should Human Cloning Be Banned?

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  • Ph.D., Religion and Society, Edith Cowan University
  • M.A., Humanities, California State University - Dominguez Hills
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Human cloning is illegal in some states, and institutions that receive U.S. federal funding are prohibited from experimenting with it, but there is no federal ban on human cloning in the United States. Should there be? Let's take a closer look.

What Is Cloning?

Cloning "refers to the development of offspring that are genetically identical to their parents." While cloning is often referred to as an unnatural process, it occurs quite often in nature. Identical twins are clones, for example, and asexual creatures reproduce by cloning. Artificial human cloning, however, is both very new and very complex.

Is Artificial Cloning Safe?

Not yet. It took 277 unsuccessful embryo implantations to produce Dolly the Sheep, and clones tend to age rapidly and experience other health problems. The science of cloning is not particularly advanced.

The Benefits of Cloning

Cloning can be used to:

  • Produce embryonic stem cells in large quantities.
  • Genetically alter animals to produce organs that can more easily be transplanted into humans.
  • Allow individuals or couples to reproduce through means other than sexual reproduction.
  • Grow replacement human organ tissue from scratch.

At this point, the live debate in the United States is over cloning of human embryos. Scientists generally agree that it would be irresponsible to clone a human being until cloning has been perfected, given that the cloned human would probably face serious, and ultimately terminal, health issues.

Would a Ban on Human Cloning Pass Constitutional Muster?

A ban on embryonic human cloning probably would, at least for now. The Founding Fathers didn't address the issue of human cloning, but it's possible to make an educated guess about how the Supreme Court might rule on cloning by looking at abortion law .

In abortion, there are two competing interests—the interests of the embryo or fetus, and the constitutional rights of the pregnant woman. The government has ruled that the government's interest in protecting embryonic and fetal life is legitimate at all stages but does not become "compelling"—i.e., sufficient to outweigh the woman's constitutional rights—until the point of viability, usually defined as 22 or 24 weeks In human cloning cases, there is no pregnant woman whose constitutional rights would be violated by a ban. Therefore, it is quite likely that the Supreme Court would rule that there is no constitutional reason why the government cannot advance its legitimate interest in protecting embryonic life by banning human cloning. This is independent of tissue-specific cloning. The government has no legitimate interest in protecting kidney or liver tissue.

Embryonic Cloning Can Be Banned—Should It Be Banned in the United States?

The political debate over human embryonic cloning centers on two techniques:

  • Therapeutic cloning , or the cloning of embryos with the intention of destroying those embryos to harvest stem cells.
  • Reproductive cloning , or the cloning of embryos for the purpose of implantation.

Nearly all politicians agree that reproductive cloning should be banned, but there is an ongoing debate over the legal status of therapeutic cloning. Conservatives in Congress would like to ban it; most liberals in Congress would not.

FDA and the Prohibition of Human Cloning

The FDA has asserted the authority to regulate human cloning, which means that no scientist can clone a human being without permission. But some policymakers say they're concerned that the FDA might one day stop asserting that authority, or even approve human cloning without consulting Congress.

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IELTS Human Cloning Essay

This is a model answer for a  human cloning  essay.

If you look at the task, the wording is slightly different from the common  'do you agree or disagree'  essay.

However, it is essentially asking the same thing.

As people live longer and longer, the idea of cloning human beings in order to provide spare parts is becoming a reality. The idea horrifies most people, yet it is no longer mere science fiction.

To what extent do you agree with such a procedure?

Have you any reservations?

Understanding the Question and Task

Human Cloning Essay IELTS

You are asked if you agree with human cloning to use their body parts (in other words, what are the benefits), and what reservations (concerns) you have (in other words, what are the disadvantages).

So the best way to answer this human cloning essay is probably to look at both sides of the issue as has been done in the model answer.

As always, you must read the question carefully to make sure you answer it fully and do not go off topic.

You are specifically being asked to discuss the issue of creating human clones to then use their body parts. If you write about other issues to do with human cloning, you may go off topic.

Model Human Cloning Essay

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Write at least 250 words.

Model Answer for Human Cloning Essay

The cloning of animals has been occurring for a number of years now, and this has now opened up the possibility of cloning humans too. Although there are clear benefits to humankind of cloning to provide spare body parts, I believe it raises a number of worrying ethical issues.

Due to breakthroughs in medical science and improved diets, people are living much longer than in the past. This, though, has brought with it problems. As people age, their organs can fail so they need replacing. If humans were cloned, their organs could then be used to replace those of sick people. It is currently the case that there are often not enough organ donors around to fulfil this need, so cloning humans would overcome the issue as there would then be a ready supply.

However, for good reasons, many people view this as a worrying development. Firstly, there are religious arguments against it. It would involve creating other human beings and then eventually killing them in order to use their organs, which it could be argued is murder. This is obviously a sin according to religious texts. Also, dilemmas would arise over what rights these people have, as surely they would be humans just like the rest of us. Furthermore, if we have the ability to clone humans, it has to be questioned where this cloning will end. Is it then acceptable for people to start cloning relatives or family members who have died?

To conclude, I do not agree with this procedure due to the ethical issues and dilemmas it would create. Cloning animals has been a positive development, but this is where it should end.

(276 words)

The essay is well-organized, with a clear introducion which introduces the topic:

  • The cloning of animals has been occurring for a number of years now, and this has now opened up the possibility of cloning humans too.

And it has a thesis statement that makes it clear exactly how the human cloning essay will be structured and what the candidate's opinion is:

  • Although there are clear benefits to humankind of cloning to provide spare body parts, I believe it raises a number of worrying ethical issues.

The first body paragraph discusses the advantages of cloning humans, and then the second body paragraph looks at the problems associated with this. The change of direction to look at the other side is clearly marked with a transition word ("however") and a topic sentence:

  • However, for good reasons, many people view this as a worrying development.

Other transition words are used effectively to guide the reader through the ideas in the human cloning essay: Firstly,.. Also,... Furthermore,...

The candidate demonstrates that they can use a mix of complex structures. For example:

  • Due to breakthroughs in medical science and improved diets, people are living much longer than in the past.
  • It would involve creating another human and then eventually killing it in order to use its organs, which it could be argued is murder.
  • ...if we have the ability to clone humans, it has to be questioned where this cloning will end.

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Human Cloning, Should It Be Banned or Legalized? Essay Example

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Human cloning has emerged to be among the greatest ethical debates in our era, with most states expressing their opposition or acceptance in the process. In some states, cloning is illegal while others are still debating on its scientific and social impacts. In addition, most federal institutions in the US are prohibited from practicing human cloning, even at experimental levels (Haugen & Musser, 2008). One fact, however, that needs to be placed under consideration is that the cloning technology is already here, and either way, at some point human clones would be acceptable to help in elongating human genetic lines.

In biology, cloning refers to the process of producing populations that look alike with identical genetics that happens naturally when organisms such as plants, insects or bacteria reproduce asexually (Langwith, 2012). In biotechnology, cloning refers to the processes employed to develop copies of DNA portions of organisms or cells. The term also means the making of many copies of a product like software or digital media.

The term ‘clone’ originates from the early Greek word “twig”, which refers to the process whereby new plants can be developed from a twig. Horticulturalists applied the spelling “clon” until the twentieth century, the last ‘e’ was added to show that the vowel is a ‘long o’ and not a ‘short o’. Since the word entered the popular glossary in a more common context, the spelling “clone” has been applied exclusively. Botanists traditionally used the term ‘lusus’.

The United States’ Department of Food and Drugs Administration approved the human consumption of meat and any other products from cloned animals on December 28, 2006, with no unique labeling needed because food from cloned animals had been proved to be the same to the organisms from which they were cloned. Such practice has received strong opposition in other places due to misinformation, like Europe, in particular over the issue of labeling (Feight & Zukairat, 2009).

Many ethical myths such as the role of God, the soul as well as the quality of life that the clones would live has become the basis for many arguments against cloning. Such persons also need to put into consideration the positive aspects of cloning such as quick medical interventions, long life spans, and better life quality. This speech explores into the pros and cons of cloning, putting into consideration both the technological and the social impacts that it will cause. Relatively, this paper seeks to answer the questions as to whether cloning would help the society and whether it is ethically responsible to clone humans to create new lives. Through reference to a number of animal cloning instances, the speech will consider the effectiveness and levels of benefits that were accrued from such clonings.

History of Cloning

The success in animal cloning formed the basis of the heated argument regarding human cloning in the contemporary world. Various attempts have been made in regards to human cloning, and they have revealed a great success. Dolly the sheep is the world most famous cloned animal known. The sheep were cloned through somatic nuclear transfer from the udder cell of a six-year-old sheep in the year 1996 after 276 failed attempts. To make Dolly, researchers isolated a somatic cell from adult female sheep. Next, they removed the nucleus and all its DNA from an egg cell. Then they moved the nucleus from the somatic cell to the egg cell, after a couple of chemical tweaks, the egg cell, with its new nucleus behaved like a freshly fertilized egg. It developed into an embryo, which was implanted into a surrogate mother and carried to term. Since the successful attempt of animal cloning, various experiments has been placed under way to shed more light on this process.

Applications of Animal Cloning

Xenotransplantation; Involve transplantation of nonhuman tissues or organs into human recipients. Increasing demand for human organs has led to the adoption of this method as an alternative. The only obstacle is immunological responses which may lead to rejection of these organs by the body (Winters, 2007). However, researchers are still working on various ways through which such immunological responses can be addressed so as to make the complete process a success.

Breeding endogenic body tissues; Modern study shows that organs from cloned pigs produce organs that can be used in a human transplant. Pig organs are approximately similar to those of humans, including plumbing regions. The only problem using pig’s organs is that they are coated with sugar molecules and trigger acute rejection in humans. Scientists are however working to produce pigs that produce sugar lacking genes through cloning (Winters, 2007). The success of this technology would bring about a great breakthrough in the area of human cloning.

Animal models; The technique has been used to create models of human diseases. Hepatitis C virus a very persistent disease can not be proficiently propagated in cell cultures, researchers have heavily relied on the animal model to study physical characteristics of HCV and events associated with its infections. This has been done in molecular cloning of HCV genome in chimpanzees (Roleff, 2006).

Pros of Human Cloning

Despite the many hullabaloos that surround cloning, it is important to consider its positive impacts on the livelihood of human nature. There are plethoras of payback that come with human cloning; some of which include the following:

Elimination of defective genes; Genetic illness may not be the leading killers today, but there are chances of them developing into major killers in future. As human reproduction progresses, there are many damages that occur on their DNA lines. As a result, defective genes and mutations could occur and ruin the quality of lives. However, with the cloning technology, such defective genes and mutations can be eliminated to improve the quality of lives for these people (Johnson, 2008).

Enhances quick healing from traumatic injuries; certain life happenings such as fatal accidents and life conditions often result into trauma for the victims. Recovery from such traumatic injuries may take long depending on the cause of harm. This situation is likely to change with the introduction of cloning technology since the victims would have their own cells cloned and used in replacing the injured parts. This would even hasten the healing process.

Quite a solution to infertility; In spite of many infertility treatments being successful, cloning provides a quick and most efficient solution to infertility (Haugen & Musser, 2010). Imagine creating a twin brother or sister of your infertile partner from the clone and beginning a new family; it feels good and many people would prefer it to undergoing the painful process of infertility treatment.

Cons of Human Cloning

Despite the above benefits, many religious and social activists largely condemn the act of human cloning for a number of reasons. Most of these revolve around the supremacy of God as well as the quality of lives that the clones would live. Here are some of the issues that largely demean the art of human cloning.

Possibilities of quick aging; Cloning involve taking older human cells and using them to create new ones. There are often many possibilities that the developing embryo would adopt the imprinted age, and as a result cause premature aging issues (Haugen & Musser, 2008). In some instances, the clones would succumb to premature deaths. This makes human cloning a great peril to the social livelihood.

Cloning lowers the individual’s sense of humanity. A human clone may be a new life, having unique preferences, however, the clone is simply a twin of another person, and no matter the age, there would be a potential personality loss, which makes the process inefficient.

Reduction in human life value; with the existence of cloning, humans are likely to become more of commodities than living beings (Macintosh, 2009). For instance, if you do not like behavior or something else in your child, you simply clone another and only make sure the problem is solved this time round. With this type of life, new societal divisions could be created, in which perfect clones, are treated better than the humans got through the natural process.

