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Evidence-Based Practice

  • APA Style, 7th Edition
  • Defining Evidence
  • Getting Started With EBP
  • EBP @ the Library

What is APA Style?

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APA style was created by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing. APA style is most often used in:

  • psychology,
  • social sciences (sociology, business), and

If you're taking courses in any of these areas, be prepared to use APA style.

For in-depth guidance on using this citation style, refer to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed. We have several copies available at the MJC Library at the call number  BF 76.7 .P83 2020 .

APA Style, 7th ed.

Apa tutorial.

In October 2019, the American Psychological Association made radical changes its style, especially with regard to the format and citation rules for students writing academic papers. Use this guide to learn how to format and cite your papers using APA Style, 7th edition.

You can start by viewing the  video tutorial .

Formatting Your Paper

For help on all aspects of formatting your paper in APA Style, see   The Essentials  page on the APA Style website.

  • sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, or
  • serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or normal (10-point) Computer Modern (the default font for LaTeX)
  • There are exceptions for the  title page ,  tables ,  figures ,  footnotes , and  displayed equations .
  • Margins :  Use 1-in. margins on every side of the page.
  • Align the text of an APA Style  paper to the left margin . Leave the right margin uneven, or “ragged.”
  • Do not use full justification for student papers.
  • Do not insert hyphens (manual breaks) in words at the end of line. However, it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically inserts breaks in long hyperlinks (such as in a DOI or URL in a reference list entry).
  • Indent the first line of each paragraph of text 0.5 in . from the left margin. Use the tab key or the automatic paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program to achieve the indentation (the default setting is likely already 0.5 in.). Do not use the space bar to create indentation. 
  • There are exceptions for the  title page ,  section labels ,  abstract ,  block quotations ,  headings ,  tables and figures ,  reference list , and  appendices .

Paper Elements

Student papers generally include, at a minimum: 

  • Title Page (2.3)
  • Text (2.11)
  • References  (2.12)

Student papers may include additional elements such as tables and figures depending on the assignment. So, please check with your teacher!

Student papers generally  DO NOT  include the following unless your teacher specifically requests it:

  • Running head
  • Author note

For complete information on the  order of pages , see the APA Style website.

Number your pages consecutively starting with page 1. Each section begins on a new page. Put the pages in the following order:

  • Page 1: Title page
  • Page 2: Abstract (if your teacher requires an abstract)
  • Page 3: Text 
  • References begin on a new page after the last page of text
  • Footnotes begin on a new page after the references (if your teacher requires footnotes)
  • Tables begin each on a new page after the footnotes (if your teacher requires tables) 
  • Figures begin on a new page after the tables (if your teacher requires figures)
  • Appendices begin on a new page after the tables and/or figures (if your teacher requires appendices)

Sample Papers With Built-In Instructions

To see what your paper should look like, check out these sample papers with built-in instructions.

Headings Organize Your Paper (2.27)

APA Style uses five (5) levels of headings to help you organize your paper and allow your audience to identify its key points easily. Levels of headings establish the hierarchy of your sections just like you did in your paper outline.

APA tells us to use "only the number of headings necessary to differentiate distinct section in your paper." Therefore, the number of heading levels you create depends on the length and complexity of your paper.

See the chart below for instructions on formatting your headings:

Levels of Headings

Video Tutorials

Use word to format your paper:.

Use Google Docs to Format Your Paper:

Reference List Format (9.43)

Placement:  The reference list  appears at the end of the paper, on its own page(s). If your research paper ends on page 8, your References begin on page 9.

Heading:  Place the section label References  in bold at the top of the page, centered.

Arrangement:  Alphabetize entries by author's last name. If source has no named author, alphabetize by the title, ignoring A, An, or The. (9.44-9.48)

Spacing:  Like the rest of the APA paper, the reference list is double-spaced throughout. Be sure NOT to add extra spaces between citations.

Indentation:  To make citations easier to scan, add a  hanging indent  of 0.5 in. to any citation that runs more than one line. Use the paragraph-formatting function of your word processing program to create your hanging indent.  

See Sample References Page (from APA Sample Student Paper):

Sample References page

Elements of Reference List Entries: (Chapter 9)

Where to find reference information for a journal article

References generally have four elements, each of which has a corresponding question for you to answer:

  • Author:   Who is responsible for this work? (9.7-9.12)
  • Date:   When was this work published? (9.13-9.17)
  • Title:   What is this work called? (9.18-9.22)
  • Source:   Where can I retrieve this work? (9.23-9.37)

By using these four elements and answering these four questions, you should be able to create a citation for any type of source.

For complete information on all of these elements, checkout the APA Style website.

This infographic shows the first page of a journal article. The locations of the reference elements are highlighted with different colors and callouts, and the same colors are used in the reference list entry to show how the entry corresponds to the source.

To create your references, you'll simple look for these elements in your source and put them together in your reference list entry.

American Psychological Association.  Example of where to find reference information for a journal article  [Infographic]. APA Style Center. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/basic-principles

Reference Examples (Chapter 10)

Below you'll find two printable handouts showing APA citation examples. The first is an abbreviated list created by MJC Librarians. The second, which is more comprehensive, is from the APA Style website. Feel free to print these for your convenience or use the links to reference examples below:

  • APA Citation Examples Created by MJC Librarians for you.
  • Common References Examples (APA Handout) Printable handout from the American Psychological Association.
  • APA Style Quick Reference Guide See how to format three typical types of references.
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Edited Book Chapter
  • Webpage on a Website

Classroom or Intranet Sources

  • Classroom Course Pack Materials
  • How to cite ChatGPT
  • Dictionary Entry
  • Government Report
  • Legal References (Laws & Cases)
  • TED Talk References
  • Religious Works
  • Open Educational Resources (OER)
  • Archival Documents and Collections

You can view the entire Reference Examples website below and view a helpful guide to finding useful APA style topics easily:

  • APA Style: Reference Examples
  • Navigating the not-so-hidden treasures of the APA Style website
  • Missing Reference Information

Sometimes you won't be able to find all the elements required for your reference. In that case, see the  instructions in Table 9.1 of the APA style manual in section 9.4 or the APA Style website below:

  • Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers

DOIs and URLs (9.34-9.36)

The DOI or URL is the final component of a reference list entry. Because so much scholarship is available and/or retrieved online, most reference list entries end with either a DOI or a URL.

  • A  DOI  is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works.
  • A  URL  specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.

When to Include DOIs and URLs:

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
  • For works without DOIs from websites (not including academic research databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
  • For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.
  • For works from databases that publish original, proprietary material available only in that database (such as the UpToDate database) or for works of limited circulation in databases (such as monographs in the ERIC database), include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work. If the URL requires a login or is session-specific (meaning it will not resolve for readers), provide the URL of the database or archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work. (See APA Section 9.30 for more information). 
  • If the URL is no longer working or no longer provides readers access to the content you intend to cite, try to find an archived version using the Internet Archive , then use the archived URL. If there is no archived URL, do not use that resource.

Format of DOIs and URLs:

Your DOI should look like this: 

https://doi.org/10.1037/a0040251

Follow these guidelines from the APA Style website.

In-Text Citations

APA Style uses the  author–date citation system , in which a brief in-text citation points your reader to the full reference list entry at the end of your paper. The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. This method enables your reader to locate the corresponding entry in the alphabetical reference list at the end of your paper.

Each work you cite  must  appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix) except for the following (See APA, 8.4):

  • Personal communications (8.9)
  • General mentions of entire websites, whole periodicals (8.22), and common software and apps (10.10) in the text do not require a citation or reference list entry.
  • The source of an epigraph does not usually appear in the reference list (8.35)
  • Quotations from your research participants do not need citations or reference list entries (8.36)
  • References included in a statistical meta-analysis, which are marked with an asterisk in the reference list, may be cited in the text (or not) at the author’s discretion. This exception is relevant only to authors who are conducting a meta-analysis (9.52).

Formatting Your In-Text Citations

Parenthetical and Narrative Citations: ( See APA Section  8.11)

In APA style you use the author-date citation system for citing references within your paper. You incorporate these references using either a  parenthetical   or a  narrative  style.

Parenthetical Citations

  • In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date appear in parentheses, separated by a comma. (Jones, 2018)
  • A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence.
  • When the parenthetical citation is at the end of the sentence, put the period or other end punctuation after the closing parenthesis.
  • If there is no author, use the first few words of the reference list entry, usually the "Title" of the source: ("Autism," 2008) See APA 8.14
  • When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated materials in the text (Santa Barbara, 2010, p. 243).  See APA 8.13
  • For most citations, the parenthetical reference is placed BEFORE the punctuation: Magnesium can be effective in treating PMS (Haggerty, 2012).

Narrative Citations 

In narrative citations, the author name or title of your source appears within your text and the publication date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. 

  • Santa Barbara (2010) noted a decline in the approval of disciplinary spanking of 26 percentage points from 1968 to 1994.

In-Text Citation Checklist

  • In-Text Citation Checklist Use this useful checklist from the American Psychological Association to ensure that you've created your in-text citations correctly.

In-Text Citations for Specific Types of Sources

Quotations from Research Participants

Personal Communications

Secondary Sources  

NoodleTools

Use noodletools to cite your sources  .

NoodleTools can help you create your references and your in-text citations.

  • NoodleTools Express No sign in required . When you need one or two quick citations in MLA, APA, or Chicago style, simply generate them in NoodleTools Express then copy and paste what you need into your document. Note: Citations are not saved and cannot be exported to a word processor using NoodleTools Express.
  • NoodleTools (Login Full Database) This link opens in a new window Create and organize your research notes, share and collaborate on research projects, compose and error check citations, and complete your list of works cited in MLA, APA, or Chicago style using the full version of NoodleTools. You'll need to Create a Personal ID and password the first time you use NoodleTools.

