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To be made up of:

  • Year of submission (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

In-text citation: 

(Smith, 2019)

Reference List:  

Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D. Thesis. University College London. Available at: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10072700 (Accessed: 20 May 2021).

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All you need to know about citations

How to cite a PhD thesis in Harvard

Harvard PhD thesis citation

To cite a PhD thesis in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements:

  • Author(s) of the PhD thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'. For four authors or more include the first name followed by et al., unless your institution requires referencing of all named authors.
  • Year of submission: Give the year in round brackets.
  • Title of the PhD thesis: Give the title as presented in the source. Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
  • Degree description: Type of degree.
  • Degree-awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a PhD thesis in Harvard style:

Author(s) of the PhD thesis . ( Year of submission ) Title of the PhD thesis . Degree description . Degree-awarding institution .

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the Harvard style guidelines in action:

A PhD thesis with one author

Confait, M. F . ( 2018 ) Maximising the contributions of PHD graduates to national development: the case of the Seychelles . PhD thesis . Edith Cowan University .

An unpublished PhD thesis

Bowkett, D . ( 2015 ) Investigating the ligandability of plant homeodomains . Unpublished PhD thesis . University of Oxford .

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This citation style guide is based on the Cite Them Right (10 th edition) Harvard referencing guide.

More useful guides

  • Harvard Referencing: Theses
  • Referencing with Harvard: Thesis or dissertation
  • Citing and referencing: Theses/Dissertations

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  • APA: how to cite a book
  • Harvard: how to cite a mobile app

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  • Our generator will automatically locate the source details and format them in the correct Harvard format. You can make further changes if required.
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Harvard Style Guide: Theses

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Back to Academic Integrity guide

Reference : Author, Initial. (Year of submission) Title of thesis . Degree statement. Degree-awarding body.         

Example : Allen, S. J. (2009) The social and moral fibre of Celtic Tiger Ireland . Unpublished PhD thesis. University College Dublin.

In-Text-Citation :

  • Author Last name (Year)
  • (Author Last name, Year)
  • Allen (2009) disagrees with this…..
  • As argued elsewhere (Allen, 2009)….

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here . 

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here . 

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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .

For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .

This guide does not apply to OU Law undergraduate students . If you are studying a module beginning with W1xx, W2xx or W3xx, you should refer to the Quick guide to Cite Them Right referencing for Law modules .

Table of contents

In-text citations and full references.

  • Secondary referencing
  • Page numbers
  • Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author

Full reference examples

Referencing consists of two elements:

  • in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
  • full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.

To see a reference list and intext citations check out this example assignment on Cite Them Right .

Difference between reference list and bibliography

a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text

a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment

Back to top

Examples of in-text citations

You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below. Alternatively you can see examples of setting out in-text citations in Cite Them Right .

Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.

Online module materials

(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).

When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

OR, if there is no named author:

The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633&section=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:

The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014&section=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941&section=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).

Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

For ebooks that do not contain print publication details

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of book . Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date).

Example with one author:

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy . Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 23 June 2021).

Example with two or three authors:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example with four or more authors:

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.

Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.

Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference.

If accessed online:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326.

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326. Available at: https://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/log... (Accessed: 27 January 2023).

Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2010.523145

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).

Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of photograph . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Kitton, J. (2013) Golden sunset . Available at: https://www.jameskittophotography.co.uk/photo_8692150.html (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

stanitsa_dance (2021) Cossack dance ensemble . Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/COI_slphWJ_/ (Accessed: 13 June 2023).

Note: If no title can be found then replace it with a short description.

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How to Cite a Dissertation in Harvard Style

Published by Alaxendra Bets at August 27th, 2021 , Revised On September 25, 2023

What is a Dissertation?

In the UK, countries of Western Europe, as well as New Zealand and Australia, the term ‘ dissertation ’ is used instead of a ‘thesis.’ The majority of the remaining countries in the world prefer to use ‘thesis’ instead of ‘dissertation.’

Both represent the same thing, though: a full-length, academic piece of writing that students must submit after their undergraduate, post-graduate (Master), or PhD studies.

More specifically, a dissertation can refer to:

  • Large-scale research as part of a degree.
  • An article based on a small-scale study as part of a degree.
  • A review of another study, research or an accumulation of both.
  • Other full-length body texts are a requirement of the student’s degree program, no matter which level it is.

1.    Basic Format

In Harvard, the following in-text citation format is used for the dissertation:

(Author Surname, Year Published)

For example, ‘Occasionally the talent for drawing passes beyond mere picture-copying and shows the presence of a real artistic capacity of no mean order. (Darius, 2014)’

In Harvard, the following reference list entry format is used for the dissertation:

Author Surname, Author Initials. (Year Published). Title of the dissertation in italics. Level. Institution Name.

For example, reference list entry for the above source would be:

Darius, H. (2014). Running head: SAVANT SYNDROME – THEORIES AND EMPIRICAL FINDINGS . University of Skövde, University of Turku.

However, a slightly different format is also used in some institutions. According to that, in-text citations are done in the following way:

Author surname Year, p.#

For instance, Exelby (1997, p. 3) described the process … OR … processing gold (Exelby 1997, p. 3).

But in the case of reference list entries, these ‘other’ institutions recommend naming the dissertation title not in italics but in single quotation marks. The format would then be:

Author Surname, Initials Year of Publication, ‘Title of thesis in single quotation marks’, Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of the institution.

So, according to this format, the above example’s reference list entry would be:

Exelby, HRA 1997, ‘Aspects of Gold and Mineral Liberation’, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld.

Whichever format is followed largely depends on one’s institutional guidelines. The format specified by the university is the one that should be followed. Furthermore, it should be followed consistently throughout a manuscript.

2.    Citing a Dissertation Published Online

The format for both in-text and reference list entries is the same for online and print dissertations. For example:

  • In-text citation: (Ram 2012) OR (Ram 2011, p. 130)
  • Reference list entry: Ram, R 2012, ‘Development of the International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities’, PhD thesis, The University of Sydney, viewed 23 May 2014, <http://hdl.handle.net/2123/8208>.

An important point to note: While referencing dissertations published online, the URL may or may not be enclosed within < > symbols. Whichever format is chosen, it should be used consistently throughout the text.

3.    Citing an Unpublished Dissertation

This type of dissertation also uses the same formatting for in-text and reference list entries in Harvard style. For example:

  • In-text citation: (Sakunasingha 2006) OR (Sakunasingha 2006, p. 36)
  • Reference list entry: Sakunasingha, B 2006, ‘An empirical study into factors influencing the use of value-based management tools’, DBA thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How do i cite my dissertation.

To cite your dissertation, follow your chosen citation style (e.g., APA, MLA). Generally, include author name, year, title, and source details. For APA: Author. (Year). Title. Source. For MLA: Author. “Title.” Degree, University, Year.

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  • How It Works

Scribbr Harvard Referencing Generator

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Rely on accurate references, verified by experts.

You don’t want points taken off for incorrect referencing. That’s why our referencing experts have invested countless hours perfecting our algorithms. As a result, we’re proud to be recommended by teachers worldwide.

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Search for your source by title, URL, DOI, ISBN, and more to retrieve the relevant information automatically.

Cite Them Right 12th ed.

Scribbr's Harvard Referencing Generator supports the most commonly used versions: Cite Them Right (12th edition).

Export to Bib(La)TeX

Easily export in BibTeX format and continue working in your favorite LaTeX editor.

Export to Word

Reference list finished? Export to Word with perfect indentation and spacing set up for you.

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Organize the reference list the way you want: from A to Z, new to old, or grouped by source type.

Save multiple lists

Stay organized by creating a separate reference list for each of your assignments.

Choose between Times New Roman, Arial, Calibri, and more options to match your style.

Industry-standard technology

The Scribbr Referencing Generator is built using the same citation software (CSL) as Mendeley and Zotero, but with an added layer for improved accuracy.

Explanatory tips help you get the details right to ensure accurate citations.

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  • Introduction

Reference examples

Missing information, citation examples, tools and resources, how to reference in harvard style.

Cite Them Right 12th edition

Harvard referencing is a widely used referencing style (especially in UK universities) that includes author-date in-text citations and a complete reference list at the end of the text.

There are many versions of Harvard referencing style. Our guidance reflects the rules laid out in Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide (12th edition) by Richard Pears and Graham Shields.

Scribbr’s free reference generator can create flawless Harvard style references for a wide variety of sources.