Most religious activists also view human cloning as an act that largely diminishes the role of God in creation. Some of the many questions that may remain unanswered include whether the human soul exists and whether it is lost during cloning. Most of these revelations would be contrary to the religious beliefs of many people, hence causing a stir in the social beliefs.

Considering the above pros and cons of human cloning, both sides of argument hold sufficient weight and justify their stand. It is, however, a fact that the ban or illegality of human cloning would just be momentary since most technological advances would automatically embrace this new culture (Haugen & Musser, 2010). The increasing practice of animal cloning is increasingly becoming extensive and given more time, human cloning would suffice. The major successes achieved in the field of cloning over the past two centuries have been remarkable. Given the pros of human cloning, it is evident that its practice would be upheld and many nations may come up with universal laws concerning the art of human cloning. Despite the bone of contention regarding its applicability within the current social system, the practice will gradually increase hence creating the demand for its applicability. Human cloning may come with activities that are contrary to many social norms, however, the benefits also needs to be emphasized on.

Barber, N. (2013). Cloning and genetic engineering.New York: Rosen Publishing’s Rosen Central.

Feight, J., & Zuraikat, N. (2009). Cloned food labeling: History, issues, and bill S. 414.International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 3(2), 149-163.

Fiester, A. (2005). Ethical Issues In Animal Cloning. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 48(2), 328-343.

Haugen, D. M., & Musser, S. (2008). Human embryo experimentation . Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Haugen, D. M., & Musser, S. (2010). Technology and society . Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Johnson, J. A. (2008). Human cloning . Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

Macintosh, K. L. (2009). Illegal Beings Human Clones and the Law . Leiden: Cambridge University Press.

Wimmer, T. (2009).   Cloning: Dolly the sheep . Mankato, MN: Creative Education.

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Genetic engineering debate: Should human cloning be legal?

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Source: Composite by G_marius based on University of Michigan School of Natural Resources image

Human cloning is possible but unlawful in most countries. We discuss the pros and cons of genetic engineering and cloning, and whether it should be legal. This is your opportunity to convince other people to support or oppose to human cloning. Leave your comments below.

What is human cloning?

Human cloning refers to the creation of replicas or identical copies of human through  genetic engineering techniques . Human cloning was a popular theme in science fiction literature but technological progress has made possible the clonation of species. Scientists have already managed to successfully clone plants and animals and in theory using similar technologies they could also create copies of humans. There are two processes through which humans could be in theory cloned:

  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer : This technique consists of removing the genetic material from a host egg cell, and then implanting the nucleus of a somatic cell (from a donnor) into this egg. The somatic cell genetic material is fused using electricity. This was the technique employed to clone the famous sheep Dolly in 1996. 
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells : This approach relies on adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed. A specific set of genes, usually referred to as "reprogramming factors", are introduced into a specific adult cell type. These factors send signals in the adult cell transforming it into a pluripotent stem cell . This technique is still in development and entails some problems but it has already been employed with mice. 

The impact that human cloning could have on our societies and future populations have made this topic extremely controversial . Although there are many pros in terms of innovation, reproduction and health, there are also several drawbacks from the ethical and legal perspective. Many countries such as the Australia, Canada, and the United Nations have already passed laws to ban human cloning. However, the issues is far from being settled. Many voices are arguing in favor of human cloning and others are stauch opponents to the legalization of this practice. 

Pros of human cloning 

Many science fiction movies, such as Gattaca , The Island or Moon have dealt with the implications of genetic engineering and human cloning. Most of them have portrayed a somewhat dystopian future and emphasize the problems of genetic manipulation. However, it is also important to stress the potential benefits of human cloning. Here is a list of its pros :

  • Reproduction of infertile couples: using human cloning techniques parents could have babies without needing a donnor or a surrogate.
  • Defective genes could be eliminated.
  • Genetic modification : parents could decide on some characteristics of their children before they are born, such as the sex, and avoid some congenital disease.
  • Prevent some genetic disorders and syndromes: some families have a propensity to certain genetic disorders, some of which could be prevented by genetic selection.
  • Cure some diseases and disorders: therapeutic human cloning may allow cloning organs and tissues and replacing damaged ones. This would contribute to increase lifespams and quality of life in the world.

Cons of human cloning 

On the other hand we cannot omit the dangers that human cloning may bring to our societies. This is a list of some of the most commonly argued  cons :

  • Create divides within society: genetically selected people could be, in theory, more intelligent and physically attractive than other people. This could gradually evolve into a caste system.
  • Diversity could be lost if parents would choose similar patterns in selecting the genetic material for their children.
  • Faster aging and in-built genetic defects: until cloning technology is fully polished, human cloning may create many problems. Since older cells are often used to create clones this could produce premature aging for people. Moreover animal clones have usually been unhealthy.
  • Interference with nature and religion: many people find human cloning to be artificial and to be at odds with their beliefs. Human clones could, thus, be stygmaized.
  • Unlawful use of clones: as in some science fiction movies and books, clones could be created just as for the purpose of economic gain. Certain types of humans could be created to work on certain jobs, even under abusive conditions. Clones could be also brought up for unlawful activities. 

Do you think the pros of human cloning outweigh its cons? Should we allow scientists to clone humans (or parts of humans) for therapeutic and or reproductive reasons?

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Fung Institute for Engineering Leadership

A taxidermied sheep viewed through glass.

Op-ed: The dangers of cloning

May 11, 2020 by Berkeley Master of Engineering

Satomi Angelika Murayama, MEng ’20 (ME)

human cloning should be banned essay

“Sometime, somewhere, someone will generate a cloned human being.”  — Ronald Green for Scientific American, 1999

Background on cloning

A diagram showing the cloning process.

The low success rate of cloning and its medical complications

A mismatch of the public’s expectations with reality.

“We need to realize that cloning would produce a baby, not an adult.”

The ethical and moral concerns that surround cloning humans

“Cloning humans could lead to serious violations of human rights as well as human dignity, and it is up to authorities, laws and institutions to make sure to protect cloned individuals from being exploited.”

Concluding remarks

About the author:.

  • “Eugenics — HISTORY.” October 28, 2019. Accessed November 1, 2019.
  • Green, Ronald M. “I, Clone — Scientific American.” September 3, 1999. Accessed November 1, 2019.
  • Savulescu, Julian. 1999. “Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation”. Journal of Medical Ethics. 25:87–95.
  • “Therapeutic Cloning | Definition of Therapeutic Cloning at Dictionary.Com.” n.d. Accessed November 4, 2019.
  • Weintraub, Karen. “20 Years after Dolly the Sheep Led the Way — Where Is Cloning Now? -Scientific American.” July 5, 2016. Accessed November 1, 2019.
  • Weintraub, Karen. “Cloning’s Long Legacy — And Why It’ll Never Be Used on Humans|DiscoverMagazine.Com.” April 29, 2019. Accessed November 1, 2019.
  • Weldon, Dave. “Why Human Cloning Must Be Banned Now | The Center for Bioethics & Human Dignity.” March 31, 2002. Accessed November 1, 2019.
  • “What Is the Difference between Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning? | NYSTEM.” n.d. Accessed November 1, 2019.

human cloning should be banned essay

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human cloning should be banned essay