See How to Use NoodleTools Express to Create a Citation in APA Format

Additional NoodleTools Help

  • NoodleTools Help Desk Look up questions and answers on the NoodleTools Web site
  • << Previous: EBP @ .GOV
  • Last Updated: Aug 29, 2023 5:06 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.mjc.edu/ebp

Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 and CC BY-NC 4.0 Licenses .

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

In-Text Citations: The Basics

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Reference citations in text are covered on pages 261-268 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.

Note:  On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998)  found  or Jones (1998)  has found ...). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998)  finds ).

APA Citation Basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but  NOT  directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source:  Permanence and Change . Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs:  Writing New Media ,  There Is Nothing Left to Lose .

( Note:  in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized:  Writing new media .)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word:  Natural-Born Cyborgs .
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's  Vertigo ."
  • If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text:  The Closing of the American Mind ;  The Wizard of Oz ;  Friends .
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash).

You can introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, but do not add an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Because block quotation formatting is difficult for us to replicate in the OWL's content management system, we have simply provided a screenshot of a generic example below.

This image shows how to format a long quotation in an APA seventh edition paper.

Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

Direct quotations from sources that do not contain pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you may reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like religious texts) can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: pick a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do encourage including a page range for a summary or paraphrase when it will help the reader find the information in a longer work. 

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

What this handout is about

This handout will provide a broad overview of gathering and using evidence. It will help you decide what counts as evidence, put evidence to work in your writing, and determine whether you have enough evidence. It will also offer links to additional resources.

Introduction

Many papers that you write in college will require you to make an argument ; this means that you must take a position on the subject you are discussing and support that position with evidence. It’s important that you use the right kind of evidence, that you use it effectively, and that you have an appropriate amount of it. If, for example, your philosophy professor didn’t like it that you used a survey of public opinion as your primary evidence in your ethics paper, you need to find out more about what philosophers count as good evidence. If your instructor has told you that you need more analysis, suggested that you’re “just listing” points or giving a “laundry list,” or asked you how certain points are related to your argument, it may mean that you can do more to fully incorporate your evidence into your argument. Comments like “for example?,” “proof?,” “go deeper,” or “expand” in the margins of your graded paper suggest that you may need more evidence. Let’s take a look at each of these issues—understanding what counts as evidence, using evidence in your argument, and deciding whether you need more evidence.

What counts as evidence?

Before you begin gathering information for possible use as evidence in your argument, you need to be sure that you understand the purpose of your assignment. If you are working on a project for a class, look carefully at the assignment prompt. It may give you clues about what sorts of evidence you will need. Does the instructor mention any particular books you should use in writing your paper or the names of any authors who have written about your topic? How long should your paper be (longer works may require more, or more varied, evidence)? What themes or topics come up in the text of the prompt? Our handout on understanding writing assignments can help you interpret your assignment. It’s also a good idea to think over what has been said about the assignment in class and to talk with your instructor if you need clarification or guidance.

What matters to instructors?

Instructors in different academic fields expect different kinds of arguments and evidence—your chemistry paper might include graphs, charts, statistics, and other quantitative data as evidence, whereas your English paper might include passages from a novel, examples of recurring symbols, or discussions of characterization in the novel. Consider what kinds of sources and evidence you have seen in course readings and lectures. You may wish to see whether the Writing Center has a handout regarding the specific academic field you’re working in—for example, literature , sociology , or history .

What are primary and secondary sources?

A note on terminology: many researchers distinguish between primary and secondary sources of evidence (in this case, “primary” means “first” or “original,” not “most important”). Primary sources include original documents, photographs, interviews, and so forth. Secondary sources present information that has already been processed or interpreted by someone else. For example, if you are writing a paper about the movie “The Matrix,” the movie itself, an interview with the director, and production photos could serve as primary sources of evidence. A movie review from a magazine or a collection of essays about the film would be secondary sources. Depending on the context, the same item could be either a primary or a secondary source: if I am writing about people’s relationships with animals, a collection of stories about animals might be a secondary source; if I am writing about how editors gather diverse stories into collections, the same book might now function as a primary source.

Where can I find evidence?

Here are some examples of sources of information and tips about how to use them in gathering evidence. Ask your instructor if you aren’t sure whether a certain source would be appropriate for your paper.

Print and electronic sources

Books, journals, websites, newspapers, magazines, and documentary films are some of the most common sources of evidence for academic writing. Our handout on evaluating print sources will help you choose your print sources wisely, and the library has a tutorial on evaluating both print sources and websites. A librarian can help you find sources that are appropriate for the type of assignment you are completing. Just visit the reference desk at Davis or the Undergraduate Library or chat with a librarian online (the library’s IM screen name is undergradref).

Observation

Sometimes you can directly observe the thing you are interested in, by watching, listening to, touching, tasting, or smelling it. For example, if you were asked to write about Mozart’s music, you could listen to it; if your topic was how businesses attract traffic, you might go and look at window displays at the mall.

An interview is a good way to collect information that you can’t find through any other type of research. An interview can provide an expert’s opinion, biographical or first-hand experiences, and suggestions for further research.

Surveys allow you to find out some of what a group of people thinks about a topic. Designing an effective survey and interpreting the data you get can be challenging, so it’s a good idea to check with your instructor before creating or administering a survey.

Experiments

Experimental data serve as the primary form of scientific evidence. For scientific experiments, you should follow the specific guidelines of the discipline you are studying. For writing in other fields, more informal experiments might be acceptable as evidence. For example, if you want to prove that food choices in a cafeteria are affected by gender norms, you might ask classmates to undermine those norms on purpose and observe how others react. What would happen if a football player were eating dinner with his teammates and he brought a small salad and diet drink to the table, all the while murmuring about his waistline and wondering how many fat grams the salad dressing contained?

Personal experience

Using your own experiences can be a powerful way to appeal to your readers. You should, however, use personal experience only when it is appropriate to your topic, your writing goals, and your audience. Personal experience should not be your only form of evidence in most papers, and some disciplines frown on using personal experience at all. For example, a story about the microscope you received as a Christmas gift when you were nine years old is probably not applicable to your biology lab report.

Using evidence in an argument

Does evidence speak for itself.

Absolutely not. After you introduce evidence into your writing, you must say why and how this evidence supports your argument. In other words, you have to explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear.

As writers, we sometimes assume that our readers already know what we are talking about; we may be wary of elaborating too much because we think the point is obvious. But readers can’t read our minds: although they may be familiar with many of the ideas we are discussing, they don’t know what we are trying to do with those ideas unless we indicate it through explanations, organization, transitions, and so forth. Try to spell out the connections that you were making in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it. Remember, you can always cut prose from your paper later if you decide that you are stating the obvious.

Here are some questions you can ask yourself about a particular bit of evidence:

  • OK, I’ve just stated this point, but so what? Why is it interesting? Why should anyone care?
  • What does this information imply?
  • What are the consequences of thinking this way or looking at a problem this way?
  • I’ve just described what something is like or how I see it, but why is it like that?
  • I’ve just said that something happens—so how does it happen? How does it come to be the way it is?
  • Why is this information important? Why does it matter?
  • How is this idea related to my thesis? What connections exist between them? Does it support my thesis? If so, how does it do that?
  • Can I give an example to illustrate this point?

Answering these questions may help you explain how your evidence is related to your overall argument.

How can I incorporate evidence into my paper?

There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions.

When you quote, you are reproducing another writer’s words exactly as they appear on the page. Here are some tips to help you decide when to use quotations:

  • Quote if you can’t say it any better and the author’s words are particularly brilliant, witty, edgy, distinctive, a good illustration of a point you’re making, or otherwise interesting.
  • Quote if you are using a particularly authoritative source and you need the author’s expertise to back up your point.
  • Quote if you are analyzing diction, tone, or a writer’s use of a specific word or phrase.
  • Quote if you are taking a position that relies on the reader’s understanding exactly what another writer says about the topic.

Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to format quotations.

Like all pieces of evidence, a quotation can’t speak for itself. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your argument. It’s important to avoid “plop quotations,” that is, quotations that are just dropped into your paper without any introduction, discussion, or follow-up.

Paraphrasing

When you paraphrase, you take a specific section of a text and put it into your own words. Putting it into your own words doesn’t mean just changing or rearranging a few of the author’s words: to paraphrase well and avoid plagiarism, try setting your source aside and restating the sentence or paragraph you have just read, as though you were describing it to another person. Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text (like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph). You’ll need to indicate when you are paraphrasing someone else’s text by citing your source correctly, just as you would with a quotation.

When might you want to paraphrase?

  • Paraphrase when you want to introduce a writer’s position, but his or her original words aren’t special enough to quote.
  • Paraphrase when you are supporting a particular point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant.
  • Paraphrase when you want to present a writer’s view on a topic that differs from your position or that of another writer; you can then refute writer’s specific points in your own words after you paraphrase.
  • Paraphrase when you want to comment on a particular example that another writer uses.
  • Paraphrase when you need to present information that’s unlikely to be questioned.

When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text. Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument. A summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material. It can be the most effective way to incorporate a large number of sources when you don’t have a lot of space. When you are summarizing someone else’s argument or ideas, be sure this is clear to the reader and cite your source appropriately.

Statistics, data, charts, graphs, photographs, illustrations

Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you still need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make. Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation. Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Again, always, cite the origin of your evidence if you didn’t produce the material you are using yourself.

Do I need more evidence?

Let’s say that you’ve identified some appropriate sources, found some evidence, explained to the reader how it fits into your overall argument, incorporated it into your draft effectively, and cited your sources. How do you tell whether you’ve got enough evidence and whether it’s working well in the service of a strong argument or analysis? Here are some techniques you can use to review your draft and assess your use of evidence.

