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The Evolution of Computers: A Comprehensive History in PowerPoint Presentation

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The History and Evolution of Computers

Computers have come a long way since their inception, evolving from simple calculating machines to the sophisticated devices we use today. Let’s take a journey through the history of computers to understand how they have evolved over time.

Early Computing Devices

The history of computers can be traced back to ancient times when devices like the abacus were used for basic calculations. In the 19th century, mechanical calculators such as Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine laid the foundation for modern computing.

The First Electronic Computers

The mid-20th century saw the development of the first electronic computers, such as ENIAC and UNIVAC, which revolutionized data processing and computation. These early computers were large, expensive, and primarily used by governments and research institutions.

The Personal Computer Revolution

In the 1970s and 1980s, the invention of microprocessors led to the rise of personal computers (PCs). Companies like Apple and IBM introduced affordable desktop computers that brought computing power into people’s homes and offices.

The Internet Age

The advent of the internet in the late 20th century transformed how we use computers. The World Wide Web enabled global communication, e-commerce, social networking, and access to vast amounts of information at our fingertips.

Modern Computing Technologies

Today, we live in an era of smartphones, tablets, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and quantum computing. These technologies continue to push the boundaries of what is possible with computers and shape our digital future.

In Conclusion

The history and evolution of computers is a fascinating journey that highlights human ingenuity, innovation, and progress. As we look towards the future, it is exciting to imagine what new advancements in computing technology will bring.

From Abacus to AI: Tracing the Milestones and Evolution of Computer Technology

Start with a brief overview of the history of computers, highlighting key milestones and inventions., include information about the evolution of computer hardware, from early mechanical devices to modern supercomputers., discuss the impact of major technological advancements on the development of computers over time., incorporate visuals such as images or timelines to enhance understanding and engagement., explore how different generations of computers have influenced each other and shaped today’s technology landscape., conclude with future possibilities and trends in computer evolution to provide a forward-looking perspective..

The history and evolution of computers are marked by significant milestones and groundbreaking inventions that have shaped the modern computing landscape. From the ancient abacus to Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine, early computing devices laid the groundwork for the development of electronic computers like ENIAC and UNIVAC in the mid-20th century. The introduction of personal computers in the 1970s and 1980s, followed by the internet age and advancements in modern computing technologies, have propelled us into a digital era defined by innovation and progress. This tip on the history and evolution of computers PowerPoint presentation provides a comprehensive overview of these key historical moments, offering valuable insights into how far we have come in the world of computing.

In a PowerPoint presentation on the history and evolution of computers, it is essential to highlight the remarkable evolution of computer hardware. Starting from early mechanical devices like the abacus and Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine, the progression of computer hardware has been monumental. Advancements in technology have led to the development of modern supercomputers that can process vast amounts of data at incredible speeds. By showcasing this evolution in hardware, audiences can appreciate how far computer technology has come and gain a deeper understanding of the impact it has had on various aspects of our lives.

When creating a PowerPoint presentation on the history and evolution of computers, it is essential to discuss the impact of major technological advancements on the development of computers over time. By highlighting key milestones such as the invention of the microprocessor, the introduction of personal computers, and the emergence of the internet, you can demonstrate how these advancements have shaped the evolution of computing technology. Exploring how innovations like artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and quantum computing have further propelled the field forward will provide valuable insights into how far computers have come and where they may be headed in the future. Understanding the influence of these technological breakthroughs is crucial for appreciating the continuous growth and transformation of computers throughout history.

To enhance understanding and engagement in a PowerPoint presentation about the history and evolution of computers, it is recommended to incorporate visuals such as images or timelines. Visual aids can help illustrate key points, provide context to historical events, and make complex information more digestible for the audience. By including visuals like photographs of early computing devices, diagrams of technological advancements, or timelines showing the progression of computer development, presenters can create a more immersive and impactful learning experience for viewers. Visuals not only enhance comprehension but also keep the audience engaged and interested throughout the presentation.

By delving into the history and evolution of computers through a PowerPoint presentation, one can uncover how various generations of computers have influenced each other, leading to the shaping of today’s technology landscape. From the early mechanical calculators to the modern era of smartphones and artificial intelligence, each advancement has built upon the innovations of its predecessors, creating a rich tapestry of technological progress. Understanding this interconnected web of influences allows us to appreciate the complexity and interconnectedness of the devices we use daily, providing valuable insights into how far we have come and where future developments may lead us.

In conclusion, delving into the history and evolution of computers through a PowerPoint presentation offers valuable insights into how far we have come in the realm of technology. By reflecting on past milestones and breakthroughs, we can better appreciate the rapid pace of innovation that has shaped the computing landscape today. Looking ahead, it is intriguing to consider the future possibilities and trends in computer evolution. Advancements in areas such as artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and biotechnology hold immense potential to revolutionize how we interact with technology and each other. Embracing these emerging technologies will undoubtedly lead us towards a future where computers play an even more integral role in shaping our lives and society as a whole.

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History of the Computer

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History of the Computer

Based on information taken from Computers Made Friendly

history of computer presentation ppt

Computer History.

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11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Lecture 1 “History and Evolution of Computers” Informatics.

history of computer presentation ppt

Computer History Presented by Frank H. Osborne, Ph. D. © 2005 Bio 2900 Computer Applications in Biology.

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Appendix The Continuing Story of the Computer Age.

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Computers What is it? History, Moore’s Law How to build your own? Sohaib Ahmad Khan CS101 - Topical Lecture

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History of IT.

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Some of these slides are based on material from the ACM Computing Curricula 2005.

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History of Computers Computer Technology Introduction.

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Prepared by: Jasper Francisco. The Early Years 1  In the early years, before the computer was invented, there were several inventions of counting machine.

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KEYBOARD – an input device used to type data.

history of computer presentation ppt

THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS

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The History of the Computer Then & Now Computer Evolution 1642 Blaise Pascal – mechanical adding machine.

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Evolution of the Computer Land marks of the Computer History.

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Evolution of Computers

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Computer history timeline

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Computer. Great Inventions written by Bob Barton.