Ad Hoc Committee on International Convention against Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings 3 rd Meeting (AM) IN OPENING DEBATE ON HUMAN CLONING BAN, SOME SPEAKERS URGE OUTRIGHT PROHIBITION, OTHERS FAVOUR PARTIAL BAN TO ALLOW FOR MEDICAL ADVANCES Like all other serious threats to human dignity -- such as torture, racial discrimination and terrorism -- the reproductive cloning of human beings required a binding universal norm to prevent it, the new United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on an International Convention against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings heard this morning, as it opened its first-ever general debate on the question. The representative of Germany, speaking also on behalf of France, warned that human cloning experiments would have far-reaching effects on the preservation of human dignity.  It was critical to come to terms with that challenge, swiftly and without delay.  The legal and moral power of a binding global norm would prevent dishonest competition among researchers in the field.  Both delegations sought the conclusion of a treaty before the end of 2003.  This is the first session of the Committee, established by the General Assembly last December in response to a request by France and Germany to evolve a convention banning human cloning.  In a day-long discussion yesterday, scientific and bioethical experts laid out the science and identified the key areas of the debate.  Today, 21 speakers expressed serious concern over the rapid pace of developments in the field, with many calling for a human rights-based approach to negotiating a convention.  The line appeared to demarcate those seeking a total ban from those favouring a partial one to allow for medical advances in the prevention and treatment of disease. The Permanent Observer for the Holy See urged a worldwide and comprehensive ban on human cloning.  Its position was based on a biological analysis of the cloning process and anthropological, social, ethical and legal reflection on the negative implications on the life, dignity and rights of the human being.  In particular, the conceptual distinction between reproductive and therapeutic, or experimental, human cloning was devoid of any ethical and legal basis. Any decision to ban human cloning should follow a painstaking and balanced analysis that followed a strict scientific assessment of the genetic and social implications, the delegate of the Russian Federation insisted.  His own country had recently adopted a temporary five-year ban on human cloning, prohibiting the import and export of human cloned embryos.  That was aimed at preserving Russia's national identity and "nipping in the bud" the commercialization and criminalization of human beings.  The ban did not extend to the use of cloning for stem-cell and other medical research, however. The representative of Liechtenstein suggested that attempts to clone human beings would likely take place this year.  Yet, only very few States had adopted legislation prohibiting it.  An international convention would accelerate that national process and lend it moral weight.  While the Committee could not legislate the moral status of human embryos, failure to conclude a treaty would relegate the human cloning ban to national governments, where the outcome would be uncertain, uncoordinated and too slow to counter that urgent threat. The World Health Organization (WHO) had addressed the cloning issue in various forums and had adopted texts declaring that its use for reproductive purposes was ethically unacceptable and harmful to the dignity of the human being. At the same time, the WHO had endorsed the view that such a ban should not lead to an indiscriminate prohibition on all cloning procedures and research; scientific research involving stem cells, including from embryonic tissue, could yield new treatments for disease.  A full and open debate would yield conclusions about the utility, safety and desirability of stem-cell research.  Statements were also made by the representatives of Japan, Malaysia, China, United States, France, Brazil, Sweden (on behalf of the Nordic countries), Republic of Korea, Croatia, Uganda, Israel, Spain, Portugal and Costa Rica.  Representatives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Commission also spoke. The Committee will meet again at a date and time to be announced. Background The United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on an International Convention against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings met this morning to hold a general debate on the ethics and science of human cloning.  The first-ever session of the Ad Hoc Committee, due to conclude on Friday, 1 March, has as its purpose the elaboration of a negotiating strategy for a possible convention.  (For additional background, see Press Release SOC/4599 of 25 February.) Statements YOSHIYUKI MOTOMURA ( Japan ) said that reproductive cloning of human beings must never be pursued.  In November 2000, the Japanese Diet enacted “The Law Concerning Regulations Relating to Human Cloning Techniques and Other Similar Techniques”, which went into force in June 2001.  The law made reproductive human cloning a punishable offence, and provided guidelines strictly regulating the creation of human embryos utilizing cloning.  For the time being, the guidelines did not permit the creation of human embryos through cloning.  In elaborating the law and the guidelines, the Government had carefully considered and thoroughly discussed every issue relevant to human cloning.  He emphasized that the prohibition must be limited to practices directly related to the reproductive cloning of human beings, for three reasons.  First, as reflected in its own law, Japan prohibited reproductive human cloning because it ran counter to the principle of respect for human dignity, because asexual reproduction could lead to confusion in the social order, and because the low probability of success endangered human life, as well as the integrity of the human body.  Second, it should be noted that biotechnology was contributing to major advances in medical treatment, he said.  The creation through cloning techniques of embryos for therapeutic purposes did not seem to involve the serious problems to which he had referred.  Therefore, while human dignity and human rights must be protected, it would be a mistake to close the door to future scientific and technological progress which could save lives. Third and most important, he continued, it was imperative that international measures be established against reproductive human cloning immediately, before any attempts at that practice were made. Time was of the essence.  While he recognized the importance of discussing ethical issues in international forums, he believed there were more appropriate occasions on which to do so. HASMY AGAM ( Malaysia ) said that while he appreciated the potential for medical revolution accompanying the advent of technology in the area of reproductive cloning of human beings, he agreed with France and Germany that reproductive cloning of human beings posed unknown and serious problems to the human race.  Potential abuse of technology related to reproductive cloning of human beings not only raised moral, religious and ethical concerns, but also posed risks such as developmental and bodily abnormalities to humans.  In addition, medical technology related to reproductive human cloning was at present too risky for consideration.  The convening of the Committee would enable the development of an internationally binding instrument to address the issues relating to reproductive human cloning, while serving as an effective and feasible deterrent to overzealous researchers.  He hoped that the draft convention would also address specific concerns of multi-cultural and multi-religious countries, such as his own, in terms of its acceptance and adaptations to suit local values.  The pace at which the technology was progressing and the need to anticipate developments beyond those envisaged at the time the convention was to be adopted must be borne in mind.  While Malaysia did not have laws relating to reproductive cloning of human beings, it intended to legislate its prohibition, taking into consideration cultural, ethical, religious and social concerns.  While Malaysia agreed that the proposed initiative should focus on provisions regulating reproductive cloning of human beings, it had not, at the current stage, taken a position on the issue of therapeutic cloning.  CHEN XU ( China ) said that with the rapid development of biotechnology, cloning was receiving increasing attention, especially as cloned calves and pigs came out one after the other -- leading to the possibility that human beings could be cloned.  There was an imperative need, therefore, to work out legal rules, and he appreciated the efforts made by France and Germany in that regard.  He, too, supported the formulation of an early convention banning human cloning.  The rapid growth in the field had opened up broad prospects for improving human health.  On the other hand, human cloning would lead to serious ethic, social, religious and legal problems.  Guided by international legislation, the positive impact of such technological progress could be enjoyed and a negative impact could be avoided. He said that human cloning would threaten human dignity, and he firmly opposed it.  He had also rejected any experiments in human cloning.  Meanwhile, a distinction should be made between therapeutic and reproductive cloning.  Embryonic stem-cell research for the purpose of treating and preventing disease should be encouraged, but bioethics and universal norms should guide that process so that it developed in an orderly fashion and was strictly supervised.  His Government and the scientific community were following the progress of cloning technology and staying informed of the ethical concerns.  Preparations were being considered at the governmental level for relevant rules on cloning, and academic institutions were also evolving guidelines on stem-cell research.  Domestic and international legislation would ensure the orderly management and development of cloning technology. The ultimate purpose of scientific and technological development was to bring benefits to mankind, he said.  Some practices that might harm human dignity must not be allowed, but those that could benefit mankind should not be banned.  Furthermore, domestic legislation in various countries should treat therapeutic cloning differently.  Whatever their choices in that regard, domestic policies should be respected, as should the various philosophical, cultural and religious circumstances that had led to the legislation.  While preparing the convention, the Committee should listen carefully to the overall appraisals of scientists and bioethicists on the positive impact of cloning technology on mankind, in order to make an informed decision. CAROLYN L. WILLSON ( United States ) said that human cloning was an enormously troubling development in biotechnology.  It was unethical in itself and dangerous as a precedent.  The possible creation of a human being through cloning raised many ethical concerns.  It constituted unethical experimentation on a child-to-be, subjecting him or her to enormous risks of bodily and developmental abnormalities.  It threatened human individuality, deliberately saddling the clone with the genetic makeup of a person who had already lived.  It risked making women's bodies a commodity, with women being paid to undergo risky drug treatment so they would produce the many eggs needed for cloning.  It was also a giant step towards a society in which life was created for convenience, human beings were grown for spare body parts, and children were engineered to fit eugenic specifications. She said that a proposal had been made to ban only so-called "reproductive" cloning by prohibiting the transfer of a cloned embryo into a woman in hopes of creating a human baby.  That approach was unsound.  While upon initial consideration a ban on reproductive cloning might seem easily attainable and desirable, the issue was very complex and should be addressed comprehensively.  A ban that prohibited only "reproductive" cloning but ignored "therapeutic" or "experimental" cloning would essentially authorize the creation and destruction of human embryos explicitly and solely for research and experimentation.  It would turn nascent life into a natural resource to be mined and exploited.  That prospect was repugnant to many people, including those who did not believe that the embryo was a person. She said that an effective ban on "reproductive" cloning required that all human cloning be banned.  Under a partial ban that permitted the creation of cloned embryos for research, human embryos would be widely cloned in laboratories and assisted-reproduction facilities.  Once cloned embryos were available, it would be virtually impossible to control what was done with them.  Stockpiles of embryonic clones could be produced, bought and sold without anyone knowing it.  Implantation of cloned embryos would take place out of sight, and even elaborate and intrusive regulations and policing could not detect or prevent the initiation of a "clonal pregnancy".  Once begun, an illicit "clonal pregnancy" would be virtually impossible to detect.  The United States supported a global and comprehensive ban on human cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer, regardless of the purpose for which the human clone was produced.  CHRISTIAN MUCH ( Germany ), speaking also on behalf of France, said that yesterday's expert discussion had made it clear that the Committee was dealing with one of the most challenging issues of the day.  It involved tremendous scientific complexities and touched upon fundamental ethical questions.  New developments in genetic engineering posed some of the greatest challenges that humanity would ever face.  Although many applications held promise in preventing and curing disease, others could have consequences beyond the worst nightmares.  The technology of most immediate concern was reproductive cloning of human beings.  The consequences of such experiments on the preservation of human dignity would be far-reaching.  It was critical to come to terms with that challenge swiftly and without any delay. He said that although he supported the initiative by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on the need to elaborate universal norms on bioethics, the French/German initiative followed a more focused approach, aiming at a universal ban on human cloning for reproductive purposes.  Only a focused approach would lead to an international agreement to face the challenge that lay ahead.  Binding universal norms were an effective tool to combat serious threats to human dignity, such as torture, racial discrimination and terrorism.  Reproductive cloning of human beings posed a threat to human dignity.  Only an international binding global norm, with its legal and moral power, was the appropriate answer.  That would prevent dishonest competition among researchers and research institutions in the field. At this first meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee, he said, France and Germany were seeking to initiate a discussion leading to decisions on the appropriate form and content of an international legal regulation.  They had already submitted a list of legal issues that might be addressed in the convention.  The purpose of that exercise should be to identify, in a generic way, issues that the convention might wish to address, on the understanding that the precise wording would be taken up in future negotiations.  He also proposed a review of the Secretariat document containing a list of existing international norms.  In summary, he wished to lay the foundations now for productive work that would lead to the adoption of a negotiating mandate, and ultimately to negotiations on a convention, to be concluded before the end of 2003. JEAN-LUC FLORENT ( France ) expressed support for the statement made by Germany.  The duty of collective responsibility was based on a number of factors.  Reproductive cloning clearly called into question the idea of sexual reproduction.  A child born of sexual and human procreation was the result of the regeneration of two genetic histories.  Therefore, the characteristics of that child were unpredictable.  Unlike sexual procreation, asexual reproduction paved the way for predetermining the characteristics of the child.  It made it possible to create human beings for purposes beyond their control.  That was an unacceptable denial of human dignity.  The international community must reaffirm the principle by which the birth of a child was the result only of sexual reproduction.  It was now time to firmly condemn the challenge posed by some in favour of reproductive cloning. PEDRO DALCERO ( Brazil ) said that the French/German initiative had been timely and mirrored the widespread debate in the genetics field.  The Committee’s deliberations would most certainly lead to a better understanding of the scientific and moral issues posed by recent research on cloning.  Of equal importance was the outcome of the Committee's work, which would stimulate the development of specific national legislation.  In 1995, Brazil had adopted legislation on human embryos and, in view of the most recent breakthroughs in the field, its Congress was examining a national code of bioethics.  Institutional developments had included the establishment of the National Commission on Research Ethics, a peer-review mechanism on scientific experiments involving human beings, and of the Technical Commission on Biosafety, which advised the Government on public policy issues in that field. He said that the farthest-reaching potential gains from cloning were in the human health field.  His country had done considerable research on adult stem cells, thereby acquiring extensive experience in that field.  As a result, its laboratories had the technical capabilities of working with human embryonic stem cells.  The issues posed complex technical challenges, however, which science was only beginning to address.  On the other hand, the enormous potential gains in terms of human health had been matched by a possible ethical fallout.  In light of that and the growing public debate, a judicious and balanced outcome that truly served the public's interests should be ensured.  He looked forward to hearing how other countries were dealing with the challenge of translating those complex issues. Overall, he continued, human cloning was morally unacceptable, but no convention could be a watertight guarantee against its abuse.  The international community must send a clear message that such behaviour was intolerable and would be repressed.  Ultimately, the best way to foil that was to foster scientific freedom.  While stem-cell research offered scientific possibilities, it was unclear whether that would be a satisfactory alternative to human embryonic cloning.  The ethical concerns of all should be satisfied, but scientific research and knowledge should not be suppressed.  Another reason to restrict the scope of any convention on human cloning hinged on whether it would be considered by the Committee to be a human rights instrument.  If that was the case, the convention would enjoy constitutional status under Brazilian law.  HARRIET WALLBERG-HENRIKSSON ( Sweden ), speaking on behalf of the Nordic countries -- Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden -- said the issue of reproductive cloning of human beings must be dealt with as a matter of priority.  Enlarged discussions on other, even though related, issues would not only risk delaying the work of the Committee, but might also make the Committee lose sight of its goal.  To achieve a global consensus on an international convention, a pragmatic approach was necessary, and it was essential to focus now on prohibiting the reproductive cloning of human beings.  She said that reproductive cloning of human beings was prohibited by the respective national laws of the Nordic countries.  