Make a reverse outline

A reverse outline is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis. When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter (outline-like) form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper. The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways. First, it lets you see where you have dealt with too many topics in one paragraph (in general, you should have one main idea per paragraph). Second, the reverse outline can help you see where you need more evidence to prove your point or more analysis of that evidence. Third, the reverse outline can help you write your topic sentences: once you have decided what you want each paragraph to be about, you can write topic sentences that explain the topics of the paragraphs and state the relationship of each topic to the overall thesis of the paper.

For tips on making a reverse outline, see our handout on organization .

Color code your paper

You will need three highlighters or colored pencils for this exercise. Use one color to highlight general assertions. These will typically be the topic sentences in your paper. Next, use another color to highlight the specific evidence you provide for each assertion (including quotations, paraphrased or summarized material, statistics, examples, and your own ideas). Lastly, use another color to highlight analysis of your evidence. Which assertions are key to your overall argument? Which ones are especially contestable? How much evidence do you have for each assertion? How much analysis? In general, you should have at least as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper runs the risk of being more summary than argument. The more controversial an assertion is, the more evidence you may need to provide in order to persuade your reader.

Play devil’s advocate, act like a child, or doubt everything

This technique may be easiest to use with a partner. Ask your friend to take on one of the roles above, then read your paper aloud to him/her. After each section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. If your friend is playing devil’s advocate, he or she will always take the opposing viewpoint and force you to keep defending yourself. If your friend is acting like a child, he or she will question every sentence, even seemingly self-explanatory ones. If your friend is a doubter, he or she won’t believe anything you say. Justifying your position verbally or explaining yourself will force you to strengthen the evidence in your paper. If you already have enough evidence but haven’t connected it clearly enough to your main argument, explaining to your friend how the evidence is relevant or what it proves may help you to do so.

Common questions and additional resources

  • I have a general topic in mind; how can I develop it so I’ll know what evidence I need? And how can I get ideas for more evidence? See our handout on brainstorming .
  • Who can help me find evidence on my topic? Check out UNC Libraries .
  • I’m writing for a specific purpose; how can I tell what kind of evidence my audience wants? See our handouts on audience , writing for specific disciplines , and particular writing assignments .
  • How should I read materials to gather evidence? See our handout on reading to write .
  • How can I make a good argument? Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements .
  • How do I tell if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? Review our handouts on paragraph development , transitions , and reorganizing drafts .
  • How do I quote my sources and incorporate those quotes into my text? Our handouts on quotations and avoiding plagiarism offer useful tips.
  • How do I cite my evidence? See the UNC Libraries citation tutorial .
  • I think that I’m giving evidence, but my instructor says I’m using too much summary. How can I tell? Check out our handout on using summary wisely.
  • I want to use personal experience as evidence, but can I say “I”? We have a handout on when to use “I.”

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Lunsford, Andrea A., and John J. Ruszkiewicz. 2016. Everything’s an Argument , 7th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Miller, Richard E., and Kurt Spellmeyer. 2016. The New Humanities Reader , 5th ed. Boston: Cengage.

University of Maryland. 2019. “Research Using Primary Sources.” Research Guides. Last updated October 28, 2019. https://lib.guides.umd.edu/researchusingprimarysources .

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Academic writing often requires students to use evidence, and learning how to use evidence effectively is an important skill for college writers to master. Often, the evidence college writers are asked to use comes from their textbooks, course readings, or other written work by professional scholars. It is important to learn how to use these writings responsibly and accurately.

General Considerations

There are three methods of incorporating the writing of others into your paper as evidence:

  • quotation , which is anything from a word to several sentences taken word-for-word from the original source and enclosed in quotation marks
  • paraphrase , which is a rephrasing in your own voice and sentence structure of one portion of the original source and is about the same length as the original sentence or sentences you are paraphrasing
  • summary , which is shorter than the original source and gives the text’s central idea in your own words
Some words to use in signal phrases are argues, asserts, contends, emphasizes, explains, observes, suggests, writes.

In what follows, you will learn some strategies for using these methods of incorporating evidence into your paper.

In Practice

Quoting When you use a q uotation as evidence, you should integrate it into your own writing using a “signal phrase.” Take, for example, this quotation, taken from page 418 of the essay “Prejudice and the Individual” by Gordon Allport: “Much prejudice is caught rather than directly taught.” Here are three ways to integrate Allport’s quotation into a sentence of your own with a signal phrase:

Allport claims that “prejudice is caught rather than directly taught” (418). “Much prejudice is caught rather than directly taught,” claims Allport (418). “Much prejudice,” Allport claims, “is caught rather than directly taught” (418).

You can adapt a quotation to fit your own paragraph and sentence structure by making small changes to words and indicating those changes with square brackets. Say, for example, you liked this quotation from Allport:

“It should be added that overgeneralized prejudgments of this sort are prejudices only if they are not reversible when exposed to new knowledge” (417).

However, you want to apply Allport’s words to a specific example of your own. You could adapt the quotation like this:

The young man in my example was not prejudiced, according to Allport’s definition; his opinion was “reversible when [he was] exposed to new knowledge” (417).

You can also use ellipses to indicate that you have left irrelevant words out of a quotation. Again, say you wanted to use this quotation from Allport:

“The best opinion today says that if we eliminate discrimination, then—as people become acquainted with one another on equal terms—attitudes are likely to change, perhaps more rapidly than through the continued preaching or teaching of tolerance” (417).

But the middle part is less important to your paper than what Allport says at the start and the end. You could modify the quotation like this:

“The best opinion today says that if we eliminate discrimination . . . attitudes are likely to change, perhaps more rapidly than through the continued preaching or teaching of tolerance” (417).

Longer quotations must be formatted in a special way; usually, they are indented from the left margin and/or single-spaced. Depending on what citation style you use, guidelines differ regarding what defines a long quotation and how a long quotation should be formatted. Typically, a quotation of four or five lines is considered long.

Paraphrasing To paraphrase a source for use as evidence, you should use as little of the original language as possible and put the passage in your own voice and sentence structure. Also, because paraphrasing involves wrapping your words around someone else’s idea, people often forget to give credit to the author. Even though a paraphrase is in your words, it is not your idea. Remember to cite your source when you paraphrase. Here is another quotation from Allport and an example of weak and strong paraphrase:

“Education combats easy overgeneralizations, and as the educational level rises we find a reduction in stereotyped thinking” (Allport 422).

WEAK PARAPHRASE: Learning fights against stereotypes, and as more people are more educated we notice a decrease in prejudice (422).

STRONG PARAPHRASE: Allport explains that the more we learn, the harder we will find it to make unfair assumptions about groups of people, which means as more people pursue more education, prejudice decreases (422).

In the weak example above, you can see the sentence structure in the paraphrase is very similar to the quotation—notice, for instance, the use in both the original sentence and the weak paraphrase of a comma plus the conjunction “and.” Also, the replacement of Allport’s words with synonyms makes the paraphrase too close to the original—Allport’s “education” is replaced with “learning” in the paraphrase; his “combats” is exchanged for “fights”; “overgeneralizations” becomes “stereotypes.” The strong example above does a better job of restating Allport’s idea in a new sentence structure and without simple word substitution. Also, notice the weak paraphrase does not give Allport credit by mentioning him, but the strong one does.

Summarizing When you summarize another writer’s idea to use as evidence in a paper of your own, you are taking the essence of the writer’s idea and stating it more briefly, with less detail and explanation, than in the original. You may summarize an article or a chapter, or even a book, in a sentence, a paragraph, a page, or more—the purpose of your summary should dictate how specific you are. Summaries should be mostly in your own words, but often summaries include quotations or paraphrases when it is necessary to highlight a certain key point. When you are writing a summary, you need to be very careful not to use the original writer’s words without putting those words in quotation marks. You also need to be sure that when you summarize, you are fairly representing the original writer’s main idea. Here is a paragraph from Allport and examples of weak and strong summary:

“While discrimination ultimately rests on prejudice, the two processes are not identical. Discrimination denies people their natural or legal rights because of their membership in some unfavored group. Many people discriminate automatically without being prejudiced; and others, the “gentle people of prejudice,” feel irrational aversion, but are careful not to show it in discriminatory behavior. Yet in general, discrimination reinforces prejudices, and prejudices provide rationalizations for discrimination. The two concepts are most distinct when it comes to seeking remedies. The corrections for discrimination are legal, or lie in a direct change of social practices; whereas the remedy for prejudice lies in education and the conversion of attitudes. The best opinion today says that if we eliminate discrimination, then—as people become acquainted with one another on equal terms—attitudes are likely to change, perhaps more rapidly than through the continued preaching or teaching of tolerance.” (Allport 417)

WEAK SUMMARY: Discrimination is when people are denied their rights because they belong to some unfavored group, and it is addressed with legal action or a change in social practices. Eliminating discrimination from society would have a drastic effect on social attitudes overall, according to Allport (417).

STRONG SUMMARY: Allport explains that discrimination occurs when an individual is refused rights because he or she belongs to a group which is the object of prejudice. In this way, discrimination reinforces prejudice, but if instances of discrimination are ruled illegal or seen as socially unacceptable, prejudice will likely decrease along with discrimination (417).

You will notice that the weak summary above uses exact words and phrases from the source (“unfavored group,” “social practices”) and also some words and phrases very close to the original (“when people are denied,” “eliminating discrimination”). It does not effectively restate the original in different language. It also does not fairly represent the complete idea of the source paragraph: it does not explain the relationship between discrimination and prejudice, an important part of what Allport says. The strong example does a better job using independent language and fairly conveying Allport’s point.

How to choose which method of incorporating evidence to use These methods of incorporating evidence into your paper are helpful in different ways. Think carefully about what you need each piece of evidence to do for you in your paper, then choose the method that most suits your needs.

You should use a quotation if

  • you are relying on the reputation of the writer of the original source to give authority or credibility to your paper.
  • the original wording is so remarkable that paraphrasing would diminish it.