  • Cite a webpage
  • Cite a book
  • Cite a journal article

Harvard reference entries

The reference list appears at the end of your text, listing full information on all the sources you cited. A Harvard reference entry generally mentions the author , date , title , publisher or publication that contains the source, and URL or DOI if relevant.

You’ll include different details depending on the type of source you’re referencing, as some information is only relevant to certain kinds of publications.

The format of a reference entry varies based on source type. Apart from the information included, formatting details such as the use of italics also depend on what you’re referencing. The tabs below show formats and examples for the most commonly referenced source types.

The suggested information won’t necessarily all be available for the source you’re referencing. To learn how to work around missing information in your references, check the table below.

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Harvard in-text citations

Harvard referencing style uses author-date in-text citations, which means including the author’s last name and the publication year of the source, like this: (Smith, 2019). This citation points the reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list.

Always include an in-text citation when you quote or paraphrase a source. Include a page number or range when available and relevant to indicate which part of the source you’re drawing on. Using material from other sources without acknowledging them is plagiarism.

In-text citations can be parenthetical (author and date both in parentheses) or narrative (author name mentioned in the sentence, date in parentheses). A source may also have more than one author. If there are four or more, name only the first, followed by “ et al. ”

As with reference entries, it’s good to be aware of how to deal with missing information in your in-text citations.

Scribbr offers a variety of other tools and resources to help with referencing and other aspects of academic writing:

  • Referencing generator : Scribbr’s free referencing generator can also create flawless citations in other styles, such as APA and MLA .
  • Free plagiarism checker : Detect and fix plagiarism issues with the most accurate plagiarism checker available, powered by Turnitin.
  • Proofreading services : Make sure your writing is clear and professional with the help of an expert editor.
  • Guide to Harvard style : Understand the rules of Harvard referencing style, and learn how to cite a variety of sources.
  • Guides and videos : Explore our Knowledge Base, our YouTube channel, and a wide variety of other educational resources covering topics ranging from language to statistics.

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RGU Harvard Templates: Dissertations, Theses

  • Authored Books
  • Chapter of Edited Books
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  • Generic Books - Irina's Copy
  • Printed Journal Articles
  • Articles in Press
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  • Lecture Notes
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  • Pharmacology
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  • NICE Guidelines
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  • Cochrane Library
  • Illustrations Not Replicated
  • Replicated Illustrations
  • Photographs
  • Confidential Documents

Dissertations, Theses

  • Internal Company Documents
  • PDFs, Reports, Policy Documents

RGU Harvard Templates

Print Dissertations/Theses

Please ensure that you follow the template exactly, including text formatting (CAPITALS, italics ), and any punctuation.

AUTHOR'S SURNAME, First Initial(s)., Year of approval of the degree by the awarding institution. Title of thesis or dissertation. Type, Name of the degree awarding institution.

Paraphrasing / Summarising

(Brown 2003)

Brown (2003) identifies that...

"..." (Brown 2003 p. 215)

According to Brown (2003 p. 215), "..."

Reference List :

BROWN, C.M., 2003. The provision of information to prisoners in Scotland: an investigation into the requirement and current methods of delivery with recommendations for a framework of effective information provision. Unpublished MSc dissertation/thesis, The Robert Gordon University.

Electronic Dissertations/Theses

AUTHOR'S SURNAME, First Initial(s)., Year of approval of the degree by the awarding institution. Title of thesis or dissertation. [online]. Type, Name of the degree awarding institution. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

(Sutton 2007)

Sutton (2007) identifies that...

"..." (Sutton 2007 p. 120)

According to Sutton (2007 p. 120), "..."

SUTTON, I., 2007. An assessment of hand drilling potential in upland and lowland Dambo environments of Malawi. [online]. MSc dissertation/thesis, Cranfield University. Available from: http://protosh2o.act.be/VIRTUELE_BIB/ [Accessed 15 May 2014].

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NWU Harvard Referencing Guide

  • Introduction
  • Text references
  • Reference list
  • Elements of a reference entry
  • Chapter in a collected work
  • Electronic books (ebooks)
  • Encyclopedias
  • Dictionaries

Theses and dissertations

  • Journal articles
  • Internet and other electronic sources
  • Conference publications
  • Study guides
  • Newspaper articles
  • Acts and law reports
  • Government publications
  • Bible and other religious writings
  • Classical works
  • Personal correspondance
  • Patents and standards
  • Musical scores
  • Audiovisual and other media
  • Unpublished work
  • Harvard PDF document

Other styles

  • NWU Law Referencing Guide 
  • APA Referencing Guide

Use recognised abbreviations for universities and degrees. According to the NWU manual for master’s and doctoral studies, the following terms are used:

For international theses and dissertations use the terms on the title page. Full stops are optional in the abbreviations for qualifications, eg: M.Sc. or MSc (Magister Scientiae), Ph.D. or PhD (Philosophiae Doctor).

Harvard referencing theses and dissertations

Saah, P. 2017. Exploring Mintzberg’s managerial roles of academic leaders at a selected higher education institution in South Africa . Mafikeng: North-West University. (Mini-dissertation – MBA). Text reference: (Saah, 2017:103).

Doctoral theses and master’s dissertations are widely available on institutional repositories. Include the permanent link (“handle”) to the thesis / dissertation in the reference list.

Note: when giving a permanent link, a date of access is not necessary.

Harvard referening theses and dissertations

International theses / dissertations accessed from a commercial database e.g. ProQuest:

Carroll, A.R. 2018. Ecosystems, communities, and species: understanding mammalian response to ancient carbon cycle perturbations . Ann Arbor, MI: University of New Hampshire. (Dissertation – PhD). http://nwulib.nwu.ac.za/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.nwulib.nwu.ac.za/docview/2058145688? accountid=12865 Date of access: 13 Apr. 2019. Text reference: (Carroll, 2018:59).

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Harvard Citation Style: Theses

Introduction

  • Books / E-Books

Company Information

Conference Proceedings

  • Internet / Websites

Journal Articles

Lecture Notes

  • Multi-Media Formats
  • Patents and Standards

All Examples

  • Writing Support
  • Citation Support

In This Guide...

Click on the links below for further information on referencing each material type

  • Why is Referencing Important?
  • Getting Started

Reference Formats

  • References by Format
  • Citing Info Someone Else has Cited

Books/eBooks

  • 1, 2 or More Authors
  • 1, 2 or More Editors
  • Chapters in Books
  • Company Reports
  • Company Profiles

Internet/Websites

  • Web Documents
  • Computer Software
  • CMO Articles

Multimedia Formats

  • Audio-Visual Material

Newspaper Articles

Patents & Standards

  • Citing Patents: Examples
  • Citing Patents: Standards

Citing Theses: Examples

  • A table of examples in all formats for quick reference

Citing Theses

Theses can come in a number for formats, they can be published, unpublished, or retrieved from a database. The principles when citing a thesis are similar to those employed when citing a book.

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How to Cite Different Sources with Harvard Referencing

This page outlines examples for how to cite different kinds of sources using the Harvard Referencing method .

In-text citations

A page number is required if you are paraphrasing, summarising or quoting directly:

(Karskens 1997, p. 23)

Ward (1966, p. 12) suggests that

If you are only citing the main idea of the book:

(Karskens 1997)

List of References

Include information in the following order:

  • author's surname, and initial(s)
  • year of publication
  • title of publication (in italics and with minimal capitalisation),
  • edition (if applicable. Abbreviated as 'edn')
  • place of publication.

Karskens, G 1997,  The Rocks: life in early Sydney,  Melbourne University Press, Carlton.

Ward, R 1966,  The Australian legend,  2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Cite as for a printed book. An e-book usually has page numbers:

Lloyd (2005, p. 262)  or

(Lloyd 2005, p. 262).

Accessed online:

  • author/editor name(s)
  • date of publication,
  • title of e-book (in italics),
  • format (e-book),
  • accessed day month year (the date of viewing),
  • URL or Internet address (between pointed brackets).

Lloyd, CB (ed.) 2005,  Growing up global: The changing transitions for adulthood in developing countries,  e-book, accessed 5 May 2007, <http: // www . nap.edu/books/11174/html/index.html>.

Accessed via a database:

Woodham, JM 2004,  A dictionary of modern design,   Oxford University Press, e-book, accessed 25 July 2007 from Oxford Reference Online Database. 

Accessed via an ebook reader:

Include author/date:

(Smith 2008) or :

Smith (2008) states that ...

E-books often lack page numbers (though PDF versions may have them). If page numbers are not available on ebook readers, use the chapters instead to indicating the location of a quoted section.