There was also a common understanding in Nordic societies that that should be the case.  All the Nordic countries had signed the Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, as well as the Additional Protocol to the Convention on the Prohibition of Cloning of Human Beings.  Given the urgency and importance of the matter, the Nordic countries considered it a great responsibility for all to comply with the Committee’s mandate to prohibit reproductive cloning of human beings.  KIM YOUNG-MOK ( Republic of Korea ) said the remarkable progress of life sciences was like a gift from Prometheus.  That fire, if properly controlled, had the potential to provide mankind with an invaluable and almost inexhaustible source of health and welfare.  On the other hand, if left unbridled, that fire could have detrimental effects, burning out the very essence of human dignity.  In 1997, he said, a Korean research group had succeeded in cloning a cow by using the same technology that was used in the creation of Dolly -- namely, somatic cell nuclear transfer.  In 2000 and 2001, other research groups successfully established stem-cell lines from surplus embryos that were originally made for the purpose of in vitro fertilization.  With increasing scientific and technological advances in the field of life sciences, public awareness of cloning and its ethical and social implications had gradually grown, leading to heated debates within and among civic groups, religious circles, researchers and the industry concerned.  He added that government legislation was under way to address the concerns relating to genetic testing, privacy regarding genetic information, gene therapy, as well as the issue of reproductive cloning of human beings and the scope of permissible research on embryos.  DUBRAVKA SIMONOVIC ( Croatia ) said that media coverage of Dolly had offered insight into the social impact of science and technology, public fears about the possible misuses of the power of science and ethical concerns about biotechnology applications.  For that reason, legal consideration of the purpose of the convention against reproductive cloning should also include consideration of ethical and social issues connected with banning human cloning and protecting the human being.  Examples of a timely response to such challenges had been the Council of Europe's Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being, as well as its Additional Protocol on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings.  She said that the Additional Protocol had been the first binding international treaty on human cloning, and it banned the practice of creating a human being genetically identical to another, whether living or dead.  As a national response to the challenges of biotechnology, her Government had signed the Council of Europe's Convention, as well as the Additional Protocol.  Last year, it had established a National Bioethics Committee with the task of monitoring ethical and legal issues in connection with the development and application of biomedical science on human beings.  It would also recommend new laws for adoption in such areas as the human genome, protection of the human embryo and cloning.  Both the Convention and UNESCO's Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights were placing reproductive human cloning in the human rights framework.  The Committee should adopt the same approach. ROSSETTE NYIRINKINDI ( Uganda ) said that following yesterday’s presentations, she was left with the impression that reproductive cloning was an anathema to humanity and to the perpetuation of humanity as it was intended to be.  She was also disturbed by the fact that embryos used in embryonic stem-cell research were in effect killed.  She also understood that, even though they were not as viable as embryos, adult stem cells had been instrumental in therapeutic cloning.  Her country could not condone the usurping of God’s sovereignty over creation, she said.  Human cloning for reproductive purposes also posed a chilling challenge to the fabric of family life, childhood and the entire society, given the psychosocial implications that were highlighted by the scientists.  For every Dolly or C.C., there had been hundreds of failed attempts, miscarriages, birth defects, and newborn deaths of uncertain cause in their wake.  The deformed were destroyed.  It was reasonable to expect that human cloning experiments would also have their own failure rates.  Would the human beings conceived from similar failures also be destroyed on the basis of their imperfections or inadequacies? Human cloning, she said, reduced mankind to the status of a laboratory rat to be experimented and improved on.  Despite what the experts said, it might also lead to genetic manipulation of humans for “purified future generations”.  It was important to produce a convention that was broad and inclusive, to encompass not only the legal but moral, scientific and social dimensions.  It should set a minimum standard of bioethics with rigorous regulations, and mechanisms to govern the research and actual cloning of embryos as a whole.  SERGEI SHESTAKOV ( Russian Federation ) said he was concerned about the ongoing research focusing on reproductive human cloning.  The issue involved a number of legal, political, social and technological factors.  The correct approach required a strict scientific assessment of the genetic and social implications of the process, as well as the consideration of the views of philosophers, sociologists, clergy and others.  Any decision to ban human cloning should follow a painstaking and balanced analysis.  The Committee's work was timely.  He supported the work of a broad spectrum of authoritative international organizations in the field, and attached great significance to consolidating efforts in combating human reproductive cloning. He said his country was actively researching a legal framework for genetic engineering and biotechnology.  On 20 December 2001, the State Duma had adopted a first draft federal law on a temporary ban on human cloning. The draft legislation established a legal barrier to creating a human being through cloning, and sought to maintain the underpinning of Russian society, the family.  That ban did not extend to the use of cloning for stem-cell and other research, thereby making it possible to conduct future research in that field.  The draft called for a ban on the import and export of human cloned embryos, and was aimed at preserving Russia's national identity and "nipping in the bud" the commercialization and criminalization of human beings.  It would also make liable those who violated those norms.  A temporary five-year ban on human cloning would enable his country to make a balanced decision on the question, he went on.  That was enough time to acquire new knowledge and undertake a risk assessment of the genetic implications of cloning.  The main purpose of the bill was to eliminate work on uncontrolled human cloning, while not depriving scientists of developing new processes, essential for human and veterinary medicine.  He favoured a comprehensive approach to crafting the convention, taking into account new scientific data, technologies, and bioethical standards.  Any mandate for talks on a convention must provide for the consideration of all aspects of the problem.  The convention itself should contain elements enabling scientific research in the field of developing and regulating human cloning, as well as the prospects for stem-cell research.  TAL BECKER ( Israel ) said that his country was one of the first countries to adopt legislation imposing a general moratorium on genetic intervention for the purpose of human cloning, including the creation of a person by use of reproductive cells that had undergone germ-line gene therapy.  That moratorium was in force for an initial period of five years, during which the moral, legal, social and scientific aspects of the issue, and their implications for human dignity, were to be examined by an advisory committee. The cautious approach adopted in Israeli legislation reflected an understanding that the world was only at the beginning of examining the far-reaching implications of scientific developments in genetic engineering and related fields, he said.  To some extent, Israeli law on human cloning derived its inspiration from Jewish sources.  The imperative in Jewish tradition of healing and of saving human life suggested that scientific techniques which could cure serious diseases, ease suffering and improve the human condition should generally be embraced, though not without reservations.  The possible benefits to scientific and medical research must always be weighed against the likely detrimental effects of such techniques. The first step, he said, should be an honest and realistic assessment of the dangers, both scientific and ethical, and the possible benefits of scientific and medical research in the field of reproductive human cloning.  It was also necessary to consider the different ways in which cloning could be prohibited, monitored and adequately regulated through national and international regulation.  The Committee might wish to consider an international convention which imposed a moratorium on reproductive cloning, to be reviewed periodically and to be closely and carefully monitored, as opposed to one which imposed a sweeping and permanent ban. RENATO R. MARTINO, Observer for the Holy See, supported a global and comprehensive ban on human cloning, no matter what techniques were used and what aims were pursued.  His position was based on biological analysis of the cloning process, as well as anthropological, social, ethical and legal reflection on the negative implications that human cloning had on the life, dignity and rights of the human being.  Based on the biological and anthropological status of the human embryo and on the fundamental moral and civil rule against killing an innocent even to bring about a good for society, the Holy See regarded the conceptual distinction between reproductive and therapeutic (or experimental) human cloning as devoid of any ethical and legal ground. He said the proposed ban on cloning was not intended to prohibit the use of cloning techniques to:  obtain a number of biological entities (molecules, cells and tissues) other than human embryos; generate plants; and produce non-human embryos and non-chimaeric (human-animal) embryos.  Every process involving human cloning was in itself a reproductive process, in that it generated a human being at the very beginning of his or her development.  He supported research on stem cells of post-natal origin, since that approach was a sound, promising and ethical way to achieve tissue transplantation and cell therapy. JONATHAN HUSTON ( Liechtenstein ) said that a convention banning human cloning would give concrete expression to an international consensus.  The need to clearly communicate that consensus was great:  there was an increasing likelihood that attempts to clone human beings would be undertaken even in the present year, and only a very small number of States had thus far adopted legislation prohibiting it.  The elaboration of a convention would streamline and accelerate the process of prohibiting reproductive cloning on the national level and it would lend added moral weight to the process.  In Liechtenstein, for example, there was currently a legal vacuum in the area of cloning.  A global convention would greatly help to fill it. He said that, given the urgency of the Committee's task, it was vital the mandate for negotiating a convention remain focused.  It should be kept in mind, however, that the Committee could not legislate the moral status of human embryos, nor could it engage in a balancing test between the rights of parents, the rights of born and unborn children, and the interests of society.  There were intense policy and legal debates that were fought at the national level; very few States had reached consensus on those issues even within their own borders.  The international community could not hope to do so.  At the same time, however, failure at the international level would relegate the ban on human cloning to national governments, where the outcome would be uncertain, uncoordinated and too slow to counter the urgent threat. A convention focused solely on reproductive cloning could not permit cloning for other purposes, he continued.  There was no international convention against abortion, but that had not meant that abortion was permitted or authorized at the level of individual States.  Unlike in the case of human cloning, most States had legislation on abortion.  In Liechtenstein, abortion was criminalized in all but a narrow set of circumstances, thereby acknowledging the moral standing of embryos.  Its national debate on therapeutic cloning would likely also lead to a restrictive regime nationally.  Despite its national views on the subject, however, it would not force that perspective on other States, and it did not want to endanger the success of a future convention.  He would be open to the inclusion of a review process in the convention, allowing for a reconsideration of human cloning issues, after deeper medical understanding and more mature ethical debate. ANTONIO CAMPOS ( Spain ) said it was necessary to reach agreement on a universal prohibition on the reproductive cloning of human beings, to cover both reproductive and therapeutic purposes.  The reproductive cloning of human beings by nuclear transfer raised serious issues of both a technical and ethical nature.  Therapeutic cloning raised additional problems, including experiments that would end in the destruction of embryos.  It also created identical clones of sick human beings, which could then be transplanted.  That implied the creation of humans for reasons other than existence.  Cloning that used human embryos and by which embryos were destroyed was contrary to human dignity.  Embryos in all stages of development deserved a minimum of respect that ruled out their destruction for utilitarian purposes.  The use and destruction of embryos for research purposes meant the objectification of human embryos.  His Government considered all human cloning, including therapeutic, as contrary to human dignity, and had criminalized it as an offence in its criminal code.  Limiting a United Nations convention to reproductive cloning meant losing an historic opportunity.  The United Nations should not follow that approach.  While he supported the French/German proposal, a more complete and effective convention was needed.  If the scope was limited to reproductive cloning, it would mean that the United Nations condoned human cloning for other purposes. Mr. VILHENA DE CARVALHO ( Portugal ) said his country had undertaken an explicit international commitment against human cloning by its ratification of the Additional Protocol to the relevant Council of Europe Convention.  He also fully supported the French/German initiative, as well as the adoption of the General Assembly resolution on the subject last December.  The issue was an urgent one, requiring the consensus of the international community as a whole.  Everyone was aware of the social and scientific risks of the non-existence of a global stand on the issue.  There could be no delay in finding a result acceptable to all.  Clearly, there was not yet common ground with respect to a sufficiently stable scientific response.  So, the focus should be on the main goal of establishing a binding international instrument that would ban any attempt to clone human beings for reproductive purposes.  CARLOS FERNANDO DÍAZ PANIAGUA ( Costa Rica ) said his country supported a ban on human cloning insofar as it included all types of biotechnical research that violated human dignity.  The main question before the Committee had been well stated by one of the experts yesterday:  were human beings merely a group of cells or something more vulnerable?  Costa Rica's constitutional court felt that human life began at the moment of conception and, therefore, that every embryo should enjoy the full range of human rights instruments.  Last year, the court accepted technically assisted fertility treatments for infertile couples, with the proviso of satisfying the notion that such assistance was compatible with the protection of human life.  The ethnical criteria that inspired human rights treaties should prevail. ORIO IKEBE, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), said that nearly 10 years ago UNESCO had established a Bioethics Committee to examine the ethical and legal issues raised by the life sciences and to recommend appropriate action.  The General Conference of UNESCO had also established an Intergovernmental Bioethics Committee, which in 1995 and 1996 had examined issues related to human cloning.  Article 11 of the Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights stated that practices that were contrary to human dignity, such as reproductive cloning of human beings, were not permitted.  The Intergovernmental Committee, at its second session in May 2001, had reaffirmed that human reproductive cloning was contrary to human dignity and had encouraged Member States to take appropriate measures to prohibit human reproductive cloning. The question was also examined in a recent round table held in Paris in October 2001, with ministers of science from more than 100 delegations, she continued, whose Final Communiqué reaffirmed that human reproductive cloning was a practice contrary to human dignity.  She was pleased to see that the principle of Article 11 was now being discussed by the Ad Hoc Committee with a view to the elaboration of a possible convention against human reproductive cloning.  The UNESCO would be prepared to carry out scientific and technical studies in that regard to assist the Committee in its work. NICOLE BIROS, World Health Organization (WHO), said she supported the work of the Ad Hoc Committee and the eventual drafting of the convention. For 50 years, the WHO had set technical and ethical standards in virtually all areas of health.  Standard-setting had been one major way in which the WHO had acted as the directing and coordinating authority on international health work.  By providing countries with such standards, it had supported their efforts to assess and apply health standards and technology.  The WHO also relied on the active participation of its six regional offices, through which diverse social, cultural and economic environments were reflected. She said that the WHO had addressed the issue of cloning in various forums, and it had adopted resolutions declaring that the use of cloning for reproductive purposes was ethically unacceptable and harmful to the dignity of the human being. At the same time, the WHO had endorsed the view that such a ban should not lead to an indiscriminate ban on all cloning procedures and research.  It had recognized the need to respect freedom of scientific advances and ensure access to their applications.  Her organization would continue to monitor the situation and, where appropriate, develop guidelines for human cloning for health and non-reproductive purposes.  For example, scientific research involving stem cells, including from embryonic tissue, could yield new treatments for disease.  A full and open debate was needed, leading to conclusions on the utility, safety and desirability of stem-cell research.  BARBARA RHODE, European Commission, drew attention to several documents before the Committee, including the European Charter of Fundamental Rights.  National regulations concerning ethical values varied within the European Union countries.  From the beginning, the Commission had welcomed the French/German initiative to elaborate a convention banning the reproductive cloning of human beings.  She hoped to add such a United Nations convention to the European Commission’s regulations soon.  The European Parliament had worked for a year on a report on human genetics.  However, the attempt failed since too many topics were covered at the same time.  A viable approach could only be to concentrate on basic shared principles.  The control of such regulations was also important. * *** *