A paraphrase is a good choice if

  • you need to provide a supporting fact or detail but the original writer’s exact words are not important.
  • you need to use just one specific idea from a source and the rest of the source is not as important.

Summary is useful when

  • you need to give an overview of a source to orient your reader.
  • you want to provide background that leads up to the point of your paper.

Last but certainly not least, remember that anytime you use another person’s ideas or language, you must give credit to that person. If you do not know the name of the person whose idea or language you are using, you must still give credit by referring to a title or any such available information. You should always check with your instructor to see what method of citing and documenting sources you should use. The examples on this handout are cited using MLA style.

The sample text in these exercises is Holly Devor’s “Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes.”

1. Read the paragraph from Devor below, then identify which summary of it is weak and which is strong.

“Body postures and demeanors which communicate subordinate status and vulnerability to trespass through a message of "no threat" make people appear to be feminine. They demonstrate subordination through a minimizing of spatial use: people appear to be feminine when they keep their arms closer to their bodies, their legs closer together, and their torsos and heads less vertical than do masculine-looking individuals. People also look feminine when they point their toes inward and use their hands in small or childlike gestures.” (486)

A. Devor argues that body language suggests a great deal about gender and power in our society. People who minimize the body space they occupy and whose physical gestures are minimal and unobtrusive appear inferior and feminine (486).

B. Devor says that body postures and demeanors that imply weakness make people look feminine. Minimizing the space one takes up and using infantile gestures also makes one appear feminine (486).

2. Read the sentence from Devor below, then identify which paraphrase of it is weak and which is strong.

“They demonstrate subordination through a minimizing of spatial use: people appear to be feminine when they keep their arms closer to their bodies, their legs closer together, and their torsos and heads less vertical than do masculine-looking individuals.” (486)

A. Devor explains that people demonstrate a lesser position by using less space, keeping arms close, legs together, and head less upright (486).

B. According to Devor, taking up less space with one’s body—keeping arms and legs close and hunching to reduce height—makes one appear inferior and implies femininity (486).

3. The quotations of Devor below, taken from the paragraph in exercise 1, contain technical errors. Identify and correct them.

A. Devor argues that “[b]ody postures and demeanors which communicate subordinate status and vulnerability make people appear to be feminine” (486).

B. The actress looked particularly feminine because she “point their toes inward and use their hands in small or childlike gestures” (486).

C. Devor claims that “using their hands in small or childlike gestures” makes people look feminine (486).

Answers: 1. A. STRONG B. WEAK – This example uses too many exact words and phrases from the original.

2. A. WEAK – This example uses too many exact words and phrases from the source, and its sentence structure is also too close to the original. B. STRONG

3. A. Devor argues that “[b]ody postures and demeanors which communicate subordinate status and vulnerability . . . make people appear to be feminine.” B. The actress looked particularly feminine because she “point[s her] toes inward and use[s her] hands in small or childlike gestures.” C. Devor claims that “us[ing] their hands in small or childlike gestures” makes people look feminine.

Allport, Gordon, “Prejudice and the Individual,” in The Borozoi College Reader , 6th ed. Eds. Charles Muscatine and Marlene Griffith (New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1988): 416-22.

Devor, Holly, “Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes,” in Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers , 4th ed. Eds. Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon (New York: Bedford / St Martin's, 2003): 484-89.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite an Essay in MLA

How to Cite an Essay in MLA

The guidelines for citing an essay in MLA format are similar to those for citing a chapter in a book. Include the author of the essay, the title of the essay, the name of the collection if the essay belongs to one, the editor of the collection or other contributors, the publication information, and the page number(s).

Citing an Essay

Mla essay citation structure.

Last, First M. “Essay Title.” Collection Title, edited by First M. Last, Publisher, year published, page numbers. Website Title , URL (if applicable).

MLA Essay Citation Example

Gupta, Sanjay. “Balancing and Checking.” Essays on Modern Democracy, edited by Bob Towsky, Brook Stone Publishers, 1996, pp. 36-48. Essay Database, www . databaseforessays.org/modern/modern-democracy.

MLA Essay In-text Citation Structure

(Last Name Page #)

MLA Essay In-text Citation Example

Click here to cite an essay via an EasyBib citation form.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

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  • View all MLA Examples

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To cite your sources in an essay in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the author’s name(s), chapter title, book title, editor(s), publication year, publisher, and page numbers. The templates for in-text citations and a works-cited-list entry for essay sources and some examples are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author on the first occurrence. For subsequent citations, use only the surname(s). In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the author(s).

Citation in prose:

First mention: Annette Wheeler Cafarelli

Subsequent occurrences: Wheeler Cafarelli

Parenthetical:

….(Wheeler Cafarelli).

Works-cited-list entry template and example:

The title of the chapter is enclosed in double quotation marks and uses title case. The book or collection title is given in italics and uses title case.

Surname, First Name. “Title of the Chapter.” Title of the Book , edited by Editor(s) Name, Publisher, Publication Year, page range.

Cafarelli, Annette Wheeler. “Rousseau and British Romanticism: Women and British Romanticism.” Cultural Interactions in the Romantic Age: Critical Essays in Comparative Literature , edited by Gregory Maertz. State U of New York P, 1998, pp. 125–56.

To cite an essay in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the author(s), the essay title, the book title, editor(s), publication year, publisher, and page numbers. The templates for citations in prose, parenthetical citations, and works-cited-list entries for an essay by multiple authors, and some examples, are given below:

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author (e.g., Mary Strine).

For sources with two authors, use both full author names in prose (e.g., Mary Strine and Beth Radick).

For sources with three or more authors, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues” (e.g., Mary Strine and others). In subsequent citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues” (e.g., Strine and others).

In parenthetical citations, use only the author’s surname. For sources with two authors, use two surnames (e.g., Strine and Radick). For sources with three or more author names, use the first author’s surname followed by “et al.”

First mention: Mary Strine…

Subsequent mention: Strine…

First mention: Mary Strine and Beth Radick…

Subsequent mention: Strine and Radick…

First mention: Mary Strine and colleagues …. or Mary Strine and others

Subsequent occurrences: Strine and colleagues …. or Strine and others

…. (Strine).

….(Strine and Radick).

….(Strine et al.).

The title of the essay is enclosed in double quotation marks and uses title case. The book or collection title is given in italics and uses title case.

Surname, First Name, et al. “Title of the Essay.” Title of the Book , edited by Editor(s) Name, Publisher, Publication Year, page range.

Strine, Mary M., et al. “Research in Interpretation and Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities.” Speech Communication: Essays to Commemorate the 75th Anniversary of the Speech Communication Association , edited by Gerald M. Phillips and Julia T. Wood, Southern Illinois UP, 1990, pp. 181–204.

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Course: 7th grade reading & vocabulary   >   unit 1, citing evidence in literary analysis | reading.

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How to Introduce Evidence in an Essay

Last Updated: December 5, 2023

This article was co-authored by Tristen Bonacci . Tristen Bonacci is a Licensed English Teacher with more than 20 years of experience. Tristen has taught in both the United States and overseas. She specializes in teaching in a secondary education environment and sharing wisdom with others, no matter the environment. Tristen holds a BA in English Literature from The University of Colorado and an MEd from The University of Phoenix. This article has been viewed 225,348 times.

When well integrated into your argument, evidence helps prove that you've done your research and thought critically about your topic. But what's the best way to introduce evidence so it feels seamless and has the highest impact? There are actually quite a few effective strategies you can use, and we've rounded up the best ones for you here. Try some of the tips below to introduce evidence in your essay and make a persuasive argument.

Setting up the Evidence

Step 1 Set up the evidence in the first sentence of the paragraph.

  • You can use 1-2 sentences to set up the evidence, if needed, but usually more concise you are, the better.

Step 2 Introduce an argument or assertion.

  • For example, you may make an argument like, “Desire is a complicated, confusing emotion that causes pain to others.”
  • Or you may make an assertion like, “The treatment of addiction must consider root cause issues like mental health and poor living conditions.”

Step 3 Discuss a specific idea or theme for a less direct approach.

  • For example, you may write, “The novel explores the theme of adolescent love and desire.”
  • Or you may write, “Many studies show that addiction is a mental health issue.”

Putting in the Evidence

Step 1 Start with an introductory clause for a simple approach.

  • For example, you may use an introductory clause like, “According to Anne Carson…”, "In the following chart...," “The author states…," "The survey shows...." or “The study argues…”
  • Place a comma after the introductory clause if you are using a quote. For example, “According to Anne Carson, ‘Desire is no light thing" or "The study notes, 'levels of addiction rise as levels of poverty and homelessness also rise.'"
  • A list of introductory clauses can be found here: https://student.unsw.edu.au/introducing-quotations-and-paraphrases .

Step 2 Use a claim or argument to introduce the evidence.

  • For example, you may write, “In the novel, Carson is never shy about how her characters express desire for each other: ‘When they made love/ Geryon liked to touch in slow succession each of the bones of Herakles' back…’”
  • Or you may write, "The study charts the rise in addiction levels, concluding: 'There is a higher level of addiction in specific areas of the United States.'"

Step 3 Work the evidence into a sentence.

  • For example, you may write, “Carson views events as inevitable, as man moving through time like “a harpoon,” much like the fates of her characters.”
  • Or you may write, "The chart indicates the rising levels of addiction in young people, an "epidemic" that shows no sign of slowing down."

Step 4 Include the author’s name and the title of the reference.

  • For example, you may write in the first mention, “In Anne Carson’s The Autobiography of Red , the color red signifies desire, love, and monstrosity.” Or you may write, "In the study Addiction Rates conducted by the Harvard Review...".
  • After the first mention, you can write, “Carson states…” or “The study explores…”.
  • If you are citing the author’s name in-text as part of your citation style, you do not need to note their name in the text. You can just use the quote and then place the citation at the end.