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Chapter 1 History of Computing. 2 Early History of Computing Abacus (origin? 2000BC) An early device to represent numeric values with beads. Note that.

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The short history of computer

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The world's first modern computer, built in Manchester England in 1948, was followed remarkably swiftly by the first business software, but by 1968 software was in crisis and NATO called a conference. The problems were diagnosed, solutions were proposed - and largely ignored. A second Software Crisis was announced in the early 1980's and again the effective solutions were considered impractical and the practical solutions were largely ineffective. Meanwhile as Moore's Law predicted, hardware costs continued to fall exponentially, making software systems ubiquitous and leading to a third software crisis, this time of cybersecurity.

Cresent Escriber

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The social and organizational history of humanity is intricately entangled with the history of technology in general and the technology of information in particular. Advances in this area have often been closely involved in social and political transformations. While the contemporary period is often referred to by such names as the Computing and Information Age, this is the culmination of a series of historical transformations that have been centuries in the making. This course will provide a venue for students to learn about history through the evolution of number systems and arithmetic, calculating and computing machines, and advanced communication technology via the Internet. Students who take this course will attain a degree of technological literacy while studying core historical concepts. Students who complete this course will learn the key vocabulary of the computing discipline, which is playing a significant role in modern human thought and new media communications. The Hist...

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David Gugerli , Daniela Zetti

The historicization of the computer in the second half of the 20th century can be understood as the effect of the inevitable changes in both its technological and narrative development. What interests us is how past futures and therefore history were stabilized. The development, operation, and implementation of machines and programs gave rise to a historicity of the field of computing. Whenever actors have been grouped into communities – for example, into industrial and academic developer communities – new orderings have been constructed historically. Such orderings depend on the ability to refer to archival and published documents and to develop new narratives based on them. Professional historians are particularly at home in these waters – and nevertheless can disappear into the whirlpool of digital prehistory. Toward the end of the 1980s, the first critical review of the literature on the history of computers thus offered several programmatic suggestions. It is one of the peculiar coincidences of history that the future should rear its head again just when the history of computers was flourishing as a result of massive methodological and conceptual input. The emergence of the World Wide Web in the 1990s, which caught historians totally by surprise, led to an ahistorical, anthropological, aesthetic-medial approach to digitization. The program for investigating the prehistory of the digital age was rewritten in favor of explaining the development of communication networks. Computer systems and their concepts dropped out of history. This poses a problem for the history of computers, insofar as the success of the history of technology is tied to the stability of its objects. It seems more promising to us to not attribute the problem to the object called computer or to the “disciplinary” field, but rather to focus entirely on substantive issues. An issue-oriented technological history of the 21st century should be able to do this by treating the history of computers as a refreshing source of productive friction.

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The History of Computers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The History of Computers

Past, present, and beyond. topics. famous predictions about computers ... famous quotes about computers 'i think there is a world market for ... famous ... – powerpoint ppt presentation.