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Should human cloning be allowed?

A Nobel Prize-winning scientist has claimed that human cloning could become a reality within the next 50 years.

The British biologist Sir John Gurdon carried out pioneering frog cloning work during the 1950s and 60s – research which led to the creation of Dolly the sheep in 1996.

During an appearance on BBC Radio 4’s The Life Scientific , Gurdon said that the time period between his cloned frogs and Dolly the sheep could be similar to the time we have to wait until the first human clone.

He said: "When my first frog experiments were done, an eminent American reporter came down and said 'How long will it be before these things can be done in mammals or humans?'”

"I said: 'Well, it could be anywhere between 10 years and 100 years – how about 50 years? It turned out that wasn't far off the mark as far as Dolly was concerned. Maybe the same answer is appropriate."

Advocates of human cloning argue that it would have important uses, such as allowing parents to clone a child who’s been tragically lost in an accident or through illness. The technology could also allow scientists to grow replacement tissues and organs that are accepted by the body without the need for immunosuppressive drugs.

On the flipside, critics highlight the fact that many cloned animals end up being deformed, warning that human clones could be similarly damaged. Others worry that cloning might lead to a loss of human dignity and individuality, as vividly depicted in Aldous Huxley’s dystopian novel Brave New World .

Despite such complex ethical issues, however, Gurdon believes that human cloning would soon be accepted by the public if it turns out to have valuable medical uses.

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The Pros & Cons of Cloning

human cloning should be banned essay

Advantages & Disadvantages of Cloning

As far as anyone really knows, scientists have yet to clone a human being, and there are no federal laws against it in the United State. However, seven states prohibit it altogether, and 10 states only allow it for biomedical research. While more than 30 countries formally ban cloning for reproductive purposes, China, England, Israel, Singapore and Sweden do allow cloning for research, but disallow reproductive cloning.

Cloning Definition

The definition of a clone as explained by Encyclopaedia Britannica is a cell or living thing, an organism, that is "genetically identical to the original cell or organism" from which it comes. The word itself comes from the ancient Greek word "klon," which means twig. Single-cell organisms like some yeasts and bacteria naturally reproduce clones of parent cells via budding or binary fission. Individual body cells within plants and animals are clones that occur during a cell-reproduction process called mitosis.

Cloned Animals

In 2017, scientists in Shanghai succeeded in cloning two genetically identical long-tailed macaques, small brown and black monkeys with body lengths of 16 to 28 inches. The last successful cloning of a primate was in 1998, but scientists have also cloned about 20 different types of animals including dogs, pigs, frogs, mice, cows and rabbits since the first cloned animal in 1996.

The First Cloned Animal: Dolly the Sheep

The first successful animal cloning occurred over 22 years ago, after a Scottish Blackface sheep surrogate mother gave birth to Dolly on July 5, 1996, at the Roslin Institute, part of the University of Edinburgh. Cloned from a six-year-old Dorset sheep, scientists analyzed her DNA at her first birthday and discovered that the telomeres at the end of her DNA strands (think eraser on a pencil head) were shorter that they should be for her age. As animals and humans age, these telomeres become shorter. The average age for sheep runs between six to 12 years. Dolly died when she was six, and though she had shortened telomeres, she lived an average life and produced multiple offspring through natural methods, but she also developed diseases in her later years.

Human Cloning Pros and Cons

The pros or advantages of human cloning include:

  • ​ Infertility: ​ Infertile people or same-sex couples could have children made from cloned cells.
  • ​ Organ replacement: ​ A clone, like in the movie, "The Island," could be a source for transplant organs or tissue. (There are ethical issues that arise from this, however.)
  • ​ Genetic research: ​ Cell cloning could assist scientists in gene editing and research.
  • ​ Selective human traits: ​ After editing or removing bad genes, cloning could lead engineered humans for specific traits.
  • ​ Human development: ​ Cloning could enhance and advance human development.

The cons or disadvantages of human cloning raise moral, ethical and safety issues:

  • ​ Reproductive cloning: ​ The negatives of human cloning including the making of designer babies.
  • ​ Human cloning: ​ Could be a violation of the clone's individual human rights.
  • ​ Embryonic cloning: ​ Cellular degradation occurs when too many clones are made from embryos.
  • ​ Unique identities: ​ Cloning raises the question of a moral or human right to an exclusive identity.
  • ​ Societal impacts: ​ Human cloning could produce psychological distress for the clone and society.

Effects of Cloning

While the purpose of cloning is to create an exact replica – if scientists cloned a human that appears identical to the original – it raises the questions as to whether the cloned human is an individual separate from the original and is due the same rights as any other human. Human cloning research and techniques could subject the clone to unacceptable risks such as a shortened life, bad health or other unknown problems. In the end, legalizing cloning on a wide-scale basis could lead to a disrespect for human life and the individual worth of a person, which might ultimately diminish all humans in the end.

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  • CNN: Monkey See, Monkey 2: Scientists Clone Monkeys Using Technique That Created Dolly the Sheep
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macaque
  • The University of Edinburgh: The Life of Dolly
  • North Carolina State Extension: Sheep Facts
  • Georgetown University: Cloning Human Beings
  • Johns Hopkins University: Ask an Expert: How Close Are We to Cloning Humans?
  • The New Atlantis: Appendix: State Laws on Human Cloning
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica: Clone

About the Author

As a journalist and editor for several years, Laurie Brenner has covered many topics in her writings, but science is one of her first loves. Her stint as Manager of the California State Mining and Mineral Museum in California's gold country served to deepen her interest in science which she now fulfills by writing for online science websites. Brenner is also a published sci-fi author. She graduated from San Diego's Coleman College in 1972.

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  • The Big Debate: Should Human Cloning Be Legalised?

Human cloning is a highly debated topic.

In 1997, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell of the Roslin Institute shocked the scientific community and the world when they announced the birth of a successfully cloned sheep named Dolly. After Dolly was born, the cloning  of humans seemed , at least in principle, achievable. The possibility of cloning humans sparked heated debate across the world about the acceptability and necessity of such a procedure. Some felt that biotechnology had gone a step too far while others welcomed such a development. Since then, several other species including, goats, pigs, mules, cows, mice, and cats, have been successfully cloned. The possibility of human cloning engages not only religious, social, cultural, and moral challenges but also legal and ethical issues. The debate on human cloning also raises questions of human and fundamental rights, particularly liberty of procreation, freedom of thought and scientific inquiry, and right to health. There are currently several  types of cloning  carried out by scientists that include cellular cloning, embryo cloning, and molecular cloning. Embryo cloning is further divided into, nuclear transfer, blastocyst division or twinning, and blastomere separation. The cloning technique used to clone Dolly was a type of nuclear transfer.

Arguments In Favor Of Human Cloning

Help infertile couples.

Human cloning technology, once optimized, will have the ability to help infertile couples who cannot produce sperm or eggs to have children that are genetically related to them. A couple could potentially decide to have a clone of the man born through his female partner or a clone of the woman providing the genetic material. A human clone would, therefore, become a “ single parent-child .” Currently, treatment for infertility is not very successful. By some estimates, the success rates of infertility treatments, including IVF (in vitro fertilization) is less than 10%. The procedures are not only frustrating, but they are also expensive. In some instances, human cloning technology could be considered as the last best hope for having children for infertile couples.

Recreate A Lost Child Or Relative

The loss of a child is one of the worst tragedies that parents face. After such a painful ordeal, grief-stricken parents often wish they could have their perfect baby back. Human cloning technology could potentially allow parents to recreate a child or relative while seeking redress for their loss. Cells of a dying child could be taken and  used later for  cloning without consent from the parents. While the new child would not take away the memory, he/she would probably help take away some of the pain. The technology would allow parents to have a twin of their child, and like other twins, the new child would be a unique individual.

Exercise Procreative Liberty

The freedom to decide whether or not to have an offspring is an important concept of personal liberty. People have the right to utilize human cloning technology in the same way they have a right to other reproductive related procedures and technologies such as the Vitro fertilization or contraceptives. A parent’s  right to bear  a child through cloning should, therefore, be respected. When the technology is established and becomes no less safe than natural reproduction, then human cloning should be allowed as a reproductive right. Cloning would also allow members of the LGBT community to have children related to them. In a lesbian couple, one of them could be cloned and brought to term in either of the women. In a gay couple, one of the men could be cloned, but the couple would need to find a woman to donate an egg and a surrogate mother to bring the embryo to term.

Offspring Free Of Genetic Defects

Current knowledge of bioengineering coupled with human cloning technology could help many parents have offspring free of defective genetic material that could cause disorders and deadly diseases. In a case where both parents have recessive genes for the fatal disease, they could avoid more traditional methods that could result in a child with dominant genes, which would consequently lead to the disease. The parents could use human cloning technology to have a child  without the disease  since the genetic makeup of the child would be the same as that of a parent who was cloned.

Provide Medical Cures

Human cloning technology could help children born with incurable diseases that can only be treated through a transplant, where donors with an organ match are not found. Cloning technology would allow a child to be cloned under reproductive purpose, which would allow the resulting clone to donate an organ such as a kidney or bone marrow. In that case, the older child  would be saved , and the younger clone child would also live since bone marrow regenerates, and humans can live with one kidney. The technology would allow a parent to save an existing life through a new life. Human cloning technology could also utilize the nuclear transplantation technique to produce human stem cells for therapeutic purposes. Stem cells from the umbilical cord could be cultured and allowed to develop into tissues such as bone marrow or a kidney when needed. Since the DNA of the new organ or bone marrow is matched to the patient, there would be a lower risk of organ rejection as a foreign matter by the patient’s body.

A Step Towards Immortality

Human clones are sometimes called “ later-born twin s” by those receptive to the idea of human cloning. The term is justified by the fact that the cloned being would have the same genetic material as the original and would be born after the person who is cloned. The process of human cloning can be considered as taking human DNA and reversing its age back to zero. Some scientists believe that the technology would allow them to understand how to reverse DNA to any desirable age. Such knowledge would be seen as a step closer to a fountain of youth. Some people believe that human cloning technology would allow people to have some kind of immortality because their DNA would live on after they die. 

Arguments Against Human Cloning

Medical danger.

Based on information gained from previous cloning experiments, cloned mammals die younger and suffer prematurely from diseases such as arthritis. Cloned animals also have a higher risk of developing genetic defects and being born deformed or with a disease. Studies on cloned mice have shown that they die prematurely from damaged livers, tumors, and pneumonia. Since human cloning technology is not tested, scientists cannot rule out  biological damage to the clone. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission report stated that it is morally unacceptable for anyone in the private or public sector, whether in a research or clinical setting, to attempt to create a child through somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning because it would pose unacceptable potential risks to the fetus or child. Human cloning technology would also put the mother at risk. 

Dr. Leon Kass, chairman of the President’s Council of Bioethics, has warned that studies on animal cloning suggest late-term fetal losses or spontaneous abortions occur at a higher rate in cloned fetuses than in natural pregnancies. In humans, a late-term fetal loss could significantly increase maternal mortality and morbidity. Cloning could also pose psychological risks to the mother due to the late spontaneous abortions, the birth of a child with severe health problems, or the birth of a stillborn baby.

Disrespect For The Dignity Of The Cloned Person

One of the most satisfying and difficult things about being a human is developing a sense of self. It involves understanding our capabilities, strengths, needs, wants, and understanding how we fit into the community or the world. A crucial part of that process is learning from and then breaking away from parents and understanding how we are similar or different from our parents. Human cloning technology would  potentially diminish  the individuality or uniqueness of a cloned child. Even in instances where the child is cloned from someone other than their parents, it would not be very easy for them to develop a sense of self. It could also lead to the devaluation of clones when compared to a non-clone or original. Cloning would also infringe on the clone’s freedom, autonomy, and self-determination. Cloned children would be raised unavoidably in the shadow of the person they were cloned from.

Co-modification Of Cloned Children

Human cloning technology would, in return for compensation, provide offspring with specific genetic makeup. Cloning a child would also require some patented reproductive procedure and technology that could be sold. Consequently, human cloning technology would lead society to view children and  people as objects that can be designed and manufactured with specific characteristics. Buyers would theoretically want to pay top dollar for a cloned embryo of a Nobel Prize winner, celebrity, or any other prominent figure in society. 

Societal Dangers

 Some experts have argued that societal hazards may be the least appreciated in discussions on human cloning technology. Such technology could, for example, lead to new and more effective  forms of eugenics . In countries run by dictators, governments could engage in mass cloning of people who are “deemed” of proper genetic makeup. In democracies, human cloning technology could lead to free-market eugenics that could have a significant societal impact when coupled with bioengineering techniques. People could theoretically bioengineer their clones to have certain traits. When done on a mass scale, it would lead to a kind of a master race based on fashion.

International Stand On Human Cloning

In March 2005, the United Nations General assembly approved a  non-binding Declaration  that called on UN member states to ban all forms of human cloning as incompatible with the protection of human life and human dignity. The Declaration concluded efforts that had begun in 2001 with a proposal from Germany and France for a convention against the reproductive cloning of humans. The US and 83 other nations supported a ban on all human cloning technology for reproductive and therapeutic or experimental purposes. The other 34 nations, including the UK, Japan, and China, voted against the ban. While 37 countries abstained from the vote, and 36 countries were absent.

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Guest Essay

Let’s Thank the Alabama Supreme Court

An illustration of Lady Justice holding a cross and sword.

By Linda Greenhouse

Ms. Greenhouse, the recipient of a 1998 Pulitzer Prize, reported on the Supreme Court for The Times from 1978 to 2008 and was a contributing Opinion writer from 2009 to 2021.