Step 5 Use quotation marks around a direct quote.

  • If you are paraphrasing a source, you may still use quotation marks around any text you are lifting directly from the source.

Step 6 Cite the evidence...

  • For example, you may write, “In the novel, the characters express desire for each other: ‘When they made love/ Geryon liked to touch in slow succession each of the bones of Herakles' back (Carson, 48).”
  • Or you may write, "Based on the data in the graph below, the study shows the 'intersection between opioid addiction and income' (Branson, 10)."
  • If you are using footnotes or endnotes, make sure you use the appropriate citation for each piece of evidence you place in your essay.

Step 7 Reference your sources...

  • You may also mention the title of the work or source you are paraphrasing or summarizing and the author's name in the paraphrase or summary.
  • For example, you may write a paraphrase like, "As noted in various studies, the correlation between addiction and mental illness is often ignored by medical health professionals (Deder, 10)."
  • Or you may write a summary like, " The Autobiography of Red is an exploration of desire and love between strange beings, what critics have called a hybrid work that combines ancient meter with modern language (Zambreno, 15)."

Step 8 Discuss 1 piece of evidence at a time.

  • The only time you should place 2 pieces of evidence together is when you want to directly compare 2 short quotes (each less than 1 line long).
  • Your analysis should then include a complete compare and contrast of the 2 quotes to show you have thought critically about them both.

Analyzing the Evidence

Step 1 Discuss how the evidence supports your claim or argument.

  • For example, you may write, “In the novel, Carson is never shy about how her characters express desire for each other: ‘When they made love/ Geryon liked to touch in slow succession each of the bones of Herakles' back (Carson, 48). The connection between Geryon and Herakles is intimate and gentle, a love that connects the two characters in a physical and emotional way.”
  • Or you may write, "In the study Addiction Rates conducted by the Harvard Review, the data shows a 50% rise in addiction levels in specific areas across the United States. The study illustrates a clear connection between addiction levels and communities where income falls below the poverty line and there is a housing shortage or crisis."

Step 2 Address how the...

  • For example, you may write, “Carson’s treatment of the relationship between Geryon and Herakles can be linked back to her approach to desire as a whole in the novel, which acts as both a catalyst and an impediment for her characters.”
  • Or you may write, "The survey conducted by Dr. Paula Bronson, accompanied by a detailed academic dissertation, supports the argument that addiction is not a stand alone issue that can be addressed in isolation."

Step 3 Include a final sentence that links to the next paragraph.

  • For example, you may write, “The value of love between two people is not romanticized, but it is still considered essential, similar to the feeling of belonging, another key theme in the novel.”
  • Or you may write, "There is clearly a need to reassess the current thinking around addiction and mental illness so the health and sciences community can better study these pressing issues."

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  • ↑ Tristen Bonacci. Licensed English Teacher. Expert Interview. 21 December 2021.
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/quoliterature/
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/evidence/
  • ↑ https://wts.indiana.edu/writing-guides/using-evidence.html

About This Article

Tristen Bonacci

Before you introduce evidence into your essay, begin the paragraph with a topic sentence. This sentence should give the reader an overview of the point you’ll be arguing or making with the evidence. When you get to citing the evidence, begin the sentence with a clause like, “The study finds” or “According to Anne Carson.” You can also include a short quotation in the middle of a sentence without introducing it with a clause. Remember to introduce the author’s first and last name when you use the evidence for the first time. Afterwards, you can just mention their last name. Once you’ve presented the evidence, take time to explain in your own words how it backs up the point you’re making. For tips on how to reference your evidence correctly, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Using evidence: citation frequency in summaries, basics of citation frequency in summaries.

Students often ask if they need to continue to cite their source in each sentence when they summarize just one source over multiple sentences. The answer is maybe. To determine how to cite in a summary, remember the purpose of citing sources: clearly establishing where the information and ideas you include in your writing comes from. Per APA 7, an option is to cite once in the sentence in which the summary or paraphrase begins, and as long as there is some indication that the following information is also from that source, subsequent citations in each sentence are not necessary. With the goal of clarity in mind, a writer might use a blend of narrative citation, parenthetical citation, and other cues and reminder phrases. This approach only applies if the author is focusing on information from one source and not blending information from two or more sources (see APA 7, Section 8.24). 

Approaches to Citations in Summaries

To determine how to cite in a summary, remember the purpose of citing sources: clearly establishing where the information and ideas you include in your writing come from. This means giving credit to sources for their information and ideas, but also distinguishing which ideas are your own. Because of this, generally in summaries you’ll cite throughout the paragraph, rather than just at the beginning or end of the paragraph. Citing just once in a summary is often not enough to clearly show that you are summarizing only one source.

With that in mind, there are primarily three options for citing in a summary; you should choose an option that best aligns with your faculty’s preferences and your goals in that paragraph. Note, however, that these examples only apply to summaries of one source, not paragraphs where you are incorporating multiple sources in your paragraph (those paragraphs should follow APA's general citation rules ). 

Using Narrative and Parenthetical Citations

One way to cite throughout a summary is to use both narrative and parenthetical citations . These two types of citations, when used together, ensure the reader knows you are summarizing from one source, but help you avoid repetition. Here is an example of this strategy:

Universities are continually looking at ways to better support international student populations, and so student support has become a focus for many researchers. Song and Petracchi (2015) studied international students in higher education, specifically focusing on how to best support international students in social work programs. International students often have difficulties due to a lack of financial, emotional, and social support (Song & Petracchi, 2015). Social work students have better outcomes when they were paired in a mentor–mentee relationship with a retired social worker (Song & Petracchi, 2015). Song and Petrachi’s survey results from 31 participants showed that the international social work students were overwhelmingly interested in participating in a mentor–mentee relationship, and thus such a program is recommended.

This paragraph balances narrative and parenthetical citations, creating an equal focus on the study’s ideas and the study’s authors while also creating some variety and flow in the paragraph. Additionally, in this paragraph it is clear throughout that each idea and sentence is coming from the source. Imagine a few of the citations were not there; without those citations, it might seem like those ideas were the writer’s own ideas or they could be ideas from any source. Finally, note that because this author used multiple narrative citations, she could also simplify those citations with APA’s citation publication year rule .

Using Periodic Citations and Reminder Cues

Smith et al. (2017) provided a literature review of current research on climate change and its impact on public health. The authors argued that research thus far shows that climate change will have, and is already having, an impact on human health. Thus, they show the importance of discussing and advocating for climate change policy within the medical and health policy fields. Specifically, Smith et al. used California as an example, showing how effective discussing climate change within the framework of public health can be in making significant policy changes. The main conclusion from this review is that similar approaches could be used throughout the United States.

The focus of this paragraph is explaining Smith et al.'s (2017) literature review findings, and throughout the explanation cues like "the authors," "they show," and "this review" help the reader understand that the ideas are all from the Smith et al. source. Note that because there is more than one narrative citation in the paragraph, the year is not needed after the first one (see APA's citation publication year rule ).

Universities are continually looking at ways to better support international student populations, and therefore student support has become a focus for many researchers. Song and Petracchi (2015) studied international students in higher education, specifically focusing on how to best support international students in social work programs. They claimed that international students often have difficulties due to a lack of financial, emotional, and social support. Additionally, social work students have better outcomes when they are paired in a mentor–mentee relationship with a retired social worker. The survey results from 31 participants showed that the international social work students were overwhelmingly interested in participating in a mentor–mentee relationship, and thus such a program is recommended.

Again, the focus of this paragraph is explaining the study and findings by Song and Petracchi (2015). After the initial citation, words and phrases, including “they claimed” and “the survey results” are used to help the reader know that the following information continues to be from that source.

Using Citations Narratively in Each Sentence

One last strategy you can use when citing in summaries is to explicitly cite the source in each sentence using a narrative citation. Although this strategy may technically follow APA’s rules, it is not the preferred method because it is not as smooth as the strategies above and can result in repetition. Here is an example of this strategy:

Fossati (2017) studied the way local governments have stepped in to create universal health care policies in Indonesia. He did so by conducting a thorough literature review. In this literature review, Fossati found that local governments were well positioned to implement innovative health care solutions for their communities. Fossati went on to argue that local innovation can create inequity between different communities, but that it could also provide an impetus for change at a national level. Fossati recommended researchers look at Indonesia for lessons that other developing countries can also learn.

The focus of this paragraph is on the researcher, who is mentioned at the start of each sentence. You may want to use this approach if you want the reader to focus more on the researchers conducting the study rather than the study’s actual findings. However, the use of just narrative citations results in repetition, which means the paragraph is a little choppy and there is less focus on the ideas. Additionally, note that if you decide to use this strategy, APA’s citation publication year rule also applies.

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Upper Elementary Snapshots

Citing Text Evidence in 6 Steps

how to cite evidence on an essay

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How to Write Evidence in Essays or cite argumentative claims

how to cite evidence on an essay

How to Write Evidence in Essay

An academic essay is a detailed type of writing that aims at developing a student’s idea through the use of analysis and evidence. You will likely encounter different types of academic essays in your degree course or PhD voyage.

They range from argumentative, descriptive, and persuasive to narrative essays written in the first person.

how to cite evidence on an essay

The level of education defines the length and content of your writing. Other factors, such as the subject of study and requirements, of course, can also determine the essay you will write. At university levels, students usually write argumentative essays.

All types of essay writing involve the stages of preparation, writing then the revision part.

In preparation, a student will choose the topic to write and come up with a good outline. The student’s argument is set out in the essay introduction. With credible evidence, nurture it clearly, then do the winding in the conclusion.

The revision part is very critical to avoid presenting an essay that is full of spelling and grammar issues.

 What Is Evidence in an Essay                                                                  

writing evidence in essay

Essays and research papers need credible and stronger evidence for the purposes of supporting all claims made. You cannot overlook the significance of evidence.