List of References 

  • author name and initial
  • year (date of e-book edition)
  • title (in italics)
  • the type of e-book version you accessed (two examples are the Kindle Edition version and the Adobe Digital Editions version).
  • accessed day month year (the date you first accessed the e-book)
  • the book's DOI (digital object identifier) or where you downloaded the e-book from (if there is no DOI).

Smith, A 2008,  The Wealth of Nations,  Kindle version, accessed 20 August 2010 from Amazon.com.

Smith, A 2008,  The Wealth of Nations,  Adobe Digital Editions version, accessed 20 August 2010, doi: 10.1036/007142363X.

Edited book collections

In-text citations (citing a chapter)

A book collection consists of a collection of articles or chapters, each by different authors, but compiled by editor(s). If you want to cite a particular article/chapter, cite the author(s) of the chapter in the text:

(Curthoys 1997, p. 25)

List of References (citing a chapter)

When you use an article/chapter from a book collection, the title of the article appears in quotations and the title of the book is italicised. 

  • author's surname and initial
  • name of article (between single quotation marks with minimal capitalisation)
  • initial(s) and surname(s) of editor(s)
  • (ed.) or (eds)
  • name of collection (the name on the title page) in italics and minimal capitalisation
  • place of publication
  • page range.

Curthoys, A 1997, 'History and identity', in W Hudson & G Bolton (eds),  Creating Australia: changing Australian history,   Allen & Unwin, Sydney, pp. 23-38.

In-text citations (citing an entire book collection)

If you want to cite the entire book, refer to the editor(s) of the collection in the text:

(Hudson & Bolton 1997)

Hudson, W & Bolton, G (eds) 1997, Creating Australia: changing Australian history,  Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Journal articles (print)

If the page number is required, as it is for summarising, paraphrasing and direct quoting:

(Kozulin 1993, p. 257)

If you are citing the main idea of the article only:

(Kozulin 1993)

  • title of the article (between single quotation marks and with minimal capitalisation)
  • title of the journal or periodical (in italic font using maximum capitalisation)
  • volume number (vol.)
  • issue number (no.)
  • page range of the article 
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if available.

Kozulin, A 1993, 'Literature as a psychological tool',  Educational Psychologist,  vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 253-265, DOI:10.1207/s15326985ep2803_5.

What is a DOI?

A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content to it’s location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to use it when creating a citation.

Journal articles (published via a website)

Cite the author name and date.

Online journal articles (those available in web page form only) usually do not have page numbers, so instead use section or paragraph numbers. Please check with your tutor for their preferences. Sections of an article are divided by subheadings. 

(Morris 2004, sec. 3, par. 2)

  • author(s) name and initials
  • title of the article (between single quotation marks)
  • title of the journal (in italics)
  • available publication information (volume number, issue number)
  • accessed day month year (the date you last viewed the article)

Morris, A 2004, 'Is this racism? Representations of South Africa in the Sydney Morning Herald since the inauguration of Thabo Mbeki as president'.  Australian Humanities Review,  no. 33, accessed 11 May 2007, <http: // www . australianhumanitiesreview.org/archive/Issue-August-2004/morris.html>.

Rowland, TA 2015, 'Feminism from the Perspective of Catholicism',  Solidarity: The Journal of Catholic Social Thought and Secular Ethics,  vol. 5, no. 1, accessed 12 December 2015, <http: // researchonline.nd.edu.au/solidarity/vol5/iss1/1>.

Government publications

If there is no obvious author or editor, cite the sponsoring agency as the author:

(Department of Education, Science & Training 2000)

Give the name of the ministry or agency that has issued the document:

Department of Education, Science & Training 2000, Annual Report 1999-2000 , AGPS, Canberra.

Unpublished material (thesis, manuscript, unpublished paper)

(Ballard 2003, p. 132)

(Fitzsimmons 2005)

When citing a thesis in the list of references: 

  • put the title between quotation marks and do not use italics
  • acknowledge the university where the thesis was undertaken.

Ballard, BA 2003, 'The seeing machine: photography and the visualisation of culture in Australia, 1890-1930', PhD thesis, University of Melbourne.

An unpublished conference paper:

Fitzsimmons, D 2005, 'Who chooses who belongs: tactics and strategies and migrant literature', paper presented at the AULLA & FILLM conference, James Cook University, Cairns, 15-19th July.

Cite author, date, page number:

(Lee 2005 p. 78)

  • thesis title (between single quotation marks, no italics)
  • type of thesis, e.g. MA, PhD
  • institution
  • date accessed
  • from database name.

Lee, C 2005, 'Beyond the Pink: (Post) Youth Iconography in Cinema', PhD thesis, Murdoch University, accessed 15 June 2007 from Australian Digital Thesis Program Database.

ABS statistics

Use the full name in the first in-text reference:

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005)

and use the abbreviation 'ABS' in subsequent references:

  • name of agency as author
  • title of publication (in italics)
  • catalogue number
  • name of publisher

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005,  New South Wales in focus , Cat. no. 1338.1, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

If you are viewing the information online, include:

  • date of viewing (if viewed online)
  • database name (if applicable)
  • URL (between pointed brackets).

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007, Internet Activity, Australia , Sep 2006, Cat. no. 8153.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 11 April 2007, < https://www.abs.gov.au>.

Cite the author or authoring body and date if available:

(New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries 2005)

Include as much information as available. The publisher’s name may be abbreviated if it is also the author.

New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries 2005, Saltwater recreational fishing in New South Wales: rules & regulations summary , brochure, NSWDPI, New South Wales.

How to cite references?

Harvard referencing

  • How to cite different sources
  • How to cite references
  • How to cite online/electronic sources
  • Broadcast and other sources
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Harvard Referencing (2002 version)

  • Number of authors
  • Information for EndNote users
  • Books and eBooks
  • Chapter of a Book/eBook
  • Conference paper
  • Dictionary & Encyclopedia
  • Government publications, ABS
  • Film/Television/Radio
  • Image, Tables & Figures
  • Journal article
  • Lecture notes/Class handout
  • Newspaper article
  • Personal communication
  • Podcast/Blog/YouTube/Social Media

Thesis - online

Thesis - print.

  • Web site/Web document

The title is not italicised and is placed in single 'quotation marks'.

Author, AA Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis', award (g.g PhD, Masters, etc), Institution issuing degree, Location of institution, viewed date, <URL>.

Adam, B 2016, 'Cosmic warfare: changing models of the universe and C.S. Lewis's defence of truth and meaning', PhD thesis, James Cook University, viewed 17 April 2017, <https://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/52960/>.

In-text citation:

Adam (2016) suggests that  …

Author, AA Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis', award (g.g PhD, Masters, etc), Institution issuing degree, Location of institution.

Ward, I 1998, 'Sedimentary history of the Pandora wreck and surrounds', M.A. thesis, James Cook University, Townsville.

Ward (1998) described the process …

… processing gold (Ward 1978)

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Acknowledgement of Country

  • Bibliography
  • More Referencing guides Blog Automated transliteration Relevant bibliographies by topics
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Dissertation (thesis): how to cite in Harvard style?

Create a spot-on reference in harvard.

Select a source type:

  • Journal article
  • Video (online)
  • All types...
  • Archival document
  • Book chapter
  • Complete reference
  • Conference paper
  • Copyright certificate
  • Dictionary entry
  • Dissertation / Thesis
  • Encyclopedia
  • Encyclopedia article
  • Extended abstract of dissertation
  • Newspaper article
  • Press release
  • Religious text
  • Social media post

General rules

According to the Harvard citation style, the same template is used for referencing a master's thesis and a doctoral dissertation in a list of bibliographic references:

Author , ( year ).  Title . Work type , University .

NB: Fill in the 'Work type' field the type of work and the academic grade, for instance, 'Ph.D. thesis'.

If the text of the work can be accessed online, use the following template for your reference:

Author , ( year ). Title . Work type , University . [Viewed date viewed ]. Available from: URL

NB: The text '[online]' is not given after the title of the work, in contrast to the references to a book , a journal article , etc.

Examples in a list of references

Middleton,   H.   J., (2020). *ABA syncretism patterns in pronominal morphology . Ph.D. thesis, University College London. [Viewed 12 January 2021]. Available from: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10105591/

Reed,   B.   H., (1992). The genetic analysis of endoreduplication in Drosophila melanogaster. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge.