  • Past, Present, and Beyond
  • Famous Predictions about Computers
  • Early History of Computers
  • The First Generation of Computers
  • The Second Generation of Computers
  • The Third Generation of Computers
  • The Fourth Generation of Computers
  • The Future of Computing
  • I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
  • Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons. Popular Mechanics, 1949
  • There is no reason anyone in the right state of mind will want a computer in their home. Ken Olson, President of Digital Equipment Corp, 1977.
  • "So we went to Atari and said, 'Hey, we've got this amazing thing, even built with some of your parts, and what do you think about funding us? Or we'll give it to you. We just want to do it. Pay our salary, we'll come work for you' And they said, 'No.' So then we went to Hewlett-Packard, and they said, 'Hey we don't need you. You haven't got through college yet.'" - Apple Computer Inc. founder Steve Jobs on attempts to get Atari and HP interested in his and Steve Wozniak's personal computer.
  • Blaise Pascal
  • Joseph Jacquard
  • Charles Babbage
  • Ada Lovelace
  • The abacus, a simple counting aid, may have been invented in Babylonia (now Iraq) in the fourth century B.C.
  • First known mechanical calculator
  • Capable of simple arithmetic
  • Born on June 19, 1623 in France
  • Builds the first operating mechanical calculator in 1642 called the Pascaline
  • Calculator limited to addition and subtraction of decimal numbers
  • Metal wheels used to enter numbers, results appear in the calculators window
  • German mathematician
  • Calculator purely mechanical with no source of power
  • Calculator capable of multiplication and division
  • Joseph-Marie Jacquard
  • Invents an automatic loom controlled by punch cards in 1801
  • First machine programmed with punched cards
  • People rioted over the loss of jobs it produced
  • Born December 26, 1792.
  • Known as the Father of Computers
  • Devises the Difference Engine in the early 1820s.
  • Mechanical, steam powered machine for calculating astronomical tables.
  • Works on the project for 20 years before the project is cancelled by the British government in 1842.
  • The Analytical Engine
  • A mechanical computer that can solve any mathematical problem.
  • Includes these features crucial to future computers
  • An input device (punch cards)
  • A storage facility to hold numbers for processing
  • A processor or number calculator
  • A control unit to direct tasks to be performed
  • An output device.
  • Countess Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace
  • Born December 10, 1815, daughter of the poet Lord Byron
  • Meets Babbage in 1833
  • Often called the first computer programmer
  • Ada Lovelace, Continued
  • Publishes an analysis of the Analytical Engine.
  • Outlines the fundamentals of computer programming, including data analysis, looping and memory addressing.
  • Herman Hollerith
  • The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)
  • The 1880 US Census took almost seven years to count.
  • Using punch cards, developed an electromechanical machine that counted the 1890 Census in six weeks.
  • Brought his punch card reader to the business world in 1896 when he founded Tabulating Machine Company, which later merged with International Business Machines (IBM).
  • Punch cards remained in use for data processing until the 1960s.
  • An electromechanical computer developed in 1944 by Howard Aiken
  • Developed to calculate ballistics charts for the US Navy
  • Was about half as long as a football field and contained 500 miles of wire
  • Used electromagnetic signals to move mechanical parts
  • Was obsolete by the time it was complete
  • The worlds first digital electronic computer.
  • Built by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry around 1940.
  • Used the binary number number system, regenerative memory, and separated memory and computing functions.
  • The worlds first large-scale, general purpose electronic computer
  • Developed in 1946 by J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly
  • Used 18,000 vacuum tubes
  • Occupied a 30 by 50 ft room
  • Computed at speeds up to 1,000 times faster than the Mark 1
  • Used for ballistics, weather prediction, and for atomic energy calculations.
  • To program, hundreds of wires and thousands of switches had to be set by hand
  • Stored-programming concept
  • Suggested that programs and data could be represented in the same internal memory.
  • All modern ocmputers store programs in internal memory.
  • Vacuum Tubes
  • Punch Cards
  • At the time, the primary way to enter information and programs into a computer
  • Built in 1951 by Remington Rand
  • The first computer mass produced for general use
  • Used magnetic tape instead of punch cards for input and output
  • Predicted the winner of the 1952 presidential election
  • Transistors
  • Admiral Grace Hopper
  • The transistor (on/off switch) was invented in 1948 and began to replace vacuum tubes in computers by 1956.
  • Developed by a team at Bell Labs, won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956.
  • Transistors allowed computers to become smaller, faster and more reliable.
  • Today, transistors are about .25 microns in size, that is smaller than the width of a human hair.
  • Rear Admiral Grace Hopper
  • Born December 9, 1906 in New York City
  • One of the first US computer programmers
  • A leader in the field of compilers
  • Believed that programming languages should be more like English
  • Was a leading force in the development of the COBOL business programming language
  • Coined the term Debugging
  • The rise of operating systems, minicomputers, and word processing
  • Integrated Circuits
  • Development of the first computer networks
  • Integrated circuits (computer chips) began replacing transistors
  • An integrated circuit contains many transistors and electronic circuits on a single wafer of silicon or chip.
  • Developed in 1964, the first computer to use integrated circuits.
  • Became the basic model for other mainframes produced by IBM and other companies.
  • Price Up to a million dollars
  • Number sold 14,000 by 1968
  • The first microcomputer, produced by Digital Equipment Co. (DEC) in 1965.
  • Number Sold 50,000
  • The Microprocessor
  • The First Microcomputers
  • A computer chip that contains on it the entire CPU
  • Mass produced at a very low price
  • Computers become smaller and cheaper
  • Intel 4004 the first computer on a chip, more powerful than the original ENIAC.
  • 1975 - The first microcomputer, the Altair 8800 was introduced. The BASIC translator used by the Altair was developed by Bill Gates
  • 1975 The first super computer, the Cray 1, was announced
  • 1976 DEC introduces its minicomputer, the VAX
  • 1977 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak begin producing Apple computers in a garage
  • 1978 The first spreadsheet for Apple is introduced
  • 1981 IBM introduces the IBM Personal Computer. Uses the MS-DOS operating system (birth of Microsoft)
  • By 1982, 835,000 IBM PCs had been sold
  • 1982 Sun Microsystems introduces its first workstation
  • 1984 Apple produces the first Macintosh
  • 1985 Microsoft introduces Windows
  • Bleeding Edge Technology
  • Molecular Computing
  • DNA Computing
  • Biological Computing
  • Quantum Computing
  • The amount of circuitry that can be placed on a silicon chip is limited.
  • As more transistors are crammed onto a silicon chip the process becomes complex and expensive.
  • Today about 28 million transistors can be placed on a computer chip.
  • Molecules are much smaller than transistors.
  • Molecular chips that contain billions or trillions of switches and components.
  • Main Advantages
  • Potential to pack vastly more circuitry onto a microchip than will ever be possible with silicon chips
  • Astonishing fast
  • Potentially cheap and easy to produce
  • Potential Uses
  • Molecular memories with a million times the storage of todays chips
  • Supercomputers the size of a wrist watch
  • Current Work
  • Creating switches using molecules
  • Molecules do not usually carry a current
  • Small molecular devices that could be integrated with todays silicon chips
  • DNA is a unique data structure
  • Has enormous data density up to 1 million Gbits of data per inch
  • Todays best hard drive store about 7Gbits psi
  • Double stranded nature has potential for error correction
  • Massively Parallel Operations
  • Using enzymes, which operate on one DNA at the same time
  • Massively parallel operations
  • Huge memory capacity
  • Possible Uses
  • Solving computational problems that can never be solved using silicon-based computers.
  • Creating devices out of cells that can compute and be programmed
  • Probably not a replacement for traditional computers
  • Biological computing is at the stage that traditional computing was in the 1920s.
  • Process control for biochemical systems
  • Insulin delivery systems that could sense the amount of glucose in the blood and deliver the right amount
  • Devices that detect food contamination or toxins in the air
  • Computers based on quantum mechanics
  • Building block of data is the quantum bit (or qubit)
  • A qubit can exist in two states at the same time, so it can hold a value of both one and zero simultaneously
  • Potential for parallel computation
  • Disadvantages
  • Fragile and difficult to control
  • The whole system can lose coherence and collapse.
  • http//lalaland.cl.msu.edu/vanhoose/humor/0261.ht ml
  • http//aspire.virtualave.net/quotes.phtml
  • http//www.funehumor.com/fun_main/computer.htm
  • http//www.allsands.com/History/Objects/babbagecom puter_yy_gn.htm
  • http//sol.brunel.ac.uk/history/hist1910.html
  • History of Computers
  • http//www.cnet.com/techtrends/0-1544318-7-1656936 .html?tagst.cn.1.tlpg.1544318-7-1656936
  • http//www.digitalcentury.com/encyclo/update/comp_ hd.html
  • http//www.cln.org/themes/computer_history.html
  • http//www.techreview.com/articles/may00/full_text .htm

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Chm Blog Curatorial Insights , From the Collection , Software History Center

Slide logic: the emergence of presentation software and the prehistory of powerpoint, by david c. brock | october 04, 2016.

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In many parts of our world today, group communication centers on visual materials built with “presentation software,” often crafted by a speaker him or herself. As a result, meetings now generally depend on the use of personal computers, presentation software in the guises of product or service and display by digital projectors or flat-screens.