An essay that does not have strong evidence appears weak and uninformed.

In essence, evidence offers integrity to all arguments and claims made in the essay. If you present the foundation of your essay improperly, the entire essay will not move your professor.

Readers of your essay do not want to believe statements made without attached evidence that is substantial and credible.

For your evidence to be considered strong, it must be extracted from a trustworthy source. Also, ensure that you collect the evidence from multiple sources .

You create a good essay when the evidence is specific and not general. In addition, it must be relevant to the subject of discussion in the paper so that your essay has a consistent flow.

Needless to say, it must be evidence that is not outdated and presented to support your argument. For an essay argument to appear strong in your essay, explain all sections of the evidence.

A writer must outline to the audience how the evidence is connected to the respective claims.

Strong evidence in your academic essay should include studies, statistics, good examples, and quotes that a writer can obtain from updated articles or reports.

sources of essay evidence

A good source can be:

  • Academic journals
  • School Library
  • Verified news reports

There are also reliable internet websites that can yield good evidence, but you ought to verify if the information is true.

How to Write Evidence in an Essay

1. evidence set up.

Writing your evidence starts with its introduction, where you will create an idea at the beginning of the first paragraph of your essay. Afterward, you bring in your evidence to support the idea you introduced.

Analyze the evidence properly so that your audience will understand. A maximum of two sentences is enough for you to set up your evidence because it has to be precise and summarized. Below are more detailed steps on how to write the evidence:

  • Bring in a declaration explaining to the reader what you make of the main idea. Bear in mind that this declaration or argument to bring in ought to bond with the evidence.
  • Another option is to focus on a specific idea related to your essay and bring in the evidence. This is considered a less direct methodology for introducing your evidence and is more applicable in explorative types of essays and not argumentative.

2. Putting in the Evidence

To put in the evidence, start with an initial item and ensure it fits effortlessly into the text. This important item should be placed at the start of the phrase that you are using as evidence.

With a good argument, bring in the evidence. However, you can also opt to use your own claim in introducing the evidence so that it appears more emphatic. For a smooth and more natural flow, place the evidence of your essay in a short sentence.

Ensure to write the name of the author and the reference title especially if you are introducing the evidence for the first time in the essay.

This means that the next time you present your evidence there will be no need to mention the title again.

When it comes to the use of direct quotes in your evidence, make use of quotation marks. This helps to indicate that these are not another person’s words.

3. Evidence Citation

As usual, evidence needs proper citation . Place the citation in the comments appearing at the end of your evidence. A good citation consists of the number of the page where you can trace the quote in the primary source.

how to cite evidence

The last name of the author should also be included. Citations need to include charts, all quotes, graphs and relevant resources.

The inclusion of citation is very important as it portrays the author as a writer who is not only responsible but also able to support his stated points with actual evidence.

In addition to this, select the right citation style too use. MLA, APA and Harvard referencing are among the leading styles you can use to cite. However, consult your professor if you are not sure in order to get further clarification.

It is important to know that evidence needs to be analyzed one piece at a time for the readers to understand them seamlessly. Therefore, analyze the piece of evidence fully before embarking on the next so that they do not appear sloppy.

Finally, analyze your evidence with detailed discussion on how the different pieces of evidence support the arguments.

How to Explain Your Evidence

The stage of explaining different pieces of evidence can be an uphill task. Give this explanation as soon as you state the evidence. The explanation must be thorough with the main idea clearly analyzed to avoid confusing the audience.

The description you give should include the means through which your statements are supported by this evidence. Let the reader comprehend the relationship between the essay’s main idea and the evidence you are presenting.

If there is any confusion in the quotes you have included, give an in-depth clarification to ensure the readers will have a good understanding. 

The Importance of Evidence in Essay Writing

An essay written without good evidence can be compared to a building built without proper foundation. Evidence makes your essay credible by backing up and supporting all arguments made.

Essays backed up with strong evidence will have authority and give the audience easy time in evaluating the assertions. Without evidence, an author will not be able to substantiate any claims made in the essay.

As a good researcher, always go for strong evidence that comes from credible sources. If the evidence you have does not emanate from trustworthy sources, it cannot be considered as strong.

There is need for a thorough scrutiny, if you are using internet websites or social media, to get accurate and reliable source.

Fortunately, you can make use of available search engines or academic databases to help you in screening sources so that you settle for those that are trustworthy. This also helps you to compare the various sources and know if they are all conveying same information and statistics.

James Lotta

James Lotta

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How to Introduce Evidence: 41 Effective Phrases & Examples

how to cite evidence on an essay

Research requires us to scrutinize information and assess its credibility. Accordingly, when we think about various phenomena, we examine empirical data and craft detailed explanations justifying our interpretations. An essential component of constructing our research narratives is thus providing supporting evidence and examples.

The type of proof we provide can either bolster our claims or leave readers confused or skeptical of our analysis. Therefore, it’s crucial that we use appropriate, logical phrases that guide readers clearly from one idea to the next. In this article, we explain how evidence and examples should be introduced according to different contexts in academic writing and catalog effective language you can use to support your arguments, examples included.

When to Introduce Evidence and Examples in a Paper

Evidence and examples create the foundation upon which your claims can stand firm. Without proof, your arguments lack credibility and teeth. However, laundry listing evidence is as bad as failing to provide any materials or information that can substantiate your conclusions. Therefore, when you introduce examples, make sure to judiciously provide evidence when needed and use phrases that will appropriately and clearly explain how the proof supports your argument.

There are different types of claims and different types of evidence in writing. You should introduce and link your arguments to evidence when you

  • state information that is not “common knowledge”;
  • draw conclusions, make inferences, or suggest implications based on specific data;
  • need to clarify a prior statement, and it would be more effectively done with an illustration;
  • need to identify representative examples of a category;
  • desire to distinguish concepts; and
  • emphasize a point by highlighting a specific situation.

Introductory Phrases to Use and Their Contexts

To assist you with effectively supporting your statements, we have organized the introductory phrases below according to their function. This list is not exhaustive but will provide you with ideas of the types of phrases you can use.

Although any research author can make use of these helpful phrases and bolster their academic writing by entering them into their work, before submitting to a journal, it is a good idea to let a professional English editing service take a look to ensure that all terms and phrases make sense in the given research context. Wordvice offers paper editing , thesis editing , and dissertation editing services that help elevate your academic language and make your writing more compelling to journal authors and researchers alike.

For more examples of strong verbs for research writing , effective transition words for academic papers , or commonly confused words , head over to the Wordvice Academic Resources website.

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How to Cite Evidence in an Essay that Reflects Your Opinion

Have you ever dreamt of becoming a great writer able to express some ideas to the reader concisely and in an interesting way? Or, maybe, you have wondered how to cite evidence in an essay? Do not worry because you improve your writing skills and opinion expression ability during your whole life, and all you need is good practice. Are you familiar with anybody who was born with a talent for writing? We are confident that you are not. It is all about one’s desire to develop oneself.

Keep our pieces of advice in mind when you start writing your opinion essay, and you will succeed.

What is an opinion essay? It is the one that helps you to present your worldview. Almost any essay should contain an investigation on a certain topic which is built upon some evident facts and includes the writer’s thoughts as well. Today we will teach you how to express your opinion without spoiling your essay.

The Main Tricks for You to Consider:

Here are our pieces of advice on adding credibility to any of your essays and how to cite textual evidence in an essay while expressing your own thoughts on the topic.

  • Your thesis statement in the introduction must flow through the entire essay. Before you start writing, take some time to develop the theme and collect your ideas on that topic.
  • Use reliable sources only. This way you put some scientific evidence to your idea. This way the question of how to cite evidence in an argumentative essay is answered.
  • Take some useful notes or draw diagrams. You need to visualize your thoughts in some way including the evidence.
  • Every idea should be well explained. You might ask: “Can I use my opinion in an essay?” You can but try to explain and cite some evidence for every small detail you mention.
  • When working on your draft, emphasize your main idea and make your arguments clear, and the readers will trust you.
  • Do not include any pointless details. They will just distract the reader from the point cited and make your essay less worthy.
  • The statement sentences of each passage should propose some examples.
  • Each paragraph should describe and support the thesis, making up the hypothesis of the essay.
  • Any paper has to be written without giving one’s own radical judgments and without the writer’s radical desire to take some side in a conflict or discussion.
  • The last passage is to strengthen the hypothesis and the key thoughts supporting it. Do not present anything new as it does not make sense.
  • Revise your draft. Make yourself confident that there are no grammar or spelling mistakes.

All in all, do your best to make all the data clearly and successfully presented to the reader and evidence cited as well. When you have finished it, be prepared for possible criticism. Take all the advice into consideration and make your next paper or assignment better.

Analytical and Component Thinking is All You Need

There are numerous styles and templates of composing argumentative papers, so building up a good writing methodology will offer you some help through your education.

Personal opinion essays or any argumentative papers can be a big challenge even for proficient scholars. That is because important conclusions should be given by the individuals who know the most about your subject, by the experts. But there is a place for your personality for certain. In other words, there is nothing wrong with your view expressed in a paper but it must be strengthened by evidence.

The Only Way to Avoid Writing an Opinion Essay

If you are fed up with all the tips on how to cite text evidence in an essay, we can offer you our help. EssayVikings offers a bunch of opportunities to benefit from: those are writing, editing or proofreading your paper. Why are we a reliable service and why should you delegate your work to us? Firstly, we work with proficient writers only, and there is no chance they will fail while completing your assignment as we always edit the papers before sending them to you.

Secondly, you are saving time. You do not spend hours looking for, reading and rereading some studies, but you just click the button and have your work done very quickly. Thirdly, our support team works all day long as well as all night, and it is ready to come in handy and answer all your questions. And finally, our prices are affordable enough because we totally understand students’ needs.