Other citation styles:

  • What is APA Style (7th ed.)?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in APA (7th ed.)
  • APA 7 vs APA 6: key differences
  • How to cite authors?
  • How to format the references page with APA (7th ed.)?
  • In-text citations
  • Dictionary/encyclopedia/dictionary entry/encyclopedia article
  • Dissertation (thesis)
  • Software / mobile app
  • Video game / computer game
  • What is MLA Style (8th ed.)?
  • Examples of references in works cited in MLA (8th ed.)
  • How to format the works cited page in MLA (8th ed.)?
  • What is Chicago Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Chicago Style – notes and bibliography (17th ed.)
  • How to format the bibliography page?
  • Notes and in-text citations
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Chicago Style – author-date (17th ed.)
  • What is Harvard referencing style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Harvard style
  • Online video
  • What is IEEE Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in IEEE Style
  • How to format the references pages in IEEE Style?
  • What is Vancouver Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Vancouver Style

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harvard referencing on thesis

The Harvard system is another name for the Author-Date referencing style and citation . A Harvard referencing thesis uses the Harvard referencing system to cite sources. Developed at Harvard University in the USA, this is probably Australia's most commonly used referencing system, especially in the sciences. If studying law, OSCOLA (Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) is the most appropriate choice. 

In this article, I will share Harvard referencing thesis examples for your inspiration. 

Harvard Referencing thesis Examples;

  • Example 1: Internet Censorship in the UAE: Freedom of the Internet
  • Example 2: Development of Sustainable Homes Through Renewable Energy Sources
  • Example 3: The Importance of Procurement Strategy & Impact on Construction Projects

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What is harvard referencing style, and why should you use it.

Harvard referencing style is a widely used system for citing sources in academic writing. This referencing style is typically used in the academic community and professional settings. It can help to ensure that research materials are properly cited and referenced throughout your work.

By using Harvard referencing, you demonstrate study breadth and respect for cited academics. It ensures proper source listing and formatting, portraying you as a reliable researcher following academic norms. Employing Harvard referencing in your thesis showcases your competence and gains reader appreciation.

How to Use Harvard Referencing Style in Thesis or Dissertation in 

Harvard referencing system is an Author-Date system. When citing a thesis in Harvard style, two elements are very important:

  • The author’s last name and first initials 
  • The year the thesis was published

This basic format can be used for both online and offline sources. While referencing an online thesis , you must include the URL or DOI (Digital Object Identifier). For an offline source, you will need to include the name of the institution where the thesis was published.

In-Text Citations in Harvard Referencing Thesis

Citing others' work is essential. It's called citing or quoting references. Consistency and precision help readers locate the information (e.g., Smith 2020 ). Include page numbers when quoting directly (e.g., Smith 2020, p. 23 ).

Reference List 

The reference list should be arranged alphabetically by the author's last name. If an author has written more than one thesis, they should be listed from oldest to newest. Thesis reference entry should include:

  • Author’s last name and first initials 
  • Year of publication (in brackets) 
  • Title of thesis (in italics)
  • Type of thesis [PhD, Masters]
  • Name of institution where located [if offline source]  OR  URL/DOI [if online source]

Examples of How to Reference a Thesis in Harvard Style

Here is an example of reference list entry in Harvard Style: 

Smith, J. (2020). The impact of social media on society. PhD thesis, University of Miami. https://doi.org/10.1123/abc123456  

Smith, J. (2020). The impact of social media on society [PhD thesis]

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Tips for Avoiding Common Mistakes When Referencing a Thesis in Harvard Style

1. citing the author.

When referencing a thesis in Harvard style, citing the work's author is important. It can be done by including the author's last name and the year of publication in parentheses after the quote or paraphrase.

For example: (Smith, 2020).

2. Citing the Title

In addition to citing the author, it is also important to include the title of the work referenced. This can be done by including the title in quotation marks after the author's last name and publication year.

For example: (Smith, 2020, "Thesis Title").

3. Citing the Date of Publication

Including the publication date when referencing a thesis in Harvard style is also important. It can be done by including the year of publication in parentheses after the author's last name and title.

4. Citing the URL

When referencing a thesis that is available online, it is important to include the URL of the website where it can be found. It can be done by including the URL in parentheses after the author's last name, publication date, and title.

For example: (Smith, 2020, "Thesis Title," http://www.example.com).

5. Citing Page Numbers

When quoting or paraphrasing specific passages from a thesis, it is important to include page numbers in citations. This can be done by including the page number or range of pages in parentheses after the author's last name, date of publication, and title.

For example: (Smith, 2020, "Thesis Title," p. 12).

6. Creating a Reference List

In Harvard style, reference a thesis with a final reference list. Include all cited works, alphabetized by author's last name. Entries should provide author, publication date, title, and URL if relevant.

7. Formatting

When writing a paper in Harvard style, it is important to format it correctly. This includes using 12-point Times New Roman font and 1-inch margins on all sides of your paper.

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Mistakes to Avoid

As a student writing a Harvard Referencing thesis, you must be mindful of following mistakes that can ruin your research work.

1. Not Citing All Sources

A major student blunder is not citing all sources used. Remember to cite direct quotes, paraphrased, and summarized content to avoid plagiarism claims.

2. Incorrectly Citing Sources

Another error is wrong source citing, often due to format uncertainty or careless data entry. This causes confusion and potential plagiarism allegations .

3. Not Updating the Reference List

As students continue to work on their thesis, they will inevitably use new sources of information. It is important to add these new sources to the reference list as they are used; otherwise, the reference list will become outdated and inaccurate.

4. Using Unreliable Sources

Students should only use reliable sources of information. Unreliable sources include websites that are not reputable, personal blogs, and social media posts. Using unreliable sources could lead to incorrect or misleading information being included in the thesis.

5. Failing to Proofread the Reference List

Once the reference list has been completed, it is important to proofread it carefully to ensure that all information is accurate and correctly formatted. Any errors in the reference list could reflect poorly on the student’s attention to detail and organizational skills.

6. Including Too Much Detail in the Reference List

Students should only include relevant and necessary information when adding citations to the reference list. Including too much detail could make a list difficult to read and understand and lead to accusations of plagiarism.

Referencing a thesis in Harvard style is simple when you grasp key elements. In-text, cite author's last name, initials, publication year, and thesis title. For the reference list, alphabetize by author's last name. Include details like thesis type and institution name (if offline).

Check these examples to see how to use the Harvard referencing style professionally in your thesis writing .

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Footnote Referencing Styles: Academic Writing

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What is the Harvard Referencing System?

The Harvard citation style is a system that students, writers and researchers can use to incorporate other people’s quotes, findings and ideas into their work in order to support and validate their conclusions without breaching any intellectual property laws. The popular format is typically used in assignments and publications for humanities as well as natural, social and behavioural sciences.

It is a parenthetical referencing system that is made up of two main components:

  • In-text citations including the author’s surname and the year of publication should be shown in brackets wherever another source has contributed to your work
  • A reference list outlining all of the sources directly cited in your work

While in-text citations are used to briefly indicate where you have directly quoted or paraphrased a source, your reference list is an alphabetized list of complete Harvard citations that enables your reader to locate each source with ease. Each entry should be keyed to a corresponding parenthetical citation in the main body of your work, so that a reader can take an in-text citation and quickly retrieve the source from your reference list.

Note that some universities, and certain disciplines, may also require you to provide a bibliography. This is a detailed list of all of the material you have consulted throughout your research and preparation, and it will demonstrate the lengths you have gone to in researching your chosen topic.

‘Harvard referencing’ is an umbrella term for any referencing style that uses the author name and year of publication within the text to indicate where you have inserted a source. This author-date system appeals to both authors and readers of academic work. Scholars find the format an economical way of writing, and it is generally more accessible to the reader as there are no footnotes crowding the page. Only the name of the author, the publication date of the source and, if necessary, the page numbers are included in the parenthetical citations, for example: (Joyce, 2008).

Use the Cite This For Me Harvard style referencing generator to create your fully-formatted in-text references and reference list in the blink of an eye. Stop giving yourself extra pain and work for no reason and sign up to Cite This For Me today – your only regret will be that you didn’t use our citation generator sooner!

Popular Harvard Referencing Examples

  • Chapter of a book
  • Conference proceedings 
  • Court case 
  • Dissertation 
  • Encyclopedia article 
  • Image online or video
  • Presentation or lecture
  • Video, film, or DVD

Cite This For Me Harvard Referencing Guide

The following guide provides you with everything you need to know to do justice to all your hard work and get a mark that reflects those sleepless nights. If you’re not sure how to format your Harvard style citations, what citations are, or are simply curious about the Cite This For Me citation generator, our guide will answer all of your questions while offering you a comprehensive introduction to the style. Keep reading to find out why you need to use a referencing system, how to add citations in the body of your assignment, and how to compile a reference list.