A humorous sample PowerPoint presentation supplied with the very first version in 1987. This clip was created with PowerPoint 1.0 for Mac running in a Mac Plus emulator.

So central have these visual materials become that the intended functioning of digital files, programs, computers, and peripherals has become an almost necessary condition for public communication. Choice of presentation software has even become a mark of generational and other identities, as in whether one uses Facebook or Snapchat. Millennials and Generation Z choose Google Slides or Prezi. Everyone else uses PowerPoint, its mirror-twin by Apple called Keynote, or, for political expression and/or economic necessity, LibreOffice. Membership in a highly technical community can be signified by using the typesetting program LaTeX to build equation-heavy slides.

It is PowerPoint, nevertheless, that has become the “Kleenex” or “Scotch Tape” of presentation software. A “PowerPoint” has come to commonly mean any presentation created with software. Microsoft rightly boasts that there are currently 1.2 billion copies of PowerPoint at large in the world today: One copy of PowerPoint for every seven people. In any given month, approximately 200 million of these copies are actively used. PowerPoint is simply the dominant presentation software on the planet. 1

It may come as a surprise, then, to learn that PowerPoint was not the first presentation program. Rather, there were several programs for personal computers that performed similarly to PowerPoint in many respects, which appeared starting in 1982—fully five years before PowerPoint’s debut. PowerPoint’s ubiquity is not the result of a first-mover advantage. 2

Further, many of PowerPoint’s most familiar characteristics—the central motif of a slide containing text and graphics, bulleted lists, the slide show, the slide sorter, and even showy animated transitions between slides—were not absolute novelties when PowerPoint appeared. These elements had been introduced in one form or another in earlier presentation software.

history of computer presentation ppt

Here, the principal developers of PowerPoint—Dennis Austin and Tom Rudkin—describe the structure of the source code defining slides. Austin and Rudkin worked closely with the product’s architect, Bob Gaskins. This document is in a collection of materials donated to the Computer History Museum by Dennis Austin.

From 1982 through 1987, software makers introduced roughly a dozen programs for several different personal computers that allowed users to create visual materials for public presentations as a series of “slides” containing text and graphic elements. Frequently, these slides were printed on paper for incorporation into a photocopied report and transferred to a set of transparencies for use with an overhead projector. Other presentation programs allowed slides to be output as a sequence of 35mm photographic slides for use with a slide projector, a videotape of a series of slide images, or a digital file of screen-images for computer monitors. Makers and users called these programs “presentation software,” and just as commonly “business graphics software.” “Business” here is significant, I think. 3

Early presentation software was most commonly used to create overhead presentations. In this clip, Dennis Austin—a principal developer of PowerPoint—demonstrates the use of overhead projectors and presentations.

The six years from 1982 through 1987 saw the emergence of presentation software (including PowerPoint), with multiple makers introducing competing programs offering many similar capabilities and idioms. Why did multiple, independent software creators develop presentation software for personal computers at just this moment?

I believe that an analytical framework that I developed with historian Christophe Lécuyer to understand episodes in the history of solid-state electronics can also help us to unpack this very different case from software history. Our framework consists of three “contextual logics” that we argue shaped the emergence of the planar transistor, the silicon microchip, the simultaneous-invention of silicon-gate MOS technology, and, as Christophe and Takahiro Ueyama recently show, the history of blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). 4

In their 2013 article, “The Logics of Materials Innovation,” Christophe and Takahiro describe these logics beautifully:

This framework distinguishes different types of contextual challenges that shape the creation of new materials and manufacturing processes: the materiality of substances, tools, and fabrication techniques (referred to as “material logic”); the needs, demands and interests of intended customers (“market logic”); and the competitive tensions among laboratories, firms, and nations (“competitive logic”). These material, market, and competitive logics are not determinative, in the sense that they do not lead to necessary outcomes. But they are particularly stable over time and provide powerful resources and constraints to innovators and their patrons.

The implication seems straightforward: People from similar backgrounds, in similar organizations, facing a common, structured set of contextual logics, will do similar—but not identical—things. But can these logics that help make sense of the history of semiconductor electronics, a technology deeply about materials, also give insights into the history of the ne plus ultra of the digital—software itself? I think it can. Competitive logic, Market logic, and Material logic: Let’s consider them in that order, and see what they can mean for the “prehistory” of PowerPoint.

Competitive logic centered on software makers. In the first half of the 1980s, makers of presentation software were typically connected to companies. There were, of course, makers of non-commercial software of various stripes—hobbyist, open source, libre and the like—but they do not appear to have been a factor in early presentation software. Rather, the makers of presentation software were what I call “integrated software manufacturers,” “software publishers,” and “author houses.” Sometimes the boundaries between these maker-types are blurry, but I think the categories are useful.

Integrated software manufacturers, ranging from cottage firms to public companies, wrote code, manufactured it mainly on magnetic media, wrote and printed technical documentation and guides, and distributed it in shrink-wrapped boxes. For integrated software manufacturers of this era, think of Microsoft, Lotus Development, and MicroPro International." Software publishers" did everything that the integrated manufacturers did, except write the code. Rather, they entered into contracts on a royalty basis with those who did write programs. Software publishers ran the gamut from stand-alone companies that only produced software written by others, to firms that published a mix of programs written internally and externally, and also to computer makers like Apple, who published software written by others under their own label as well as selling their own programs. Code authors ranged from individual sole proprietorships to “author shops,” partnerships between two or more programmers in an LLP or a small company.

The origins of Microsoft, perhaps the best-known integrated software manufacturer.

These author shops, publishers, and integrated manufacturers were, by 1982, competing in a growing market for personal computer application software: Spreadsheets, word processors, databases and “business graphics” programs that often used data from spreadsheets to generate line-graphs, pie-charts, bar-graphs, and other standard plots used in business, science, and engineering. This battle for market share in applications for personal computers was the ‘competitive logic’ for presentation software’s emergence. 5

“Market logic” centered on the intended users of software, and, in the case of presentation software, focused to the communication practices of white-collar workers in the United States (and, perhaps, elsewhere), particularly “managers” and “executives.” Contemporary commentators noted that personal-computer “business” software like spreadsheets represented a turn in “office automation,” the opening of a new phase in which software users would expand beyond specialists and secretaries to managers and executives. Personal computers with new software would be in the offices of Mahogany Row in addition to the accounting department and the typing pool.