I never thought I’d be grateful to the Alabama Supreme Court for anything, but now I am. With its decision deeming frozen embryos to be children under state law, that all-Republican court has done the impossible. It has awakened the American public, finally, to the peril of the theocratic future toward which the country has been hurtling.

The U.S. Supreme Court’s June 2022 decision that erased the constitutional right to abortion was an alert, too, of course, leaving Republicans scrambling to distance themselves from the fruits of the court they had populated with such glee only a few years earlier. The fact that religious doctrine lay at the heart of Justice Samuel Alito’s majority opinion in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization was perfectly clear, as I observed then. Dobbs is usually discussed today as a conservative power play, however, rather than as a projection of a religious view of fetal life onto both a largely unwilling public and the Constitution itself.

But there’s no avoiding the theological basis of the Alabama court’s solicitude for “extrauterine children,” to use the majority opinion’s phrase. In a concurring opinion in which he referred to embryos as “little people,” Tom Parker, Alabama’s chief justice, rested his analysis on what’s become known as the Sanctity of Unborn Life Amendment that Alabama voters added to the state’s Constitution in 2018. “It is as if the people of Alabama took what was spoken of the prophet Jeremiah and applied it to every unborn person in this state: ‘Before I formed you in the womb I knew you. Before you were born I sanctified you,’” the chief justice wrote.

The decision was a shock, causing immediate chaos and heartbreak as fertility centers in Alabama paused their in vitro fertilization practices, crushing dreams of long-deferred parenthood even for couples whose embryos were days away from being transferred. (The cowardice of the medical profession is a notable feature of the post-Dobbs era; listen to Monday’s episode of “The Daily ” for one young woman’s despairing account of what she experienced.)

But should it really have been such a surprise? The country is awash in religiosity when it comes to human reproduction. More than 120 Republican members of the House of Representatives have signed on as co-sponsors of the Life at Conception Act . Among them is their leader, Speaker Mike Johnson, an evangelical Christian who has called abortion “an American holocaust.” The bill provides that “the terms ‘human person’ and ‘human being’ include each and every member of the species homo sapiens at all stages of life, including the moment of fertilization, cloning or other moment at which an individual member of the human species comes into being.”

While the bill doesn’t mention in vitro fertilization, the implications for I.V.F. are clear on the face of its text. Now many of its co-sponsors are urgently assuring their constituents that they don’t really mean that .

A startling example of religion infiltrating the engines of government is playing out in Idaho. The state’s attorney general, Raúl Labrador, has brought on the group Alliance Defending Freedom, a prominent Christian legal organization, to help argue Idaho’s Supreme Court challenge to a Biden administration policy that requires hospitals to provide abortion if necessary when a woman arrives in the emergency room in a pregnancy-induced medical crisis. The federal law, the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, requires hospitals to provide either “necessary stabilizing treatment” for any emergency room patient or a transfer to another hospital, while Idaho’s abortion law permits terminating a pregnancy only in cases of rape and incest and to prevent “death.”

In making its argument, Idaho says in its brief to the court that it has a record of “150 years of protecting life” and that the federal medical treatment law “does not require emergency rooms to become abortion enclaves in violation of state law.” The case is set for argument in April.

As the full force of the Alabama court’s decision sank in, the state’s Republican governor, Kay Ivey, and leaders of the Republican-controlled State Legislature have vowed to enact a legislative fix to protect I.V.F. That may not be so simple. The 1872 state law on which Justice Jay Mitchell based his majority opinion, the Wrongful Death of a Minor Act, presumably could be replaced by new legislation. But Chief Justice Parker warned in his concurring opinion that the recent voter-approved constitutional protection for “unborn life” would stand in the way.

“Carving out an exception for the people in this case, small as they were,” he wrote, in reference to the destroyed frozen embryos at the heart of the case, “would be unacceptable to the people of this state, who have required us to treat every human being in accordance with the fear of a holy God who made them in his image.”

As Alabama’s political leaders search for a way out of this mess, I can’t help but notice their silence on the closely related subject of abortion. As soon as the Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade, Alabama’s pre-Dobbs abortion law sprang into effect. It is a total ban, making an exception only to prevent “a serious health risk” to the pregnant woman, not for pregnancies resulting from rape or incest. As of 2021, Alabama had the fourth-highest maternal death rate in the country, behind only Arkansas, Mississippi and Tennessee. (To put this in perspective, a woman giving birth in Alabama is more than four times as likely to die in the process or soon thereafter as one in California.) Restoring access to abortion might seem to be a logical, even natural topic of conversation.

So why do we hear nothing from those so quick to self-protectively bemoan the state court’s I.V.F. decision? Religion is part of the answer, no doubt, but there is something more. Abortion is generally portrayed as a woman’s issue; an unwanted or even dangerous pregnancy is her problem. Infertility, by contrast, is seen as a couple’s problem. That means there is a man involved (even if, for lesbian couples, for example, or for single women, that man is only a sperm donor). And when men have a problem, we know the world is going to snap to attention.

Rhetoric about the “sanctity of unborn life,” in the words of Alabama’s Constitution, has for too long been cost-free, a politician’s cheap thrill. Now we see that, taken to extremes in the hands of the ideologues our current political culture nurtures, it has a price, one that society now seems reluctant to pay. For that realization, we can, as I said earlier, thank the Alabama Supreme Court.

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Persuasive Essay Example: Human Cloning Should Be Banned

Recently cloning humans has been a debatable topic and has been argued between scientist every single day. Though the most humane answer is to outlaw cloning humans in the U.S. I find it hard to understand why this topic is debated on, and why many people do not see the flaws of cloning humans. 

There are plenty of downsides to cloning and one of them is aging. Reading and watching informative movies and shows on cloning has led me to learn that cloning has a side effect on aging. When cloning someone the clone will have a shorter lifespan due to the fact that the original is older, and you are cloning older DNA. This a major flaw and a person should not be forced into dying faster than normal people.

They may also have other flaws like health disorders or mental illnesses. You will not be able to tell till after the process, but clones more likely have a chance of that happening to them since they do not have their own DNA. Putting a baby through this is inhumane and should be outlawed everywhere. 

There is no reason to clone humans, and you can instead clone endangered animals. Many people think it is cruel to clone animals too, but when a species is endangered due to human involvement the last option would be to clone the endangered species. Human cloning is not right and even though it is theoretical it is still possible. That is why we should ban cloning now before people start cloning humans for “warfare” or “labor”.

Cloning humans should be indisputable and outlawed soon, or someone with the wrong mind might get their hands on cloning. We should not make humans just for someone else’s use, and instead use it for animals who are dying out because of us. Cloning is not a toy and needs to be prohibited immediately.

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Cloning Should be Illegal Argumentative Essay Example

Cloning is a crazy process that requires money and smartness. Cloning should be illegal in every country and state. I believe that cloning should be used for good use, but Cloning humans should never be allowed, no matter the circumstances. Cloning can be used to better the environment; maybe more food, some for cattle and What not? Cloning, on the other hand, is fraught with danger and has the potential to cause a slew of issues on the way, can cause birth defects, and the clone is not born at the same age. They are born. They would be newborns, and you would have to raise them and take care of them. It is more work, since they are genetically modified. 

Cloning is the process of creating a genetic replica of another cell, tissue, or organism. Then Copying material that has the same genetic makeup as the original is referred to as a clone. The most famous clone was a Scottish sheep named Dolly. Dolly, the first cloned sheep, appeared to be in good health at the time of her death, but the The cause of her death is unknown. Why should cloning be illegal? Cloning has a negative impact on some human ideals. Individuality raises fundamental questions about human nature, particularly in terms of Human cloning is not possible. It is effectively achieved based on present technology and scientific study, despite success in other animals, because there are multiple shortcomings whose solutions have yet to be developed. "We believe that research cloning should only proceed under strict control." "There is close scrutiny by the federal government over both the public and private sectors. (Master of Engineering, Berkeley, 2020)

If the technology was legal, it could be abused to allow eugenic selections with enhancement in human traits. The practice of cloning would not only violate a person’s But it would also "reduce diversity in the human gene pool" (Berkely Master Of Engineering 2020). Human beings should not be cloned for several reasons, which are going to be further As discussed in this op-ed: Cloning is a risky and imperfect procedure; it does not create An exact copy of an individual Finally, we cannot ignore the ethical and moral concerns. that exist around the topic of human cloning. 

Now let's talk about the process of cloning. The topic of cloning humans has It has raised a lot of controversy as well as scientific, ethical, and moral concerns. in the same way Because we can, does not mean that we should. Cloning humans could lead to serious There are violations of human rights as well as human dignity, and it is up to authorities, laws, and Green (1999) urged institutions to make sure to protect cloned individuals from being exploited (Green, 1999). There is the possibility of babies whose genes have been selected or altered, also known as "designer babies." Cloning may continue to be most useful in the field for which it was invented. It was developed to improve livestock breeding. "iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells are By far, the biggest Inheritance from the cloning experiment, "iPSC research has quickly become the foundation for a new regenerative medicine. These cells are now used in research around the world. They are only now beginning to find applications. Therapy, first in macular degeneration. Eggan says that they’re so easy to use that even The college sophomores he teaches at Harvard can make them. " Using iPSC technology, Our faculty have reprogrammed skin cells into active motor neurons, egg and sperm precursors, Liver cells, bone precursors, and blood cells." Now that we know the process of cloning, let's talk about all the problems that occurs. 

The experimental procedures required to produce stem cells through nuclear Transplantation would consist of the transfer of a somatic cell nucleus from a patient into an enucleated egg. For some autoimmune diseases, transplantation of cells cloned from the The patient's own cells may be inappropriate in that these cells can be targets for the ongoing destructive process. Clones contain identical sets of genetic material in their nucleus. Every cell in their body has a compartment that contains all of their chromosomes.The laws vary in their In the definitions of cloning and in the penalties they set (which range as high as 10 years in prison), and a $10 million fine in Louisiana. The AAAS supports a legally binding prohibition on such efforts. It is possible to implant a human cloned embryo for reproductive purposes.The scientific evidence demonstrating the serious health risks associated with reproductive cloning, as demonstrated by This procedure, based on animal studies, renders it unconscionable.

Since 1997, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has This engaged the public and various professional communities in a debate about the scientific and There are social challenges surrounding human cloning and stem cell research. "There are three different types of artificial cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning." (NHGRI, 2020) Therapeutic cloning is the process of creating embryonic stem cells for medical purposes. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue in the human body to replace injured or diseased tissues. This technology and the ongoing research to clone mammals (and thus humans) is at work in order to potentially cure certain diseases and give infertile couples the opportunity to have children.

Now let's get to the facts cloning should be illegal no doubt to be able to clone and Genetically modifiy DNA is obsurd think about what kind of technology we would have in about 20 years . The things that could happen with this type of technology could change the world. Maybe for the better or worse. Genetic engineering the facts the first animal that was ever genetically modified was created in 1973!. 1973 was along time to go and to already have that type of technology scares Me. Genetically engineered things are actually all around us . For example , Golden Rice and Corn The states that are banned from cloning .. There are currently 8 states (Arizona, Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Virginia) that prohibit cloning for any purpose. There are 4 states (Arizona, Indiana, Louisiana, and Michigan) that expressly prohibit state funding of human cloning for any purpose. There are 50 states and only 8 of them ban cloning! That's nuts however there is some states that will not fund cloning organizations. Cloning once was opposed to getting banned but it never ended up happening. States have passed their own laws banning human cloning, but Congress never reached a consensus. In 2001, former President George W. Bush banned the use of government funds for most embryonic stem cell research, which was considered to apply to cloning as well.

Cloning is morally wrong because it oversteps the boundaries of humans' role in scientific research and development. You have to understand when you clone a mammal or A human you are creating a newborn child or animal not an already aged and mature animal nor Person. If you are generally smart you can and could make a clone in approximately 9 months That's insane!! A pair of clones will experience different environments and nutritional inputs while in the uterus, and they would be expected to be subject to different inputs from their parents, society, and life experience as they grow up. Infertile couples who wish to have a child that is genetically identical with one of them, or with another nucleus donor.Transplantable tissue may be available without the need for the birth of a child produced by cloning. For example, embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVE)  can be typed for transplant suitability, and in the future stem cells produced by nuclear transplantation may allow the production of transplantable tissue. True clones have identical DNA in both the nuclei and mitochondria, although the term clones is also used to refer to individuals that have identical nuclear DNA but different mitochondrial DNA.