Sometimes, students do not encounter citing until they embark on to degree-level studies, yet it is a crucial academic skill that will propel you towards establishing yourself in the academic community. It’s a common mistake to leave citing and creating a complete and accurate bibliography until the very last minute, but with the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator you can cite-as-you-go.

So, if you need a helping hand with your referencing then why not try Cite This For Me’s automated citation generator ? The generator accesses knowledge from across the web, assembling all of the relevant information into a fully-formatted reference list that clearly presents all of the sources that have contributed to your work. Using this Harvard reference generator to cite your sources enables you to cross the finishing line in style.

It is important to bear in mind that there is a plethora of different citation styles out there – the use of any particular one depends on the preference of your college, subject, professor or the publication you are submitting the work to. If you’re unsure which style you should be using, consult your tutor and follow their guidelines. If your lecturer or department does not ask you to use a particular style, we recommend using the Harvard referencing system because it is simple to use and easy to learn.

The powerful citation generator above can auto-generate citations in 7,000+ styles. So, whether your professor prefers that you use the MLA format , or your discipline requires you to adopt the APA citation or Chicago citation style , we have the style you need. Cite This For Me also provides citation generators and handy style guides for styles such as ASA , AMA or IEEE . To accurately create citations in a specific format, simply sign up to Cite This For Me for free and select your chosen style.

Are you struggling with citing an unfamiliar source type? Or feeling confused about whether to cite a piece of common knowledge? This guide will tell you everything you need to know to get both your parenthetical Harvard citations and reference list completed quickly and accurately.

Why Do I Need to Cite?

Harvard referencing can be a confusing task, especially if you are new to the concept, but it’s absolutely essential. In fact, accurate and complete referencing can mean the difference between reaching your academic goals and damaging your reputation amongst scholars. Simply put – referencing is the citing of sources you have utilised to support your essay, research, conference or article, etc.

Even if you are using our Harvard style citation generator, understanding why you need to cite will go a long way in helping you to naturally integrate the process into your research and writing routine.

Firstly, whenever another source contributes to your work you must give the original author the appropriate credit in order to avoid plagiarism, even when you have completely reworded the information. The only exception to this rule is common knowledge – e.g., Brazil is a country in South America. While plagiarism is not always intentional, it is easy to accidentally plagiarize your work when you are under pressure from imminent deadlines, you have managed your time ineffectively, or if you lack confidence when putting ideas into your own words. The consequences can be severe; deduction of marks at best, expulsion from college or legal action from the original author at worst. Find out more here.

This may sound overwhelming, but using our Harvard citation generator can help you avoid plagiarism and carry out your research and written work thoughtfully and responsibly. We have compiled a handy checklist to follow while you are working on an assignment.

How to avoid plagiarism:

  • Formulate a detailed plan – carefully outline both the relevant content you need to include, as well as how you plan on structuring your work
  • Keep track of your sources – record all of the relevant publication information as you go (e.g., If you are citing a book you should note the author or editor’s name(s), year of publication, title, edition number, city of publication and name of publisher). Carefully save each quote, word-for-word, and place it in inverted commas to differentiate it from your own words. Tired of interrupting your workflow to cite? Use our Harvard referencing generator to automate the process.
  • Manage your time effectively – make use of time plans and targets, and give yourself enough time to read, write and proofread
  • When you are paraphrasing information, make sure that you use only your own words and a sentence structure that differs from the original text
  • Every quote or paraphrase should have a corresponding reference in the text. In addition, a full reference is needed on the final page of the project.
  • Save all of your research and citations in a safe place – organise and manage your Harvard style citations

If you carefully check your college or publisher’s advice and guidelines on citing and stick to this checklist, you should be confident that you will not be accused of plagiarism.

Secondly, proving that your writing is informed by appropriate academic reading will enhance your work’s authenticity. Academic writing values original thought that analyzes and builds upon the ideas of other scholars. It is therefore important to use Harvard style referencing to accurately signpost where you have used someone else’s ideas in order to show that your writing is based on knowledge and informed by appropriate academic reading. Citing your sources will demonstrate to your reader that you have delved deeply into your chosen topic and supported your thesis with expert opinions.

Here at Cite This For Me we understand how precious your time is, which is why we created our Harvard citation generator and guide to help relieve the unnecessary stress of citing. Escape assignment-hell and give yourself more time to focus on the content of your work by using the Cite This For Me citation management tool.

Harvard Referencing Guidelines by School

  • Anglia University Harvard Referencing
  • Anglia Ruskin University
  • Bath University
  • Bournemouth University Harvard Referencing
  • Cape Peninsula University of Technology
  • Cardiff University Harvard Referencing
  • City University London
  • Coventry University Harvard Referencing
  • Cranfield Harvard
  • DMU Harvard Referencing
  • Durham University Business School
  • Edge Hill University Harvard Referencing
  • European Archaeology
  • Imperial College University Harvard Referencing
  • Institute of Physics
  • Leeds University Harvard Referencing
  • King’s College London
  • LSBU Harvard Referencing
  • Manchester Business School
  • MMU Harvard Referencing
  • Newcastle University
  • Northwest University
  • Oxford Brookes University
  • Oxford Centre for Mission Studies
  • SHU Harvard Referencing
  • Staffordshire University Harvard Referencing
  • Swinburne University of Technology
  • The Open University
  • UCA Harvard Referencing
  • University of Abertay Dundee
  • University of Birmingham
  • University of Cape Town
  • University of Gloucestershire
  • University of Greenwich Harvard
  • University of Hull
  • University of Kent – Harvard
  • University of Limerick
  • University of Melbourne
  • University of Northampton
  • University of Sunderland
  • University of Technology, Sydney
  • University of West London
  • UWE Harvard Referencing
  • UWS Harvard Referencing
  • Wolverhampton University Harvard Referencing
  • York University

How Do I Create and Format In-text Harvard Style Citations?

In-text citations are the perfect way to seamlessly integrate sources into your work, allowing you to strengthen the connection between your own ideas, and the source material that you have found, with ease. It is worth noting that in-text citations must be included in your assignment’s final word count.

When adopting Harvard style referencing in your work, if you are inserting a quote, statement, statistic or any other kind of source information into the main body of your essay you should:

  • Provide the author’s surname and date of publication in parentheses right after the taken information or at the end of the sentence

There are many assumptions when it comes to the information processing approach to cognition… (Lutz and Huitt, 2004).

  • If you have already mentioned the author in the sentence, Harvard referencing guidelines require you to only enter the year of publication in parentheses, directly after where the author’s surname is mentioned.

In the overview of these developmental theories, Lutz and Huitt (2004) suggest that…

  • If you are quoting a particular section of the source (rather than the entire work), you should also include a page number, or page range, after the date, within the parenthetical Harvard citation

“…the development of meaning is more important than the acquisition of a large set of knowledge or skills …” (Lutz and Huitt, 2004, p.8), which means that …

  • Note that if the source has four or more authors, you do not need to write out all of their surnames; simply use the first author’s surname followed by the abbreviation ‘et al.’ (meaning ‘and others’).

The results showed that respondents needed to reach out to multiple health agencies in order to cover the costs of their services (Wolbeck Minke et al., 2007).

  • If you are reading a source by one author and they cite work by another author, you may cite that original work as a secondary reference. You are encouraged to track down the original source – usually this is possible to do by consulting the author’s reference list – but if you are unable to access it, the Harvard referencing guidelines state that you must only cite the source you did consult as you did not actually read the original document. Include the words ‘cited in’ in the in-text citation to indicate this.

Fong’s 1987 study (cited in Bertram 1997) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people…

(Fong, cited in Bertram 1997)

Why use a Harvard referencing tool? As well as saving you valuable time, the Cite This For Me generator can help you easily avoid common errors when formatting your in-text citations. So, if you’re looking for an easy way to credit your source material, simply login to your Cite This For Me account to copy, save and export each in-text Harvard citation.

How Do I Format My Reference List?

Utilizing and building on a wide range of relevant sources is one way of impressing your reader, and a comprehensive list of the source material you have used is the perfect platform to exhibit your research efforts. A reference list is always required when you cite other people’s work within your assignment, and the brief in-text Harvard style citations in your work should directly link to your reference list.