For example, in September 1982, John Unger Zussman, a columnist for InfoWorld, noted: “…the market is changing. An examination of the changing word-processor marketplace can tell us a lot about the maturation of microcomputers and give us a clue to the role of micros in the office of the future. ‘There’s an expanding concept of reality in the modern office,’ says Gary Smith, NCR’s director of marketing. Software oriented toward managers, such as spreadsheet and slide-show programs and electronic mail, has increased the demand for distributed data processing. It is now legitimate for a computer to appear on a manager’s desk—or a secretary’s. The personal workstation, says Smith, is becoming ‘the major focus of white-collar productivity.’ This was not always the case. In the past, computers were the province of the data-processing department…and, besides, managers wouldn’t be caught dead typing at a keyboard…word processing became a stepping-stone into the automated office…the introduction of microcomputers into the office of the future seems to be more a process of infiltration than one of direct assault.” 6

In this 1979 commercial, Xerox presented just this vision of the office of the future.

In a 1984 article in the Proceedings of the IEEE titled “A New Direction in Personal Computer Software,” MIT Sloan School professor Hoo-Min Toong, with his postdoc Amar Gupta, identified the crux of the market logic to which presentation software was a response: The time that executives and managers spent in meetings. They write: “Top managers are noted to spend four-fifths of their time attending meetings—delivering or receiving presentations and reports, communicating, and gathering information for subsequent meetings. Meetings are the most prominent, time consuming element of an executive’s job.” They continue: “At present, business personal computers only represent information in numeric form, in text, and in simple charts and graphs. A crucial missing component is the ability to present and manipulate visual, pictorial data…A new layer…will bridge the gap from the present position…to supporting business communications with sophisticated images and color.” 7

history of computer presentation ppt

Toong and Gupta’s diagram of the proportion of an “executive’s” time spent in meetings. © 1984 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from Proceedings of the IEEE.

Toong and Gupta then discuss a newly released example of such “presentation graphics software,” VCN ExecuVision, offered by the book publisher Prentice-Hall. VCN ExecuVision, which ran on the IBM PC, cost $400 but also required libraries of images and icons, that is, “clip art,” at $90 per floppy disk. Users could create “slide shows” of multiple “slides” that the user could craft with text, clip art, and geometric shapes, as well as pie, bar, and line graphs, with the completed slide show either printed or displayed on the PC monitor.

The idiom of the slide was directly adapted from the world of 35mm photographic slides. “Seeing a single slide is one thing,” Toong and Gupta write, “seeing an aggregate of slides is another. VCN ExecuVision supports slide shows in which the transition from one slide to another can be controlled either manually (pressing a key causes display of the next slide) or automatically… More significant is the support of animation techniques which give an illusion of seeing a running movie rather than a slide show…VCN ExecuVision brings sophisticated graphical capabilities to the realm of personal computers thus vastly expanding the horizons of personal computer applications in all four domains – office, home, science, and education.” Continuing their celebration of ExecuVision, Toong and Gupta illustrated their journal article with three full-color pages of ExecuVision slides, replete with images having the unmistakable aesthetic of clip art. Presentation software and clip art may have been born together.

history of computer presentation ppt

Sample slides from VCN ExecuVision. © 1984 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from Proceedings of the IEEE.

Evidently, ExecuVision was the creation of Toong himself—in a Cambridge, Massachusetts author shop called Visual Communication Network Inc.—before the program had been sold or licensed to Prentice Hall. Toong filed articles of incorporation for the firm in October 1983, with his brother and a former MIT industrial liaison as the other directors. His brother was listed as the president and a Sloan School building was the firm’s address. Toong’s connection to ExecuVision is not mentioned in the article. 8

history of computer presentation ppt

Lotus’ announcement of Executive Briefing System. Courtesy of the Kapor Archive.

Toong’s ExecuVision was, in late 1983, a new entrant into the presentation software market that two new integrated software manufacturers, located in neighborhoods on opposing sides of the MIT campus, had already enjoined. On one side was Mitch Kapor’s startup, Lotus Development. Kapor created his new firm on a windfall from two programs he had written that were published by Personal Software, Inc., later renamed VisiCorp. VisiCorp was also the publisher of the breakthrough spreadsheet program VisiCalc, written in Cambridge by Software Arts Inc., the “author shop” of Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston.

Mitch Kapor had written a statistical analysis and data graphing program for the Apple II called TinyTROLL, which he sold through a partnership with his friend and then MIT finance PhD student Eric Rosenfeld who had suggested the program to Kapor. The partnership was called Micro Finance Systems, and Kapor was approached VisiCorp to adapt TinyTROLL to work with data imported from VisiCalc. Kapor soon delivered VisiPlot and VisiTrend, programs that took VisiCalc spreadsheet data and generated pie, bar, and line graphs from them, as well as performed various finance-relevant statistical functions on the data. Kapor and Rosenfeld’s Micro Finance Systems received hundreds of thousands of dollars in royalties for VisiPlot and VisiTrend before VisiCorp bought them outright for $1.2 million. With his share in the windfall, Kapor set up an integrated software manufacturer of his own, Lotus Development, and, in 1982, the firm released its first product, Executive Briefing System, for the Apple II. Todd Agulnick, a 14-year-old high school student, had been hired by Kapor and wrote the BASIC code for Executive Briefing System under his direction. 9

Lotus’ $200 Executive Briefing System was centered on the color video display of the Apple II. In brief, a number of programs for charting and graphing like VisiPlot offered the “BSAVE” command. Instead of routing data to immediately render an image on the video display, BSAVE sent the very same data to a stored file. In this way, a “screen shot” could be rendered on the video display at a later time, shared with others, archived for future use, etc. Lotus’ Executive Briefing System treated BSAVE’d files—these screen shots—as “slides” that could be modified and then displayed on the Apple II’s video display as a “slide show” for a “presentation.” Executive Briefing System users could edit slides of charts and plots by adding text and/or clip art of lines, geometric shapes, or “ornamental” motifs. Slides were arranged in slide shows, and saved to floppy disk. While the program allowed a slide show to be printed—as a paper report or for transparencies for overhead presentation—it focused on slide shows for the video display. A variety of animated “transitions” between slides were available, such as fades, wipes, and spinning-into-view. 10

An early Executive Briefing System demonstration. This clip was created by running an image of the demonstration disk in an Apple II emulator.