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  • How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples

How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples

Published on March 5, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.

To cite a page from a website, you need a short in-text citation and a corresponding reference stating the author’s name, the date of publication, the title of the page, the website name, and the URL.

This information is presented differently in different citation styles. APA , MLA , and Chicago are the most commonly used styles.

Use the interactive example generator below to explore APA and MLA website citations.

Note that the format is slightly different for citing YouTube and other online video platforms, or for citing an image .

Table of contents

Citing a website in mla style, citing a website in apa style, citing a website in chicago style, frequently asked questions about citations.

An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author’s name , the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL.

The in-text citation usually just lists the author’s name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to locate the specific passage. Don’t use paragraph numbers unless they’re specifically numbered on the page.

The same format is used for blog posts and online articles from newspapers and magazines.

You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to generate your website citations.

Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr

Citing a whole website.

When you cite an entire website rather than a specific page, include the author if one can be identified for the whole site (e.g. for a single-authored blog). Otherwise, just start with the site name.

List the copyright date displayed on the site; if there isn’t one, provide an access date after the URL.

Webpages with no author or date

When no author is listed, cite the organization as author only if it differs from the website name.

If the organization name is also the website name, start the Works Cited entry with the title instead, and use a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation.

When no publication date is listed, leave it out and include an access date at the end instead.

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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

  • Missing commas and periods
  • Incorrect usage of “et al.”
  • Ampersands (&) in narrative citations
  • Missing reference entries

how to cite evidence on an essay

An APA reference for a webpage lists the author’s last name and initials, the full date of publication, the title of the page (in italics), the website name (in plain text), and the URL.

The in-text citation lists the author’s last name and the year. If it’s a long page, you may include a locator to identify the quote or paraphrase (e.g. a paragraph number and/or section title).

Note that a general reference to an entire website doesn’t require a citation in APA Style; just include the URL in parentheses after you mention the site.

You can also use our free APA Citation Generator to create your webpage citations. Search for a URL to retrieve the details.

Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr

Blog posts and online articles.

Blog posts follow a slightly different format: the title of the post is not italicized, and the name of the blog is.

The same format is used for online newspaper and magazine articles—but not for articles from news sites like Reuters and BBC News (see the previous example).

When a page has no author specified, list the name of the organization that created it instead (and omit it later if it’s the same as the website name).

When it doesn’t list a date of publication, use “n.d.” in place of the date. You can also include an access date if the page seems likely to change over time.

In Chicago notes and bibliography style, footnotes are used to cite sources. They refer to a bibliography at the end that lists all your sources in full.

A Chicago bibliography entry for a website lists the author’s name, the page title (in quotation marks), the website name, the publication date, and the URL.

Chicago also has an alternative author-date citation style . Examples of website citations in this style can be found here .

For blog posts and online articles from newspapers, the name of the publication is italicized. For a blog post, you should also add the word “blog” in parentheses, unless it’s already part of the blog’s name.

When a web source doesn’t list an author , you can usually begin your bibliography entry and short note with the name of the organization responsible. Don’t repeat it later if it’s also the name of the website. A full note should begin with the title instead.

When no publication or revision date is shown, include an access date instead in your bibliography entry.

The main elements included in website citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author, the date of publication, the page title, the website name, and the URL. The information is presented differently in each style.

In APA , MLA , and Chicago style citations for sources that don’t list a specific author (e.g. many websites ), you can usually list the organization responsible for the source as the author.

If the organization is the same as the website or publisher, you shouldn’t repeat it twice in your reference:

  • In APA and Chicago, omit the website or publisher name later in the reference.
  • In MLA, omit the author element at the start of the reference, and cite the source title instead.

If there’s no appropriate organization to list as author, you will usually have to begin the citation and reference entry with the title of the source instead.

When you want to cite a specific passage in a source without page numbers (e.g. an e-book or website ), all the main citation styles recommend using an alternate locator in your in-text citation . You might use a heading or chapter number, e.g. (Smith, 2016, ch. 1)

In APA Style , you can count the paragraph numbers in a text to identify a location by paragraph number. MLA and Chicago recommend that you only use paragraph numbers if they’re explicitly marked in the text.

For audiovisual sources (e.g. videos ), all styles recommend using a timestamp to show a specific point in the video when relevant.

Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.

  • APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
  • MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
  • Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.

Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.

The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved January 2, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-website/

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Jack Caulfield

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Statement from the Harvard Corporation: President Gay

Dear Members of the Harvard Community,

With great sadness, we write in light of President Claudine Gay’s message announcing her intention to step down from the presidency and resume her faculty position at Harvard.

First and foremost, we thank President Gay for her deep and unwavering commitment to Harvard and to the pursuit of academic excellence. Throughout her long and distinguished leadership as Dean of Social Science then as Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences – where she skillfully led the FAS through the COVID-19 pandemic and pursued ambitious new academic initiatives in areas such as quantum science and inequality – she demonstrated the insight, decisiveness, and empathy that are her hallmark. She believes passionately in Harvard’s mission of education and research, and she cares profoundly about the people whose talents, ideas, and energy drive Harvard. She has devoted her career to an institution whose ideals and priorities she has worked tirelessly to advance, and we are grateful for the extraordinary contributions she has made – and will continue to make – as a leader, a teacher, a scholar, a mentor, and an inspiration to many.

We are also grateful to Alan M. Garber, Provost and Chief Academic Officer, who has served with distinction in that role for the past twelve years – and who has agreed to serve as Interim President until a new leader for Harvard is identified and takes office. An economist and a physician, he is a distinguished and wide-ranging scholar with appointments at Harvard Medical School, Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. We are fortunate to have someone of Alan’s broad and deep experience, incisive judgment, collaborative style, and extraordinary institutional knowledge to carry forward key priorities and to guide   the university through this interim period.

These past several months have seen Harvard and higher education face a series of sustained and unprecedented challenges. In the face of escalating controversy and conflict, President Gay and the Fellows have sought to be guided by the best interests of the institution whose future progress and well-being we are together committed to uphold. Her own message conveying her intention to step down eloquently underscores what those who have worked with her have long known – her commitment to the institution and its mission is deep and selfless. It is with that overarching consideration in mind that we have accepted her resignation.

We do so with sorrow. While President Gay has acknowledged missteps and has taken responsibility for them, it is also true that she has shown remarkable resilience in the face of deeply personal and sustained attacks. While some of this has played out in the public domain, much of it has taken the form of repugnant and in some cases racist vitriol directed at her through disgraceful emails and phone calls. We condemn such attacks in the strongest possible terms.

The search for a new president of the university will begin in due course. We will be in further touch about the process, which will include broad engagement and consultation with the Harvard community in the time ahead.

For today, we close by reiterating our gratitude to President Gay for her devoted service to Harvard, as well as to Provost Garber for his willingness to lead the university through the interim period to come. We also extend our thanks to all of you for your continuing commitment to Harvard’s vital educational and research mission – and to core values of excellence, inclusiveness, and free inquiry and expression. At a time when strife and division are so prevalent in our nation and our world, embracing and advancing that mission – in a spirit of common purpose — has never been more important. We live in difficult and troubling times, and formidable challenges lie ahead. May our community, with its long history of rising through change and through storm, find new ways to meet those challenges together, and to affirm Harvard’s commitment to generating knowledge, pursuing truth, and contributing through scholarship and education to a better world.

The Fellows of Harvard College   Penny Pritzker, Senior Fellow Timothy R. Barakett, Treasurer Kenneth I. Chenault Mariano-Florentino (Tino) Cuéllar Paul J. Finnegan Biddy Martin Karen Gordon Mills Diana L. Nelson Tracy P. Palandjian Shirley M. Tilghman Theodore V. Wells, Jr.

Trump paid me to find voter fraud. Then he lied after I found 2020 election wasn't stolen.

The cries that the 2020 election was lost or stolen due to voter fraud continue with no sign of stopping. but if voter fraud had impacted the 2020 election, it would already have been proven..

Can a steady diet of lies and innuendo overcome the truth?

In November 2020, former President Donald Trump asserted that voter fraud  had altered the outcome of the 2020 presidential election. The day after the election, his campaign hired an expert in voter data to attempt to prove Trump’s allegations and put him back in the White House.

I am the expert who was hired by the Trump campaign .

The findings of my company’s in-depth analysis are detailed in the depositions taken by the Select Committee to Investigate the January 6 th  Attack on the United States Capitol . The transcripts show that the campaign found no evidence of voter fraud sufficient to change the outcome of any election. That message was communicated directly to White House chief of staff Mark Meadows .

Our findings have also been subpoenaed by special counsel Jack Smith’s federal investigation and Fulton County District Attorney Fani Willis’ investigation in Georgia. Those emails and documents show that the voter data available to the campaign contained no evidence of large-scale voter fraud based on data mining and fraud analytics.

More important, claims of voter fraud made by others were verified as false, including proof of why those claims were disproven.

And yet, the cries that the election was lost or stolen due to voter fraud continue with no sign of stopping. Whether a stump speech, outrageous lawsuits like the so-called Kraken cases filed by Sidney Powell, Rudy Giuliani’s lies or the ongoing misguided efforts of people determined to prove the election was stolen , the constant drumbeat hardens people’s hearts and minds to the truth about the 2020 election.

Trump's trial raises questions: If Trump's sure he has immunity, he should work with – not against – prosecutor Jack Smith

Rudy Giuliani lied about voter fraud in Georgia

It’s part of a steady diet of innuendo, misrepresentations and outright lies when it comes to the issue of voter fraud. Giuliani admitted he lied about Ruby Freeman and her daughter committing election crimes in Georgia. Stories that set the record straight about election innuendo are not typically broadcast in right-leaning media, which means that millions of people receive no information to help them make a more informed decision about what happened in 2020.