As a general rule a reference list includes every source that you have cited in your work, while a bibliography also contains any relevant background reading which you have consulted to familiarise yourself with the topic (even those sources that are never mentioned in the narrative). Your Harvard referencing bibliography should start on its own page, with the same formatting as the rest of the paper and aligned to the left with the sources listed alphabetically. Certain fields ask you to provide an annotated bibliography that includes your full citations with the addition of notes. These notes are added to further analyze the source, and can be of any length.

Many people use the terms ‘reference list’ and ‘bibliography’ interchangeably, and if you are using the Harvard reference style you may be required to provide a bibliography as well as a reference list, so be sure to check this with your tutor.

Follow these guidelines when compiling your reference list:

  • Start your reference list on a new page at the end of your document
  • General formatting should be in keeping with the rest of your work
  • Use ‘Reference List’ as the heading
  • Copy each of your full-length Harvard citations into a list
  • Arrange the list in alphabetical order by the author’s last name (titles with no author are alphabetized by the work’s title, and if you are citing two or more sources by the same author they should be listed in chronological order of the year of publication)
  • When there are several works from one author or source, they should be listed together but in date order – with the earliest work listed first
  • Italicize titles of books, reports, conference proceedings etc. For journal articles, the title of the journal should be printed in italics, rather than the title of the journal article
  • Capitalize the first letter of the publication title, the first letters of all main words in the title of a journal, and all first letters of a place name and publisher

Creating and managing your reference list with the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator will help improve the way you reference and conduct research.

Reference list / bibliography examples:

  • Book, one author:

Bell, J. (2010) Doing your research project . 5th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

  • One author, book, multiple editions:

Hawking, S.W. (1998) A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes . 10th edn. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.

  • Chapter in an edited book:

Jewsiewicki, B. (2010). ‘Historical Memory and Representation of New Nations in Africa’, in Diawara, M., Lategan, B., and Rusen, J. (eds.) Historical memory in Africa: Dealing with the past, reaching for the future in an intercultural context . New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 53-66.

If all information resembles a book, use the template for a book reference

If a page number is unavailable, use chapter number. URL links are not necessary, but can be useful. When including a URL, include the date the book was downloaded at the end of the Harvard citation:

Available at: URL (Downloaded: DD Month YYYY)

  • More than three authors, journal article*:

Shakoor, J., et al. (2011) ‘A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry , 53(3), pp. 254–261. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02488.x.

  • Conference papers:

Drogen, E. (2014) ‘Changing how we think about war: The role of psychology’, The British Psychological Society 2014 Annual Conference . The ICC, Birmingham British Psychological Society, 07-09 May 2014.

  • Web page, by an individual:

Moon, M. (2019) Ubisoft put an official video game design course inside a video game . Available at https://www.engadget.com/2019/09/25/ubisoft-video-game-design-course/ (Accessed 19 November 2019).

  • Web page, by a company or organization:

RotoBaller (2019) NFL player news . Available at https://www.rotoballer.com/player-news?sport=nfl (Accessed 17 September 2019).

For both types of web page references, the date the page was published or updated is placed in parentheses immediately following the author information. If a date is missing from the source, place (no date) next to the author’s name and make sure to include an accessed date at the end of the reference.

Are you struggling to find all of the publication information to complete a reference? Did you know that our Harvard citation generator can help you?

Time is of the essence when you’re finishing a paper, but there’s no need to panic because you can compile your reference list in a matter of seconds using the Cite This For Me Harvard style citation generator. Sign in to your Cite This For Me account to save and export your reference list.

Harvard Referencing Formatting Guidelines

Accurate referencing doesn’t only protect your work from plagiarism – presenting your source material in a consistent and clear way also enhances the readability of your work. Closely follow the style’s formatting rules on font type, font size, text-alignment and line spacing to ensure that your work is easily legible. Before submitting your work check that you have formatted your whole paper – including your reference list – according to the style’s formatting guidelines.

How to format in Harvard referencing:

  • Margins: 2.5cm on all sides
  • Shortened title followed by the page number in the header, aligned to the right
  • Double-space the entirety of the paper
  • ½ inch indentation for every new paragraph (press tab bar)
  • Suggested fonts: Times New Roman, Arial and Courier New for Windows; Times New Roman, Helvetica and Courier for Mac, 12pt size. Ensure that all Harvard citations are in the same font as the rest of the work
  • Reference list on a separate page at the end of the body of your work

Even when using a Harvard citation generator, always check with your professor for specified guidelines – there is no unified style for the formatting of a paper. Make sure that you apply the recommended formatting rules consistently throughout your work.

A Brief History of the Harvard Reference Style

The author-date system is attributed to eminent zoologist Edward Laurens Mark (1847-1946), Hersey professor of anatomy and director of Harvard’s zoological laboratory. It is widely agreed that the first evidence of Harvard referencing can be traced back to Mark’s landmark cytological paper (Chernin, 1988). The paper breaks away from previous uses of inconsistent and makeshift footnotes through its use of a parenthetical author-date citation accompanied by an explanatory footnote.

  • Parenthetic author-year citation, page 194 of Mark’s 1881 paper:

[…] The appearance may be due solely to reflection from the body itself. (Comp. Flemming, ‘78b, p. 310.*)

  • Mark’s rationale for his Harvard citational scheme:

*The numbers immediately following an author’s name serve the double purpose of referring the reader to the list (p. 591) where the titles of papers are given, and of informing him at once of the approximate date of the paper in question.

A tribute dedicated to Mark in 1903 by 140 students credits Mark’s paper with having ‘introduced into zoology a proper fullness and accuracy of citation and a convenient and uniform method of referring from text to bibliography’ (Parker, 1903). Today Harvard referencing is widely considered one of the most accessible styles and, although it originated in biology, these days it is used across most subjects – particularly in the humanities, history and social science.

The Evolution of the Harvard Referencing Style

Due to its simplicity and ease of use, the format has become one of the most widely used citation styles in the world. Unlike many citing styles there is no official manual, but institutions such as colleges offer their own unique Harvard reference style guide, and each has its own nuances when it comes to punctuation, order of information and formatting rules. Simply go to the Cite This For Me website to login to your Cite This For Me account and search for the version you need. Make sure you apply consistency throughout your work.

It is increasingly easy for writers to access information and knowledge via the internet, and in turn both the style’s guidelines and our citation generator are continually updated to include developments in electronic publishing. The Cite This For Me Harvard style citation generator currently uses the Cite Them Right 10th Edition, which has evolved in recent years to match the rapidly advancing digital age. In order to avoid plagiarism, you must be cautious about pulling information from the internet, and ensure that you accurately cite all source material used in your written work – including all online sources that have contributed to your research.

Key differences from previous Harvard referencing Cite Them Right editions:

  • Previous editions required printed books and eBooks to be referenced differently – in the 10th edition, both are now referenced using the same template (if all the necessary information is available). An Ebook is considered to be the digital format of a published book (or a book that is only published in digital format) that is meant for reading on an electronic device.
  • URLs are no longer a requirement for digital media if the information provided in the Harvard citation is sufficient to find the source without it. They should be included if the source is difficult to find, or pieces of source information – such as an author name – are missing.
  • When a source has more than 3 authors, use the abbreviation “et al.” instead of listing each out.

These days students draw on a diverse range of digital sources to support their written work. Whether you are citing a hashtag on Instagram , a podcast or a mobile app, the Cite This For Me generator will take care of your Harvard citations, regardless of the type of source you want to cite. So don’t be held back by sources that are difficult to cite – locating unusual source material will help your work to stand out from the crowd.

How Do I Create Accurate Harvard Citations?

Creating complete and correctly formatted citations can be a challenge for many writers, especially when documenting multiple source types. Our primary goal at Cite This For Me is to offer support to students and researchers across the globe by transforming the way in which they perceive citing. We hope that after using our citation generator and reading this Harvard referencing guide, what was once considered an arduous process, will be viewed as a highly-valued skill that enhances the quality of your work.

Disheartened by the stressful process of citing? Got a fast-approaching deadline? Using the Cite This For Me fast, accessible and free generator makes creating accurate citations easier than ever, leaving more time for you to focus on achieving your academic goals.

Create a free account to add and edit each Harvard citation on the spot, import and export full projects or individual entries. Things get even easier with Cite This For Me for Chrome – an intuitive, handy browser extension that allows you to create and edit a citation while you browse the web. Use the extension on any webpage that you want to cite, and add it to your chosen project without interrupting your workflow.