David Solomont’s Business and Professional Software Inc., another integrated software manufacturer developing products for the Apple II, was located at 143 Binney Street just a 25-minute walk across the MIT campus—and past Hoo-Min Toong’s office—from Kapor’s Lotus Development office at 180 Franklin Street. Like Kapor, Solomont’s firm had earlier developed a plotting and charting program for the Apple II to work with VisiCalc spreadsheets. Solomont struck a deal with Apple to license the plotting program, which was sold by Apple under the company’s brand as “Apple Business Graphics.” Soon thereafter, arriving on the market about the same time as Lotus’ Executive Briefing System, came Solomont’s “Screen Director” program in 1982. 11

A 2015 CHM oral history interview with David Solomont.

Screen Director, made for the then-new Apple III computer, fully embraced treating a computer running Screen Director like a 35mm slide projector. Users could organize BSAVE’d image files from programs like VisiPlot and Apple Business Graphics into various “slide trays” for presentation on the video display. While Screen Director did not allow for the editing of existing image slides, it did provide for the creation of text slides and for a limited set of animated transitions between slides. Screen Director even shipped with the standard two-button wired controller for slide projectors, but modified to plug into the Apple III for controlling Screen Director slide shows. 12

history of computer presentation ppt

A 1982 print advertisement for Business and Professional Software’s Screen Director program.

So far I have described a meaning for “competitive logic” and “market logic” in the case of presentation software, and some early programs from 1982 through 1984. But what of “material logic?” Material logic here includes personal computers themselves, specifically personal computers with graphics capabilities that were expanding in the early 1980s. The computers’ physical performativity, their material agency, constituted a resource, medium, and constraint for software makers and users. Existing programs widely used on these computers, like spreadsheets and plotting programs, were themselves a critical part of the material logic. Software, like hardware, has an unavoidable materiality. At the most abstract, a computer program can be considered to be a specific pattern. In practice, every instance of a program is a pattern in something material, including the body of an author.

Finally, the material logic for presentation software included operating systems centered on the graphical user interface, or GUI. This style of computing had been pioneered at Xerox PARC in the late 1970s, most famously on the Xerox Alto computer. The Alto inspired other efforts to bring the GUI into personal computing during the first half of the 1980s: Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh computers, Microsoft’s Windows software, and VisiCorp’s VisiOn software to name but a few. 13

This material logic was especially important in the creation of PowerPoint. In 1983, two Apple managers, Rob Campbell and Taylor Pohlman, left the firm and created a new integrated software manufacturer, Forethought Inc. Simply put, they left Apple to bring a Xerox Alto like GUI operating system to the IBM PC. By 1986, however, Forethought Inc. had a change of plans. This story—of Forethought’s creation of PowerPoint—and other stories about what PowerPoint and its competitors can tell us about software history, will be the subjects of upcoming essays by me on the @CHM blog.

For more information about the development of PowerPoint, please see our Guide to the Dennis Austin PowerPoint Records .

  • Oral history interview with Shawn Villaron, PowerPoint manager at Microsoft, date, forthcoming/in process.
  • Indeed, a wonderfully helpful list of presentation software offerings from 1986 compiled by Robert Gaskins, the initiator and architect of the original PowerPoint project, can be found on pages 131-134 of his painstakingly detailed and comprehensive memoir, Sweating Bullets .
  • One place in which these identifying names for the presentation software genre were evident was, and is, the pages of the trade magazine InfoWorld . Google Books has a large number of issues of the periodical available with full text and search. On the more general use of the genre names, see this Google Books NGram .
  • See Christophe Lécuyer and David C. Brock, Makers of the Microchip: A Documentary History of Fairchild Semiconductor (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010); David C. Brock and Christophe Lécuyer, “Digital Foundations: The Making of Silicon Gate Manufacturing Technology,” Technology and Culture , 53 (2012): 561–97; and Christophe Lécuyer and Takahiro Ueyama, “The Logics of Materials Innovation: The Case of Gallium Nitride and Blue Light Emitting Diodes,” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences , 43 (2013): 243-280.
  • See, for example, Martin Campbell-Kelly, “Number Crunching without Programming: The Evolution of Spreadsheet Usability,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , 29 3 (July-September 2007): 6-19 and Thomas J. Bergin, “The Origins of Word Processing Software for Personal Computers: 1976-1985,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , 28 4 (October-December 2006): 32-47.
  • The article may be viewed in InfoWord on Google Books.
  • Hoo-Min D. Toong and Amar Gupta, “A New Direction in Personal Computer Software,” Proceedings of the IEEE , 72 3 (March 1984): 377-388.
  • Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Articles of Organization, Visual Communications Network, Inc., October 13, 1983.
  • Mitch Kapor, “Reflections of Lotus 1-2-3: Benchmark for Spreadsheet Software,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , 29 3 (July-September 2007): 32-40; David C. Brock telephone call with Todd Agulnick, July 15, 2016.
  • Rik Jadrnicek, “ Executive Briefing System, a slide-show program ,” InfoWorld, May 17, 1982, 47–49.
  • Oral History of David Solomont , Computer History Museum, 2015. Or watch it on YouTube .
  • Richard Hart, “ Screen Director helps you present ‘slide shows,’ ” InfoWorld, November 8, 1982.
  • See Michael Hiltzik, Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Comptuer Age, (New York: HarperCollins), 1999.

About The Author

David C. Brock is an historian of technology, CHM's Director of Curatorial Affairs, and director of its Software History Center. He focuses on histories of computing and semiconductors as well as on oral history. He is the co-author of Moore’s Law: The Life of Gordon Moore, Silicon Valley’s Quiet Revolutionary and is on Twitter @dcbrock.