Now in conclusion this is just of the problems of cloning and why it's wrong and as you can see it's alot . Alot of reasons why cloning should be banned your essentially Creating a person for an experiment and raising it , but as you should know clones don’t have a Long life span. They are expected to live about 40 years . Also born with defects aswell. Do you agree or disagree with this? Do you think cloning should be banned?

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Home — Essay Samples — Nursing & Health — Cloning — Discussion on Whether Human Cloning Should Be Legal


Discussion on Whether Human Cloning Should Be Legal

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Human cloning - should it be banned?

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Ashal Mehmud

Human Cloning – should it be banned?

In this report, I shall look at the arguments ‘for’ and ‘against’ human cloning. To do this, I will explain the different types of cloning, including cloning in plants and I will be looking at different scientific experiments and case studies on cloning, such as dolly the sheep, and   evaluating whether or not it contributes to the argument. I will also include my point of view where applicable.

What is cloning?

  • Cloning is the creation of cells, organs or whole animals using DNA from a single ‘parent’ cell.
  • The clone is genetically identical  to the ‘parent’. “This enables huge numbers of identical plants to be produced, but they will all be susceptible in variation.”
  • Different types of cloning: asexual cloning, commercial cloning of plants, therapeutic cloning, animal cloning, and human reproduction.  

Cloning techniques in plants:

  • Some plants (like spider plants)  can reproduce asexually.
  • Asexual reproduction is a type  of reproduction which does not involve meiosis, or fertilization. It is a form of mitosis.
  • Asexual reproduction only takes one ‘parent’ cell.
  • This is done when single celled organisms, such as bacteria, grow and then divided into two ‘daughter cells’.
  • All offspring produced asexually are clones: so are therefore genetically identical to the ‘parent’ cells, which in this case are plants.  

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Asexual reproduction

Commercial cloning of plants:

  • Clones are genetically, and physically, identical  to the ‘parent’ plant.
  • [so] If a particular breed or colour of plant is desired, it is much easier to make sure that that colour or breed is produced by asexually breeding it. This can take the form of taking cuttings, etc.
  • There are disadvantages as well as disadvantages to this:
  • You can be sure  of the characteristics of the plants.

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  • It is possible to produce huge  numbers of the plants which may be harder  to grow from seed, e.g. roses.


  • If the plants become susceptible to disease or sensitive to changes in the environment then all the plants will react in the same way, possibly killing all of them.
  • The reduction in genetic variation reduces the possibility of further selective breeding.

Dolly the sheep

  • Dolly was the first ever cloned sheep. Dolly was born in 1996 and was put down on 14th Feb. 2003.
  • Dolly was created by Ian Wilmut and his team at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh.
  • As Dolly’s genetic information came from a six year old sheep then questions have been asked about her true age. This means that she might not have died at the age of 6, but at the average age of 11 or 12. This is even more likely because the Roslin Institute decided the sheep should be put down after she developed a progressive lung disease, which is common in older sheep, so her death may mean nothing at all.
  • Most people will still think she needed to be put down at this age because she was a clone which makes people see the negative side of cloning rather than the positive.
  • It took 277 attempts to create Dolly which cost a lot of money.
  • Many other animals including the cow, goat, mouse and cat, after Dolly, have been cloned, but many die before birth or are born with severe abnormalities.


Human cloning

  • Because many animals are being born with abnormalities, and the huge expenses, people are becoming very sceptical of human cloning.
  • Human cloning can be done but it will take hundreds or even thousands of attempts and it will cost huge amounts of money.
  • Every time the attempt is unsuccessful, it means that the “mother” has had a miscarriage, possibly causing her to be upset .
  • In the future, cloning could become successful, but more knowledge is needed on the way the human body produces when it is being cloned, to know where the problems are that are causing failed attempts.
  • There has only been one successfully cloned human being, which was a baby girl in America. She was born in December 2002. Her name is Eve and she was apparently produced by the ‘Raelians’ (a sect that believes that humans were created by aliens in laboratories on another planet).
  • There are, of course, some disadvantages as well as some advantages.
  • People, who have died, can be reborn.
  • Stem cell cloning will provide a never ending supply of healthy organs.
  • Couples, who are unable  to have children of their own, will be able to have children, although there is the question of whether one of them will be cloned, or someone else.


  • A religious person could argue that God made everyone unique and different and that is how it should stay.
  • If a person has died and is recreated, their clone can die early, because it’s genetic age will be the same as their genetic age (as we saw with Dolly the sheep).

After evaluating the above information, I conclude that human cloning should not be banned. This is because, if an individual knows all the risks and complications, and still decides on proceeding with the cloning, it is their decision and it should be available for them. If cloning is banned, and someone is firm  on having it done, they can go abroad to somewhere where it is legal and have it done, there as the woman who gave birth to Eve (the baby girl from above). Although I am not religious, I agree with some religious people who say that if God didn’t want us to use  this technology, why would he let us discover it and use it in the first place?

I do, although, understand why people would disagree because of their religious views and other scientific evidence: such as abnormalities and the poor successes rates. I also admit that the clone can have a premature death or develop the same diseases that the ‘donor’ has (or will have) at the age of the DNA being taken, as Dolly did, which could cause suffering for the clone and those around it.

I believe my evidence and sources have used scientific knowledge, as 6 of the 11 are from science websites/books and the rest are from BBC News which, because of the nature of the story, uses scientific terminology and explanations.  


  • From OCR science book – Lonsdale revision guide.
  • GCSE Biology AJ633 teacher support

Human cloning - should it be banned?

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  • Subject Science

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Argumentative Essay On Should Human Cloning Be Legal

Type of paper: Argumentative Essay

Topic: Life , Pregnancy , Health , Family , Childhood , Abortion , Children , Medicine

Words: 2750

Published: 11/11/2019



Human cloning is the creation of identical human being in the laboratory. It is an artificial process and is conducted with stem cell research and biotechnology. Reproductive cloning would give rise to human clones. Animal cloning is practiced from past few years and with the birth of Dolly, the sheep cloning has become the prime research area of many scientists. The reproductive cloning is dealing with many controversial issues and is banned in several countries including United States. The discussion on should human cloning be legalized or banned is a discussion issue among the bio-research communities and there are many views in favor and in against of it. Every coin has two sides, similarly human cloning has some potential benefits and disadvantages for entire human race. The decision of legalizing the human cloning is a crucial one and the critical evaluation of the disadvantages would demonstrate the shortcomings of human cloning.

I: Human Cloning should not be legalized

Human cloning should not be legalized and the same can be supported through psychological reasons, physiological reasons, ethical reasons, environmental reasons, social reasons, physical reasons and legal issues which shall be faced by the entire human race if the cloning is legalized. As evident, few scientists are eager to initiate experiment of human cloning and once legalized, human cloning would go full fledged into testing leading to killing of dozens of embryo daily.

If human cloning is legalized and practiced regularly, soon the hospitals will be full of babies with genetic birth defects. The babies will be dependent on respirators as their lungs and heart will be deformed or malfunctioning. Brain damage would be a common occurrence in babies and the ability to suckle will not be present in babies and they would require to be fed with feeding tubes. If not these, then infants will have severe physical deformity. The infants who will have normal physical appearance may suffer from autism, epilepsy or other genetic abnormality. As per Gerald Schatten, vice chairman of gynecology, obstetrics and reproductive sciences at University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine “All of the data on animal cloning demonstrates exceptionally high rates of fetal loss, abortion (and) neonatal deaths, and many cloned animals have devastating birth defects," when scientists work with animals for cloning and as a result of experiment, if the animal infant is abnormal scientists euthanize the infant, however the supporters of human cloning has to explain their willingness to follow the same method for human infants born as a resultant of cloning experiment.

Moreover, the scientists who are favoring human cloning, their readiness for the same is questionable. The strong argument against the human cloning is that the reprogramming which is required for successful creation of embryo is still under research. For animal cloning, scientists insert the adult cell DNA into dozens of eggs and give electricity shocks to initiate the cell division mandatory for embryo creation. Out of all the eggs made to go through this process, at the most only 2 per cent gives rise to an embryo and out of them only 10 to 15 per cent are normal. Hence, as evident, the ratio of successful and healthy live infant is minuscule. Moreover, cloning can make the human gene pool defective and produce irreversible negative effects on the genetic make-up of cells.

The environmentalists are also opposing human cloning as the genetic engineering has already demonstrated some major side-effects on the evolution and sustenance of some animal species like the impact of genetic modification of BT corn on monarch butterfly. Similarly the side effects of human cloning on human race should also be simulated in detail, not only for short term but also for the hundreds of years to come.

It is obvious that the human cloning will definitely have an impact on human race and it could be negative as well. It can also be foreseen that once scientists acquire the skill to clone successfully, the value of life and ecosystem would deteriorate quickly and the need to preserve the animal species and humans would be eliminated. This would disturb the ecosystem and cloning, by no means provides the assurance of sustenance of ecosystem and survival of diverse species.

Ethically, the clones who will be produced would be an individual with independent thinking and feelings; however, it contrasts with the purpose of producing the clones. The clones would be bought into existence so that they can donate their organs or replace a lost person, hence merely to serve a need. This process would not respect the emotions of clone and the concerned parents or relatives will not regard the clone as a living individual. There would be utter confusion and on moral grounds, the clones would only be created to fulfill the need which would be contrary to be created for love.

Human cloning would also enable the humans to predetermine the traits they prefer in the offspring and this would lead to degeneration of family life and individuality of offspring. The traits which shall not be selected for long will become extinct and prevalent in today’s world; the offspring would also be accorded qualities as per the theme of day. This may sound to be an exaggerated version of the social issues raised by cloning, however this could prove to be true as well. Children from cloning would evolve and acquire traits as per parents preference and would become what their parents envisage them to be, in a way becoming the robots with no individual desire and goals of life. This would lead to a chain of desires which shall be forced on succeeding generation by the preceding generation.

The ban on human cloning also has a religious perspective. It is being believed by many that human life is a divine creation and all the humans are to be born in natural way and not created through some scientific process. Once the life is started to be generated in laboratories, the value which is being attached to life by humans and law and order would diminish. Taking one’s life would no longer considered be a crime and the criminal might escape the law by merely paying for the clone creation.

Part II: Human Cloning should be legalized

Human cloning is a phenomenon which has the power to change the destiny of every single human being living. The feeling of comfort spreads all over when there is possibility of several organ donors and no human shall die again from kidney failure. Cancer, the most dreaded disease which is still considered as untreatable becomes curable because there are many people around on whom the experiments can be conducted to search for the cure of cancer. These people who become the object of experiments are the clones of humans who are created to serve the requirement of being a donor or a test object. Human cloning would give scientists the full realm to free entire human race of all diseases and weaknesses, to unravel the mystery of DNA and other cellular mechanisms due to availability of ample objects for experimentation. This procedure would enhance the quality of life of humans. Human cloning is expected to pave way for many major medical breakthroughs. The embryos which will be used as testing object will be a living specimen and would have been created for testing and experimentation purpose only. It is not unethical to use live embryos for testing purpose as it would not involve the degeneration of human life. The value of human life remains same always and in order to enhance the quality of life and to cure people from deadly crippling diseases, these embryos would be used. The emotional attachment to these lives and the ban on human cloning on the ground of unethical killing of human lives is unjustified and just a hurdle in the development for the betterment of human life [ CITATION Far10 \l 1033 ]. Also, the people who consider human cloning unethical and wrong on moral grounds should also express same views on abortions and termination of pregnancy. Human cloning is an extension of stem cell research and is totally committed to be carried on under the realms of ethics.

Human cloning would also assist people who are victim of medical tragedies like an individual requiring a kidney to survive, physical abnormality which requires a breakthrough treatment and many more[ CITATION Amy99 \l 1033 ]. All these health condition can be treated through the advancement by human cloning. It would serve to make life better of humans. The valuable information which would be obtained from the cell pool of such specimens would provide immense benefits to humans to fight against the deadly diseases. Also, when human cloning is an answer to the incurable diseases, why should the governments ban it on the pretext of it being unsafe and unethical. Infertility issues can also be treated with human cloning and human cloning would emerge as blessing for childless parents as they can have children from cloning[ CITATION Dan \l 1033 ]. In vitro fertilization is not always successful and human cloning has brighter chances of creating children. In vitro fertilization is also a way of creating child in laboratory and still, not many people are objecting to it. The embryo created by human cloning would be with the consent of parents and would be done only when the technology is so advanced that the infant produced is free of abnormalities. Also, with the help of technology, the abnormality in developing embryo can be detected and the development of those embryos can be hindered, this would ensure that babies are not born with abnormalities and only the perfect babies are born.