What these claims don’t take into account is that voter fraud is detectable, quantifiable and verifiable. I have yet to see anyone offer up “evidence” of voter fraud from the 2020 election that provides these three things.

My company’s contract with the campaign obligated us to deliver evidence of voter fraud that could be defended in a court of law. The small amount of voter fraud I found was bipartisan, with about as many Republicans casting duplicate votes as Democrats.

This is a crime of privilege: Those with two homes sometimes take two bites of the electoral apple.

There were also small numbers of deceased voters. Still, nothing emerged that could provide a solid basis for a legal challenge to an election result in any of the states we evaluated.

Additional legal hurdles beyond solid evidence of fraud stand in the way of any effort to overturn or negate an election result through our legal system. Even if it could be shown that more fraudulent votes were cast in a state than the margin of victory in 2020, no one can determine for which candidate each fraudulent ballot was cast.

Backlash will be swift: Banning Trump from the 2024 ballot defies democracy. Courts shouldn't usurp voters' rights.

Trump's claims of voter fraud have no foundation in the truth

We vote anonymously − with good reason. No candidate can credibly claim that a fraudulent vote was credited to their opponent unless the person who cast that vote tells us.

This means that a candidate trying to use voter fraud as the reason to change an election result cannot show that the fraudulent votes caused their election loss.

As a former gubernatorial candidate , I can admire the discipline it takes to stay on message on a single issue. There is no doubt that voter fraud can animate people. But it is one thing to provide a rallying point for supporters and quite another to drag our election infrastructure and legal system into a foundationless set of false claims.

A better use of time, money and energy would be to address systemic weaknesses in our election systems – such as the distressing lack of national election infrastructure to enforce election integrity, destructive practices to our elections such as gerrymandering, and leveling the playing field so that our elections become fairer and more competitive.

If voter fraud had impacted the 2020 election, it would already have been proven. Maintaining the lies undermines faith in the foundation of our democracy.

Ken Block owns Simpatico Software Systems and is the author of " Disproven: My Unbiased Search for Voter Fraud for the Trump Campaign, the Data That Shows Why He Lost, and How We Can Improve Our Elections ," coming out on March 12.

IMAGES

  1. Citing Text Evidence in 6 Steps

    how to cite evidence on an essay

  2. How to Introduce Evidence in an Essay: 14 Steps (with Pictures)

    how to cite evidence on an essay

  3. How to Introduce Evidence in an Essay: 14 Steps (with Pictures)

    how to cite evidence on an essay

  4. Citing Text Evidence in 6 Steps

    how to cite evidence on an essay

  5. How to Introduce Evidence in an Essay: 14 Steps (with Pictures)

    how to cite evidence on an essay

  6. How to properly cite sources within a paper

    how to cite evidence on an essay

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  6. Citation {question}

COMMENTS

  1. Citing Evidence

    2.7 ( 29) Citation Generator Source Type Search Overview In this article, you will learn how to cite the most relevant evidence for your audience. Audience Writing for a specific audience is an important skill. What you present in your writing and how you present it will vary depending on your intended audience.

  2. Academic Guides: Using Evidence: Citing Sources Properly

    Citing sources properly is essential to avoiding plagiarism in your writing. Not citing sources properly could imply that the ideas, information, and phrasing you are using are your own, when they actually originated with another author. Plagiarism doesn't just mean copy and pasting another author's words.

  3. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    Cite your source automatically in MLA Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source's entry on the Works Cited page.

  4. The Basics of In-Text Citation

    In-text citations most commonly take the form of short parenthetical statements indicating the author and publication year of the source, as well as the page number if relevant. Example: APA Style in-text citation (Jackson, 2005, p. 16) We also offer a free citation generator and in-depth guides to the main citation styles.

  5. APA Style, 7th Edition

    In October 2019, the American Psychological Association made radical changes its style, especially with regard to the format and citation rules for students writing academic papers. Use this guide to learn how to format and cite your papers using APA Style, 7th edition. You can start by viewing the video tutorial.

  6. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    APA Citation Basics. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  7. PDF ICE: Introduce, Cite, and Explain Your Evidence

    Smith suggests that "if the introduction to your quote isn't a dependent clause, it doesn't need to be followed by a comma" (1). Smith observes the following in his article: "When you use a colon to introduce a quote, you need a complete sentence preceding the colon" (1). CITE: Provide appropriate parenthetical citations for all ...

  8. How to Cite Sources

    The most commonly used citation styles are APA and MLA. The free Scribbr Citation Generator is the quickest way to cite sources in these styles. Simply enter the URL, DOI, or title, and we'll generate an accurate, correctly formatted citation. Generate accurate citations with Scribbr Table of contents When do you need to cite sources?

  9. How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition)

    Place the page right after the main body and before any appendices. On the first line of the page, write the section label "References" (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order. Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:

  10. Evidence

    Consider what kinds of sources and evidence you have seen in course readings and lectures. You may wish to see whether the Writing Center has a handout regarding the specific academic field you're working in—for example, literature, sociology, or history. What are primary and secondary sources?

  11. MLA: Citing Within Your Paper

    1. Put all the citation information at the end of the sentence: 2. Include author name as part of the sentence (if author name unavailable, include title of work): Each source cited in-text must also be listed on your Works Cited page. RefWorks includes a citation builder tool that can help you to easily set up both in-text and reference citations.

  12. Quotation

    In order for a reader to understand the impact of a direct quotation or paraphrased source material, you should work to integrate your evidence into your paragraph's overall discussion. A strong way to integrate source material is to use transitions. As you integrate sources, you will also often begin analyzing the evidence.

  13. How Do I Effectively Integrate Textual Evidence?

    In Practice. When you use a q uotation as evidence, you should integrate it into your own writing using a "signal phrase.". Take, for example, this quotation, taken from page 418 of the essay "Prejudice and the Individual" by Gordon Allport: "Much prejudice is caught rather than directly taught.".

  14. How to Cite an Essay in MLA

    The guidelines for citing an essay in MLA format are similar to those for citing a chapter in a book. Include the author of the essay, the title of the essay, the name of the collection if the essay belongs to one, the editor of the collection or other contributors, the publication information, and the page number (s). Citing an Essay

  15. Citing evidence in literary analysis

    Yes, we're talking about citing evidence in literary analysis. When you're talking about a text and making arguments about it, in order to successfully build that argument, you must make inferences and draw conclusions. And those must be built on the back of evidence. Both explicit, that is stated in the text, or implicit or based on clues or ...

  16. How to Introduce Evidence in an Essay: 14 Steps (with Pictures)

    1 Set up the evidence in the first sentence of the paragraph. The first sentence in the paragraph or section of your essay is called the topic sentence. It should let the reader know what is going to be discussed in the paragraph or section.

  17. Using Evidence: Citation Frequency in Summaries

    Basics of Citation Frequency in Summaries. Students often ask if they need to continue to cite their source in each sentence when they summarize just one source over multiple sentences. The answer is maybe. To determine how to cite in a summary, remember the purpose of citing sources: clearly establishing where the information and ideas you ...

  18. How to Quote

    Citing a quote in APA Style. To cite a direct quote in APA, you must include the author's last name, the year, and a page number, all separated by commas. If the quote appears on a single page, use "p."; if it spans a page range, use "pp.". An APA in-text citation can be parenthetical or narrative.

  19. Citing Text Evidence in 6 Steps

    Explain How to Cite Evidence I like using anchor charts so much and this one really comes in handy to teach kids how to cite evidence by using the author's exact words, using quotation marks, and telling where you found it (On page 7..., or In the second paragraph...).

  20. How to Write Evidence in Essays or cite argumentative claims

    How to Write Evidence in an Essay. 1. Evidence set up. Writing your evidence starts with its introduction, where you will create an idea at the beginning of the first paragraph of your essay. Afterward, you bring in your evidence to support the idea you introduced. Analyze the evidence properly so that your audience will understand.

  21. How To Write An Essay: Evidence and Citation

    Evidence will make your paper strong! Go to https://www.squarespace.com/ariel to get a free trial and 10% off your first purchase. Thanks to Squarespace for ...

  22. How to Introduce Evidence: 41 Effective Phrases & Examples

    How to Introduce Evidence: 41 Effective Phrases & Examples Wordvice KH Research requires us to scrutinize information and assess its credibility. Accordingly, when we think about various phenomena, we examine empirical data and craft detailed explanations justifying our interpretations.

  23. How to Cite Evidence in an Essay that Reflects Your Opinion

    When working on your draft, emphasize your main idea and make your arguments clear, and the readers will trust you. Do not include any pointless details. They will just distract the reader from the point cited and make your essay less worthy. The statement sentences of each passage should propose some examples.

  24. How to Cite a Website

    Citing a website in MLA Style. An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL. The in-text citation usually just lists the author's name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to ...

  25. Aid and Comfort to the Enemy as Treason

    Footnotes Jump to essay-1 325 U.S. 1 (1945). Jump to essay-2 Id. Jump to essay-3 Id. at 35. Jump to essay-4 Id. at 34-35.Earlier, Justice Jackson had declared that this phase of treason consists of two elements: adherence to the enemy; and rendering him aid and comfort. Id. at 29.A citizen, it was said, may take actions which do aid and comfort the enemy . . . but if there is no adherence to ...

  26. Statement from the Harvard Corporation: President Gay

    Statement from the Harvard Corporation: President Gay. With great sadness, we write in light of President Claudine Gay's message announcing her intention to step down from the presidency and resume her faculty position at Harvard. First and foremost, we thank President Gay for her deep and unwavering commitment to Harvard and to the pursuit ...

  27. Trump's lies about 2020 election undermine US democracy in 2024

    Trump paid me to find voter fraud. Then he lied after I found 2020 election wasn't stolen. The cries that the 2020 election was lost or stolen due to voter fraud continue with no sign of stopping.