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history of computers

History of Computers

Jul 27, 2014

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History of Computers. By Darius Molo. Essential Computers Today.

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  • visual feedback
  • essential computers today
  • foldable keyboard
  • most computer manufacturers
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History of Computers By Darius Molo

Essential Computers Today This Case is the "box" or "chassis" that holds and encloses the many parts of your computer.  Its purpose is to protect them from damage and dust.  The case is usually made of metal.  The style and color of the case has changed somewhat over the last few years.  Until the year 2000 almost every case was an off-white color.  Since then, most computer manufacturers have opted for a gray, black, or silver case color. Back(left), Front (center) and Rear(right) of Case

The Motherboard It is important to know your way around the mother board so you can make necessary additions and repairs to your computer. If you open your computer's case, you will see various wires, chips, slots, etc.  The largest circuit board is called the Motherboard.  It holds and connects all the important parts of your computer together.  For example, the Motherboard holds all your computer's internal components.  In fact, every component in your computer connects to the Motherboard.   Some are permanently secured to the Motherboard during its construction.   It also contains expansion slots that allow you to plug in additional boards to enable your computer to do even more things.

The Input Squad KeyboardsandMice As with the mouse, people have experimented with how to make the keyboard more user-friendly.  Many keyboard designs have come and gone.  One of the latest designs is the foldable keyboard, shown at the right, which provides high mobility and is often used with laptop computers.  Most Keyboards today are the multi-function models that have added built-in "short cut" buttons which immediately allow you to jump to such functions as controlling video, audio, printing, scanning, or going online. The mouse is simply a device used for pointing, selecting, and highlighting things visible on your monitor.  Traditionally, most mice have used a mouse-ball on its underside to navigate around the screen as you move the mouse.  This proved problematic since dust and debris were constantly being picked up by the underside ball effecting its accuracy.  Most mice sold today are optical mice, which use a laser for more accurate motion tracking.  Many different mouse designs have been tried in the quest for the most natural and comfortable user experience.  There are two buttons at the top of most mice.  The left button is most commonly used when you need to select or click on an item.  The right button is usually used to show the properties or options of whatever it is you are clicking on.

Team Output Speakers and Printers Many people today use their personal computer to listen to music.  You can now purchase speakers for your computer similar in quality to those you would find with a stereo system. "Higher-end" speakers often feature volume control, a sub-woofer for a deeper sound, and upon occasion, rear speakers for "Surround Sound." The two most common printers today are the Photo and All-In-One printers. Photo printers print on photo paper of various sizes.  All-In-Ones print with very good quality and are versatile with the ability to print labels, envelopes, and more.  All-In-Ones can offer phone, fax, scanner and copier.  These printers are very popular because save space, where before you had to make room for all these different machines in your work area, now you just have one device.  Both use Ink Cartridges that fasten into a print head that moves back and forth across the page.  Inside the print heads are many nozzles putting ink on the page.

The Computer Drives Computers typically play both DVDs and CDs in the same drive.  DVD can hold approximately 5GB of information. The newest drive to gain popularity is the USB Drive or Flash Drive.  This is also known as the "thumb" drive since it is about the size of your thumb. When it comes to file and media storage, the best "bang for your buck" definitely belongs to the external hard drive or disk.  These typically connect to your computer via a USB or Fire wire port and can store several Tera bites (TB) of data.

Monitors Before we’re off to the end of history , just think what it be like to have no monitor .It would be impossible to use a computer without a display or monitor giving you visual feedback on what you are doing.  The monitor shows you what is going on inside the computer.  Many people think of the monitor as an inseparable part of the computer, when in fact it has nothing to do with what the computer can or can't do.  In fact, you could hook a different monitor up to your computer every day if you wish and it would not effect your computer's performance, programs, or files in any way.  Monitors are usually connected to a video card, which has been snapped into a slot in the motherboard, allowing the computer to send the display to the monitor. They are CRT (Cathode-ray tube), LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and Gas Plasma screens still throughout the world. I would like to thank the EduLaunch of having all of this nice information. Also thanks to the people who created computers, for without them, the world won’t be much as good as it is today. The End

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history of computer presentation ppt

Retrace your steps with Recall

Search across time to find the content you need. Then, re-engage with it. With Recall, you have an explorable timeline of your PC’s past. Just describe how you remember it and Recall will retrieve the moment you saw it. Any photo, link, or message can be a fresh point to continue from. As you use your PC, Recall takes snapshots of your screen. Snapshots are taken every five seconds while content on the screen is different from the previous snapshot. Your snapshots are then locally stored and locally analyzed on your PC. Recall’s analysis allows you to search for content, including both images and text, using natural language. Trying to remember the name of the Korean restaurant your friend Alice mentioned? Just ask Recall and it retrieves both text and visual matches for your search, automatically sorted by how closely the results match your search. Recall can even take you back to the exact location of the item you saw.

Screenshot of Recall displaying the search results for the query "Korean restaurant that Alice".

Note:  Recall is optimized for select languages (English, Chinese (simplified), French, German, Japanese, and Spanish. Content-based and storage limitations apply. For more information, see https://aka.ms/nextgenaipcs .

System requirements for Recall

Your PC needs the following minimum system requirements for Recall:

A Copilot+ PC

8 logical processors

256 GB storage capacity

To enable Recall, you’ll need at least 50 GB of storage space free

Saving screenshots automatically pauses once the device has less than 25 GB of storage space

How to use Recall

To open Recall, use the keyboard shortcut Windows logo key   +J , or select the following Recall icon on your taskbar:

Icon for Recall on the taskbar

Your timeline in Recall is broken up into segments, which are the blocks of time that Recall was taking snapshots while you were using your PC. You can hover over your timeline to review your activity in a preview window. Selecting the location on the timeline or selecting the preview window loads the snapshot where you can  interact with the content .

Screenshot of Recall with the mouse pointer hovering over a timeline segment.

Search with Recall

Maybe you wanted to make that pizza recipe you saw earlier today but you don’t remember where you saw it. Typing goat cheese pizza into the search box would easily find the recipe again. You could also search for pizza or cheese if you didn’t remember the specific type of pizza or cheese. Less specific searches are likely to bring up more matches though. If you prefer to search using your voice, you can select the microphone then speak your search query.  