With the development of human cloning, the side effects of human cloning on environment would also disappear as the human clones cannot be assumed to have any side effect on the ecosystem. On the contrary, the advancement in cloning technology would enable humans to revive the species on the verge of extinction and would re-establish the balance of ecosystem. The value of human life can never diminish as even the clone of the person would not be identical to the person in thought process and application of mind. Due to this, the clone can’t serve as a replacement and has to be regarded as a separate individual.

Also, our developed society is prepared to address the issues raised by the clones and to protect their rights. Though clones are to be created on the need purpose, it would entirely be the decision of clone to serve that purpose or not. The clones would also have the life and liberty equal to humans and they would not be servile to humans. Every life is divine and even the cloned human would also be god’s creation as it would be a resultant of reproduction only. In spite of option of cloning available, it is believed that the natural process of reproduction and birth of children would prevail and cloning would be considered as an option in required critical cases only. Hence, it is no way a threat to human existence and we ought to take it as a scientific process committed to improve the quality of human life.

The strongest argument given in favor of human cloning is that the infertile couple can have the child through human cloning. This does not justifies the human cloning as there are already several ways through which an infertile couple can have child. The existing methods have proven to be a success and also, this statement is not a grave situation for which human cloning can be justified to be legalized. Cloning of a lost child of parents would only prove to be an emotional trauma for parents as the child, though being identical physically to their child, would be a different individual altogether. The parents would have to adjust to the new requirements of their cloned child and this could lead to an emotional mess.

There are diseases which are far more severe that being infertile like cancer and Down’s syndrome and though stated that human cloning would be able to give breakthrough solutions to cure these diseases, the same has not been proven yet by any research. Presently, the cures of these diseases are also being investigated and human cloning may not be an immediate success [ CITATION GJA98 \l 1033 ]. The embryos which are targeted to be used as object of test are also living and possess the capability to develop in a perfect baby, given an opportunity. This would be similar to using a human baby for test purpose. When the killing of human baby for test purpose is considered unethical, the killing of human clone baby would also be unethical. The reason of the cloned baby and embryo being in abundance does not make the testing on embryos ethical [ CITATION LAn98 \l 1033 ].

The babies developed through cloning technique when identified with fatal abnormalities would be discarded or euthanized like animal babies and the parents would not have any objection to this and also, the law would permit for this does not seems to be a feasible and agreeable statement. The babies with fatal abnormalities when born would be with their parents and would cause much more emotional pain than of being childless and infertile.

The environmentalists are correct in their opinion that human cloning would disturb the ecosystem as the population would increase comprising of clones also which would be produced for every possible reason and either government has to intervene to regulate the process of creation of human cloning or else it would be exploited so much that every single individual would have one clone. For example, human clone is created for kidney and kidneys from human clone would be easily available. Keeping aside the natural reasons of kidney failure, kidney failure due to liquor consumption is almost 40 per cent. Consider the human nature, once a person is aware that the kidney is easily replaceable, the value attached to kidney deteriorates and the liquor consumption would increase. Hence, easy availability of organs and easy replacement of person would diminish the value attached to human life.

The rights of the human clones created are also a concern as they would be created on a need basis and their fate post realization of need from them is not clear. Either once created, they would be treated as donor of every singly organ which can be utilized by humans or they will be forced to live without that organ throughout their life or they will be euthanized once they serve the need. All the three options stated above are completely unethical and dreadful. It would be hard for governments to establish a balance between rights of clone and their purpose of creation. Saving them from donating the organs or acting as replacement or being a object for experiments would defeat the purpose of human cloning and letting them be used as only the experimentation object would be inhuman and unethical [ CITATION PAB99 \l 1033 ]

Human cloning though is a gateway to immense opportunities for betterment of humans; it also poses some challenges for human race. The solution of these challenges is required to be addressed before human cloning can be legalized. It would be really difficult to form a consensus on the future of human consensus. The objections to human cloning are not related to religious beliefs but are of ethical issues and the risks which it poses. Human cloning should not be legalized till the solution for such risks are finalized to an extent and the society is able to adapt to such changes.

Andrews, L. (1998). Is There aRight to Clone? Constitutional Challenges to Bans on Human Cloning. Harv JL Tech . Annas, G. (1998). Why We Should Ban Human Cloning. Medical Journal , 5-122. Baird, P. (1999). Cloning of Animals and Humans: What Should the Policy Response Be? Perspect Biological Medical Journal , 94-174. Brock, D. W. Cloning Human Begins. Brown University. Farah. (2010, October 25). Cloning - A Step Towards Immortality. Medical Journal . Logston, A. (1999). The Ethics of Human Cloning.


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Cloning Should Be Banned

What is cloning.

Cloning has been a debatable topic over the years with numerous arguments for and against it particularly in humans. However, there appears to be a very strong case that supports banning of cloning in many fonts. Unanimous responses to cloning are based on very legitimate concerns for instance with respect to relationships between human beings as well as between humans and nature.

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Cloning refers to the process of creating genetically similar organisms or the production of organisms that are genetically identical through the transfer of somatic cells of an existing organism and transferring it to an oocyte where the nucleus has been extracted.

Human cloning is particularly an ethical issue that has raised different views worldwide on whether to clone or not based on information gathered evidencing the advantages and disadvantages of cloning. Cloning duplicates the genes of the individual creating a genetic duplicate but not an exact copy. Medically, there are benefits and demerits that accrue from cloning and its related technology. Additionally, there are several risks to cloning as evidenced by the numerous cloning attempts that have been unsuccessful. Dolly, the first cloned sheep was seemingly healthy but died later, the reason of her death remains unknown. In other cases, many animal clones mysteriously die very young or before birth, making it very complex to understand the aging process in cloned organisms. This is an indicator of underlying internal issues in the functioning of cloned animals despite their normal physical appearances.

Cloning becomes a violation of the fundamental basis of the human existence

Cloning negatively impacts on some of the human values especially individuality raising fundamental questions about the very nature of humans. The possibility of a different approach to reproduction could lead to more harm to humans in many aspects. This is manifested in the numerous questions that emerge from reproductive technology related to moral concerns on family, society, and sexuality. Cloning, therefore, becomes a violation of the fundamental basis of the human existence and can lead to the loss of genetic variation as well as compromise individuality.

Additionally, clones are likely to be viewed as second-class humans among other unidentified psychosocial damages with far reaching impacts on the society and family. Therefore, advocates of cloning fail to understand how cloning can revolutionize the nature of humans individuality and the dangers and risks that are associated with cloning despite the scientific benefits.

Science should take into consideration the clone’s point of view

It is also worth noting that there is no chance to weigh the potential risks in advance for human clones and therefore, the risks would be part of existence. The uncertainties, failures, and dangers in experiments reflect and determine the destiny of the clones. The decisions made for cloning particularly in humans ought to put into consideration what the clone’s point of view would be. Therefore, the burden of choice is inherently and unequally shifted to the clone by the involuntary recruitment to be used in experiments.

Despite the advocates of cloning citing both therapeutic and reproductive potentials through cloning, this is confronted with numerous ethical, moral, political, and legal concerns on the adequate application of technology and the extents of scientific findings accuracy. The advancement of technology, research and science should not compromise important nature values that are deeply held by most people globally. Additionally, based on technology and scientific research available, human cloning cannot be effectively realized despite success in other animals because there are numerous inadequacies whose solution is yet to be established to fully support cloning endeavors. There numerous limitations in most of the cloning success stories in animals and further advances should be prevented to avoid endangering the human identity.

In conclusion, the disadvantages of cloning clearly outweigh its advantages by far. The issues range from ethical to emotional that continually dominate arguments related to cloning. Despite the potential scientific benefits, it is evident that cloning should be banned because of the numerous concerns, controversies and issues evidenced by the numerous attempts to produce clones but have failed on many occasions.

Therefore, a critical approach and analysis of cloning show how fascinating genetic is through science and technology, however, the issue of cloning should be banned particularly in humans to ensure humans individuality is sustained while at the same time appreciating nature holistically. The possible dangers and enormous ethical concerns cloning poses, further efforts to clone particularly in humans should be banned.

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Human Cloning Should Be Banned

Filed Under: Essays

human cloning SHOULD BE BANNED. At the present time the science has achieved such high level of the development that it became possible to clone not only the cells but the whole organisms. Up to now such experiments were made on the representatives of the animal kingdom. In the late 90 s the whole humanity could make sure of such experiment. The news that splashed over the newspaper front pages around the world in 1997 was about sheep Dolly. Dolly was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell.

Actually she was born on July 5, 1996 but her creators the scientists from Roslin Institute in Scotland didn’t announce about her birth until February 22, 1997. Her birth was proclaimed as one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of the 90 s. Moreover, if the sheep Dolly’s case was successful so human cloning could be possible. From the technical point of view there are no problems. But there are some ethical and moral issues that have to be considered in making the decision to ban or not human cloning. Approximately 46 countries have formally banned human cloning.

Among them are such countries as Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, Russia, and many others. I completely agree with these countries. And I have several reasons to think so. But before advancing the arguments I want to specify that I’m against reproductive cloning but not therapeutic cloning.

The Essay on Sheep Cloning Human Ban Experiments

... January 1998 Nineteen European nations sign a ban on human cloning. Click here to view these countries Richard Seed, a physicist from Chicago, announces ... Successful clone of adult sheep born; clone named "Dolly" after the famous country singer February 23, 1997 Scientists at the Roslin Institute in ...

Nowadays there are a lot of situations when people need organ transplantation for the treatment of some diseases such as cancer, heart disease, etc. In this case therapeutic cloning can be important and necessary. But reproductive cloning is another case. So let’s move to my arguments.

The first reason for banning human cloning is the unacceptable medical risks. The first risk is unimproved cloning technology. Nearly 98% of cloning efforts end in failure. For example, in order to clone the sheep Dolly 277 embryos were needed, from which only one healthy and viable sheep was produced. The other fetuses were hideously deformed and either died or aborted. The second risk is short term living of the clone.

Again take up the Dolly’s case. Taking into consideration that sheep can live to 11 or 12 years, Dolly died at the age of 5 years old. And still the cases of long term consequences are not known. Lastly, the cell taken from adult donor could have accumulated the genetic mutations during its years that could give the resulting clone a predisposition to cancer or other diseases. The second argument is that human reproductive cloning is not necessary.

Supporters of the human cloning can say that reproductive cloning can allow hetero and homosexual couples have children genetically related to them both. It might be better for the welfare of the child to be born into a happy relationship. But there are another ways to have children, for example, in vitro fertilization and the practice of sperm donation. These ways are closer to natural one. These ways allow the creation of new person with his / her own individuality. But cloning the child we disable him to be an individual one.

This is unethical. Just imagine for a moment that you are the clone of your parent. Yes, you are genetically related to your parents. But are you unique? No. Do you still want to be the clone of your parent? So can we decide whether the future clone child is glad to be an exact copy of his / her parent? The third argument is that cloning will lead to degradation of the humanity. The cloning can lead to a lack of diversity amongst the human population.

The Term Paper on Cloning Human Clone

Cloning. Many people associate it with science-fiction novels, not with real life, but animal cloning is a process that is being attempted today all over the world, and human cloning might be next. But should cloning be made illegal? According to the Washington Post, cloning should be made illegal because all nursery rhymes would have to be rewritten: Mary didn't have a lamb, she had two lambs and ...

As the result the natural process of evolution will discontinue, so humankind will stop to develop, the consequence may be the bigger susceptibility to diseases, and simply the humanity will stay on the same level. Human cloning adherents can argue that human reproductive cloning will allow reproducing such great geniuses like Albert Einstein, Michelangelo and others. These geniuses could make more than they have done for the development of the humankind. But they were geniuses at their time. It’s not of necessity that they will stay geniuses. As a matter of fact the person is genius because he / she is unique and he / she is not similar to others.

Cloning these geniuses we rob them of their uniqueness. To conclude my speech I’d like to underline the main three arguments against human cloning. They are unacceptable medical risks, needless of the reproductive cloning, and the danger of degradation of the humanity. Banning the human cloning can help us to keep that little part of moral and ethical values in our present material world. RESOURCES: 1. Dolly the sheep, 1996-2003.

Science museum. 20 Jan. 20052. Human Cloning Policies. Genetics and Society. 19 Feb.

20053. Practical Uses of Cloning. Human Cloning. 8 Apr.

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