The Cite This For Me citation management tool is here to help you, so what are you waiting for? Accurate Harvard citations are just a click away!

Reference List

Chernin, E. (1988) The ‘Harvard System’: A mystery dispelled. Available at: http://www.uefap.com/writing/referenc/harvard.pdf (Accessed: 4 July 2016).

Parker, G. (ed.) (1903) Mark anniversary volume. New York: Henry Holt.

harvard referencing on thesis

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Create projects, add notes, and cite directly from your browser. Sign up for Cite This For Me today!

  • In-text citation

Reference list

  • Artificial intelligence
  • Audiovisual
  • Books and chapters
  • Government and industry publications
  • Legal sources
  • Theses and course materials
  • Web and social media
  • Other sources
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  • Other styles AGLC4 APA 7th Chicago 17th (A) Notes Chicago 17th (B) Author-Date Harvard MLA 9th Vancouver
  • Referencing home

Your reference list in Harvard style needs to include all the works you have cited in your assignment. It is placed at the end of your essay on a new page and has a specific format you need to follow.

This is an overview of the rules given in the  Style Manual  for creating a reference list.

Setting up your list

Formatting rules and examples.

Alexander JC (2015) ‘Measuring, counting, interpreting: our debate on methods continues’, American Journal of Cultural Sociology , 3(3):309–10, doi:10.1057/ajcs.2015.13

Two or more authors

Author A and Author B

Author A, Author B and Author C

Poulin J and Matis S (2019) Social work practice: a competency-based approach , Springer. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/monash/reader.action?docID=5968733

Nankervis AR, Baird M, Coffey J and Shields J (2017) Human resource management: strategy and practice , 9th edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne.

Organisation as the author

Abbreviation of organisation (full name of organisation)

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2021) Australia in brief , DFAT, accessed 21 July 2023. https://www.dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/australia-in-brief

  • The Style Manual states to use the abbreviation for the organisation's name in all in-text citations.

Anonymous/unknown author

Make sure that your in-text citation and reference list entry match. If you have used the name of a blog, website, newspaper, or magazine in your in-text citation in place of the author, use the same name in your reference list. If you have used the title of the work in place of the author in your in-text citation, use the title in place of the author in your reference list.

Multiple works by the same author

Author A (Yeara)

Author A (Yearb)

Smith A (2007a) 'Emerging in between: The multi-level governance of renewable energy in the English regions', Energy Policy, 35(12):6266–6280, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2007.07.023

Smith A (2007b) 'Translating sustainabilities between green niches and socio-technical regimes', Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 19(4):427–450, doi:10.1080/09537320701403334

  • If there are multiple sources by the same author, arrange them in chronological order by publication year.
  • For more than one entry by the same author published in the same year, add a lower-case letter to the end of the year in both the citation and the reference list entry

Multiple works by different authors with the same surname

Jones M (n.d.) More than you bargained for. Penguin Random House.

Jones S (2015) Popular culture: the rise of the super hero. Palgrave Macmillan.

Editors and translators

If the main creator of the source is an editor, reference the source under their name and include the abbreviation ed. (or eds. for more than one).

Translators

For translated works, complete the reference, and order the reference list based on the name of the original author of the work, not the translator.

DOIs and URLs

Reference with a doi.

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152, doi:10.1163/157181090X00288

Reference with a database

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152. (HeinOnline).

Reference with a URL

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152, accessed 17 December 2020. https://brill.com/view/journals/nord/59/1/article-p139_15.xml

  • Many sources published online, including journal articles , government and industry publications , ebooks, and reports, have a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Include DOIs in your reference list if they exist as they are more stable than URLs.
  • DOIs sometimes have the form of a URL. If so, you don’t need to include the HTTP, etc., start at doi:10.xxx (etc).
  • If there is no DOI, include the database or the URL instead.

Example reference list

Perkins Gilman C (2004) Social ethics: sociology and the future of society (Hill MR and Deegan MJ eds) Praeger. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/monash/detail.action?docID=494814

Halloran JT (2018) Population dynamics in the child welfare system , University of Chicago, accessed 1 February 2021, Proquest Dissertations Publishing.

Tsetsura K and Valentini C (2016) 'The “holy” triad in media ethics: a conceptual model for understanding global media ethics', Public Relations Review , 42(4):573–581, doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2016.03.013

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Walter Johnson, a professor of History and African and African American Studies, resigned from his role as faculty adviser to the Harvard Undergraduate Palestine Solidarity Committee.

Walter Johnson, a professor of History and of African and African American Studies, resigned as a faculty adviser to the Harvard Undergraduate Palestine Solidarity Committee and from Harvard Faculty and Staff for Justice in Palestine after the groups faced a wave of backlash for sharing a post containing an antisemitic image.

History professor Alison Frank Johnson, Johnson’s wife, confirmed his decision to resign from the two groups when reached by phone Tuesday evening.

“Conversations about Professor Johnson’s stepping down from the position were ongoing. His term was up in the spring and he had let us know he was not going to renew,” the PSC wrote in a statement. “This was a personal decision and he remains supportive of our goals as an organization. We are grateful for his time and support and wish him all the best.”

The FSJP did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

Following the initial backlash, the PSC uploaded a new version of the post, writing in the caption that “an earlier version of this post” contained an image “not reflective” of their organizational values.

“Our mutual goals for liberation will always include the Jewish community- and we regret inadvertently including an image that played upon antisemitic tropes,” they wrote.

Interim Harvard President Alan M. Garber ’76 fiercely condemned the antisemitic image in a University-wide email on Tuesday, writing that “perpetuating vile and hateful antisemitic tropes, or otherwise engaging in inflammatory rhetoric or sharing images that demean people on the basis of their identity, is precisely the opposite of what this moment demands of us.”

Johnson was initially listed as the first signatory in FSJP’s founding statement . The list of FSJP members was removed from the website at some point after controversy erupted over the antisemitic image.

FSJP issued an apology in an Instagram post on Monday for resharing the post containing the antisemitic image on their account.

“We apologize for the hurt that these images have caused and do not condone them in any way,” the organization wrote. “Harvard FSJP stands against all forms of hate and bigotry, including antisemitism.”

The PSC and the African and African American Resistance Organization — the two groups that initially posted the antisemitic image — apologized in a joint statement on Tuesday for the “immense harm” caused by the post.

“To be very clear: The original antisemitic image wholly violated our internal standards and betrayed our fundamental values of justice and liberation,” the groups wrote. “The inclusion of the offensive caricature was an unprompted, painful error — a combination of ignorance and inadequate oversight.”

“While the image in question was removed promptly, it should have never been published to begin with,” they added.

—Staff writer Tilly R. Robinson can be reached at [email protected] . Follow her on X @tillyrobin .

—Staff writer Neil H. Shah can be reached at [email protected] . Follow him on X @neilhshah15 .

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Harvard-trained brain expert: 4 key foods I try to eat every day to stay sharp and fight Alzheimer's

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The foods we eat have a profound impact on brain health , including our risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

As a Harvard-trained neuroscientist , I often recommend the MIND (Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay) diet, which was designed to lower the risk of cognitive decline as we age. 

Common MIND foods are berries, leafy greens, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fish and poultry. But you don't have to go by this diet perfectly. A study showed that people who only moderately followed it reduced their risk of Alzheimer's by 37% .

Here's what I try to eat every day to boost my brain health:

1. Lean proteins

Eating foods high in saturated fats can contribute to high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity and heart disease — all of which are modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's.

Studies have also found that people who regularly eat red meat show more cognitive decline.

I've swapped red meat out out for a variety of lean proteins that I eat every day, particularly salmon, tuna, eggs and tofu. These are all great sources of vitamin B and vitamin D — key nutrients for fighting dementia.

2. Whole grains 

Instead of processed white bread and rice, I regularly eat whole grain bread, brown rice and quinoa, which are good sources of vitamin B. 

A recent study found that people who ate two servings of whole grains a day had a 40% reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's.

3. Leafy greens 

I'm a big fan of green leafy vegetables like spinach and kale, which are high in brain-boosting nutrients like lutein , beta-carotene and folate . I eat salads almost every day, and one of my favorite recipes includes greens, roasted tomatoes, avocado, black olives and pistachios. 

Another one of my go-to salads is greens with pomegranate seeds, tofu sautéed in olive oil, apples, cranberries and walnuts. I make a simple dressing of olive oil, salt and lemon, sometimes adding Dijon mustard and honey or vinegar. 