Screenshot of the search field for Recall showing the microphone icon and a search for goat cheese pizza.

By default, results are shown from all apps where Recall found matches. You can narrow down your results by filtering the matches to a specific app by selecting an app from the list.

Screenshot of the list of apps that contain the results in Recall

When the results are displayed, they will be listed under the headings of text matches and visual matches . Matches that are closer to your search are shown first. You’ll also notice that some items are listed as one of the following types of matches:

Close match : Close matches typically include at least one of the search terms or images that are representative of a term in your query.

Related match : Matches that share a commonality with the search terms would be considered related. For instance, if you searched for goat cheese pizza , you might also get related matches that include lasagna or cannelloni since they are Italian dishes too.

Interacting with content

Once you’ve found the item you want to see again, select the tile. Recall opens the snapshot and enables screenray, which runs on top of the saved snapshot. Screenray analyzes what’s in the snapshot and allows you to interact with individual elements in the snapshot. You’ll notice that when screenray is active, your cursor is blue and white. The cursor also changes shape depending on the type of element beneath it. What you can do with each element changes based on what kind of content screenray detects. If you select a picture in the snapshot, you can copy, edit with your default .jpeg app such as Photos , or send it to another app like the Snipping Tool or Paint . When you highlight text with screenray, you can open it in a text editor or copy it. For example, you might want to copy the text of a recipe’s ingredients list to convert it to metric.

Note:  When you use an option that sends snapshot content to an app, screenray creates a temporary file in C:\Users\[username]\AppData\Local\Temp in order to share the content. The temporary file is deleted once the content is transferred over the app you selected to use.

Screenshot showing Recall with screenray active and text selected.

Below your selected snapshot, you have more snapshot options. In many cases, you can have Recall take you back to exact location of the item, such as reopening the webpage, PowerPoint presentation, or app that was running at the time the snapshot was taken. You can also hide screenray, copy the snapshot, delete the snapshot, or select … for more snapshot options.

Screenshot of the options for the snapshot at the bottom of the Recall window.

Pause or resume snapshots

To pause recall, select the Recall icon in the system tray then Pause until tomorrow .  Snapshots will be paused until they automatically resume at 12:00 AM. When snapshots are paused, the Recall system tray icon has a slash through it so you can easily tell if snapshots are enabled. To manually resume snapshots, select the Recall icon in the system tray and then select Resume snapshots .  You can also access the Recall & snapshots settings page from the bottom of this window.

Screenshot of the resume snapshot option for Recall.

What if I don’t want Recall to save information from certain websites or apps?

You are in control with Recall. You can select which apps and websites you want to exclude, such as banking apps and websites.  You’ll need to use a supported browser for Recall to filter websites and to automatically filter private browsing activity. Supported browsers, and their capabilities include:

Microsoft Edge: blocks websites and filters private browsing activity

Firefox: blocks websites and filters private browsing activity

Opera:  blocks websites and filters private browsing activity

Google Chrome: blocks websites and filters private browsing activity

Chromium based browsers:  For Chromium-based browsers not listed above, filters private browsing activity only, doesn’t block specific websites

To exclude a website:

Select … then Settings to open the Recall & snapshots settings page.

You can also go to Windows Settings > Privacy & Security > Recall & Snapshots to manage Recall.

Select Add website for the Websites to filter setting.

Type the website you want to filter into the text box. Select Add to add it to the websites to filter list.

Screenshot of adding a website to the filter list in the Recall & snaphots page in Windows settings

To exclude an app:

Select … then Settings to open the Recall & snapshots settings page

Select Add app  for the Apps to filter setting.

From the app list, select the app you want to filter from Recall snapshots.

In two specific scenarios, Recall will capture snapshots that include InPrivate windows, blocked apps, and blocked websites. If Recall gets launched, or the Now option is selected in Recall, then a snapshot is taken even when InPrivate windows, blocked apps, and blocked websites are displayed. However, these snapshots are not saved by Recall. If you choose to send the information from this snapshot to another app, a temp file will also be created in C:\Users\[username]\AppData\Local\Temp to share the content. The temporary file is deleted once the content is transferred over the app you selected to use.

Managing your Recall snapshots and disk space

You can configure how much disk space Recall is allowed to use to store snapshots. The amount of disk space you can allocate to Recall varies depending on how much storage your PC has. The following chart shows the storage space options for Recall:

You can change the amount of disk space used or delete snapshots from the Recall & snapshots settings page. 

To change the storage space limit:

1. Expand the Storage settings.

2. Change the Maximum storage for snapshots limit by choosing the limit from the drop-down list. When the limit is reached, the oldest snapshots are deleted first.

To delete snapshots:

Expand the Delete snapshots settings.

You can choose to delete all snapshots or snapshots withing a specific timeframe.

To delete all snapshots, select Delete all .

To delete snapshots from a specific timeframe, select a timeframe from the drop-down list, then select Delete   snapshots.

Screenshot of the Recall & snapshots page in Windows settings displaying the timeframe options for deleting snapshots

Keyboard shortcuts for Recall

You can use the following keyboard shortcuts in recall:, when interacting with a snapshot with screenray, you can use the following keyboard shortcuts:, microsoft’s commitment to responsible ai and privacy.

Microsoft has been working to advance AI responsibly since 2017, when we first defined our AI principles and later operationalized our approach through our Responsible AI Standard. Privacy and security are principles as we develop and deploy AI systems. We work to help our customers use our AI products responsibly, sharing our learnings, and building trust-based partnerships. For more about our responsible AI efforts, the  principles that guide us, and the tooling and capabilities we've created to assure that we develop AI technology responsibly, see Responsible AI .

Recall uses optical character recognition (OCR), local to the PC, to analyze snapshots and facilitate search. For more information about OCR, see Transparency note and use cases for OCR . For more information about privacy and security, see Privacy and security for Recall & screenray .

We want to hear from you!

If there's something you like, and especially if there's something you don't like, about Recall you can submit feedback to Microsoft by selecting … then the  Feedback icon  in Recall to submit feedback on any issues that you run into. 

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