4. Nuts and seeds

Nuts, seeds and plant oils like flaxseed oil are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, which help keep your brain cells healthy and lower inflammation. 

It's also important to get enough omega-3 fatty acids because our bodies don't produce them on their own.

Smoothies are a delicious way to incorporate more nuts and seeds into your diet. I like to blend a teaspoon of chia seeds, a teaspoon of flaxseeds, a tablespoon of peanut butter (just peanuts, no added sugars or oils), a handful of spinach or kale, one banana, a wedge of lemon, and oat milk. 

How to make the MIND diet work for you

There are so many diets out there that seem to contradict each other. A lot of them focus on restriction and deprivation, which is often unsustainable. So I'd like you to think of MIND as a menu, not a diet.

It's an approach to eating in which we get to choose from a variety of delicious foods that are optimal for brain health and protect against cognitive decline — and deemphasize the foods that don't. 

This shouldn't feel like a 30-day regimen that you'll toss out on day 31. Ideally, it can become a consistent pattern and a way of life.

Lisa Genova is a neuroscientist and author of " Remember: The Science of Memory and the Art of Forgetting ." She graduated from Bates College with a degree in biopsychology and holds a PhD in neuroscience from Harvard University. She travels worldwide speaking about brain health, memory and neurological diseases.

Want to land your dream job in 2024?  Take CNBC's new online course How to Ace Your Job Interview  to learn what hiring managers are really looking for, body language techniques, what to say and not to say, and the best way to talk about pay.

Harvard nutritionist: This is the No. 1 vitamin to keep your brain sharp

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  6. How to Add References to your Thesis

COMMENTS

  1. Guides and databases: Harvard: Thesis or dissertation

    Harvard Thesis or dissertation To be made up of: Author. Year of submission (in round brackets). Title of thesis (in italics). Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Available at: URL. (Accessed: date). In-text citation: (Smith, 2019) Reference List: Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D.

  2. How to cite a master's thesis in Harvard

    To cite a master's thesis in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements: Author (s) of the master's thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'.

  3. How to cite a PhD thesis in Harvard

    To cite a PhD thesis in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements: Author (s) of the PhD thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'.

  4. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors' names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ' et al. ': Number of authors. In-text citation example. 1 author. (Davis, 2019) 2 authors. (Davis and Barrett, 2019) 3 authors.

  5. Thesis or dissertation

    Jones et al. (2017, p.24) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent and argued that referencing is a key part of academic integrity (2017, p.27). Furthermore, having a broad range of references in a text is an indicator of the breadth of a scholar's reading and research (Jones et al., 2017, p.14).

  6. Free Harvard Referencing Generator [Updated for 2024]

    Generate Harvard references automatically with our fast and free Harvard reference generator. Get correctly formatted references for books, websites, journals and more!

  7. Harvard Citation Style: All Examples

    Theses: Material Type: In-Text Example: Reference List Example: Thesis: Unpublished (Hos 2005) Hos, JP 2005, Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes. Ph.D thesis, University of Western Australia. Thesis: Published (May 2007) May, B 2007, A survey of radial velocities in the ...

  8. Theses

    (Year of submission) Title of thesis. Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Example: Allen, S. J. (2009) The social and moral fibre of Celtic Tiger Ireland. Unpublished PhD thesis. University College Dublin. In-Text-Citation: Author Last name (Year) (Author Last name, Year) Example: Allen (2009) disagrees with this…..

  9. How to Cite Theses and Reports in Harvard Style

    Format for citing a thesis available online: Harvard style. Surname, Initial (s). (Year of publication) Title. Award and type of qualification. Awarding body. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year). For example: Kyei-Nimakoh, M. (2017) Management and Referral of Obstetric Complications: A Study in the Upper East Region of Ghana. PhD thesis.

  10. Library Guides: Harvard referencing style: Thesis or dissertation

    In-text citation (Author Year) Reference list: Author Year, 'Title', Type of thesis, Publisher, Place of Publication.

  11. Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

    There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database. For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library's ...

  12. How to Cite a Dissertation in Harvard Style

    In Harvard, the following reference list entry format is used for the dissertation: Author Surname, Author Initials. (Year Published). Title of the dissertation in italics. Level. Institution Name. For example, reference list entry for the above source would be: Darius, H. (2014). Running head: SAVANT SYNDROME - THEORIES AND EMPIRICAL FINDINGS.

  13. Cite A Dissertation in Harvard style

    Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator to cite a dissertation. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator. Reference list

  14. Free Harvard Referencing Generator

    There are many versions of Harvard referencing style. Our guidance reflects the rules laid out in Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide (12th edition) by Richard Pears and Graham Shields. Scribbr's free reference generator can create flawless Harvard style references for a wide variety of sources. Cite a webpage.

  15. LibGuides: RGU Harvard Templates: Dissertations, Theses

    RGU Harvard Templates. Dissertations, Theses. Toggle navigation. Back to Documents Menu; FAQs; ... that are a vital part of referencing. You may need to change the punctuation settings and other settings on your screen reader software in order to correctly hear this information. It may work best to turn on an indication for capital letters and ...

  16. Subject guides: Harvard: Theses and course materials

    Harvard; Theses and course materials; Search this Guide Search. Harvard. Getting started. In-text citation ; Reference list ; ... University theses can be sourced in hardcopy or online via repositories. Reference list. Format. ... Reference list. Format. Author A (Year) Title of material [lecture], accessed Day Month Year. URL.

  17. Theses and dissertations

    (Saah, 2017:103). Doctoral theses and master's dissertations are widely available on institutional repositories. Include the permanent link ("handle") to the thesis / dissertation in the reference list. Note: when giving a permanent link, a date of access is not necessary.

  18. Harvard Citation Style: Theses

    Reference List Entry: Thesis: Unpublished (Hos 2005) Hos, JP 2005, Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes. Ph.D thesis, University of Western Australia. Thesis: Published (May 2007) May, B 2007, A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. Bristol UK, Canopus Publishing.

  19. How to Cite Different Sources with Harvard Referencing

    List of References. When citing a thesis in the list of references: put the title between quotation marks and do not use italics; acknowledge the university where the thesis was undertaken. Ballard, BA 2003, 'The seeing machine: photography and the visualisation of culture in Australia, 1890-1930', PhD thesis, University of Melbourne.

  20. Library Guides: Harvard Referencing (2002 version): Thesis

    Format: Author, AA Year of preparation of thesis, 'Title of thesis', award (g.g PhD, Masters, etc), Institution issuing degree, Location of institution. Example: Ward, I 1998, 'Sedimentary history of the Pandora wreck and surrounds', M.A. thesis, James Cook University, Townsville. In-text citation: Ward (1998) described the process … OR

  21. Dissertation (thesis): how to cite in Harvard style?

    According to the Harvard citation style, the same template is used for referencing a master's thesis and a doctoral dissertation in a list of bibliographic references: Author, ( year ). Title. Work type, University. NB: Fill in the 'Work type' field the type of work and the academic grade, for instance, 'Ph.D. thesis'.

  22. Mastering Harvard Style Referencing for Your Thesis: Expert Tips and

    A Harvard referencing thesis uses the Harvard referencing system to cite sources. Developed at Harvard University in the USA, this is probably Australia's most commonly used referencing system, especially in the sciences. If studying law, OSCOLA (Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) is the most appropriate choice.

  23. FREE Harvard Referencing Generator

    Using the Cite This For Me fast, accessible and free generator makes creating accurate citations easier than ever, leaving more time for you to focus on achieving your academic goals. Create a free account to add and edit each Harvard citation on the spot, import and export full projects or individual entries.

  24. Reference list

    Reference list. Your reference list in Harvard style needs to include all the works you have cited in your assignment. It is placed at the end of your essay on a new page and has a specific format you need to follow. This is an overview of the rules given in the Style Manual for creating a reference list.

  25. Amid Backlash to Antisemitic Post, Harvard ...

    Interim Harvard President Alan M. Garber '76 fiercely condemned the antisemitic image in a University-wide email on Tuesday, writing that "perpetuating vile and hateful antisemitic tropes, ...

  26. The doctor behind the next big thing in cancer treatment

    Few get anywhere close to pursuing that goal. Among them is Dr. Catherine Wu, an oncologist at Boston's Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, who has had cancer in her sights since second grade, when a ...

  27. Harvard-trained brain expert: 4 key foods I try to eat every day to

    2. Whole grains. Instead of processed white bread and rice, I regularly eat whole grain bread, brown rice and quinoa, which are good sources of vitamin B. A recent study found that people who ate ...