108 Drug Abuse Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best drug abuse topic ideas & essay examples, 👍 good essay topics on drug abuse, 💡 most interesting drug abuse topics to write about, ❓ drug abuse research questions.

Drug abuse essays are an excellent way to learn about the issue and its influence on various groups and populations while demonstrating your understanding.

Various substances, including alcohol, narcotics, and other mind-altering products, are a popular method for recreation in some communities.

However, they are prone to result in addiction, psychological as well as mental, and lead the person to pursue another dose before anything else.

In doing so, he or she can eventually ruin his or her life, which is why most drugs are currently banned around the world. This article will offer you some tips that will help you write an excellent essay and receive the top grade.

Youth is a major demographic that is affected by addiction issues due to drug consumption. Young people are impressionable and prone to search for new sensations. Drugs can offer a sense of novelty and provide an experience they have not had before, leading to considerable appeal.

Considering that young people are generally not wealthy and have to focus on work to succeed in life, essays on drug among youth can use a variety of excellent topics. You can offer your ideas on the reason for the phenomenon’s existence and ways in which it can be prevented.

However, remember that the purpose of the programs should be to help the people who are at risk.

There are many other drug abuse essay topics that you can explore, with poverty being a prominent example. Despite their conditions, many people turn to substance abuse to try and escape the unpleasant aspects of their life.

These population segments are more likely to suffer after acquiring a drug habit than young people because they generally receive less attention.

Furthermore, poor neighborhoods with relatively low amounts of surveillance by law enforcement are likely to house drug dealers who prey on vulnerable people.

You can discuss this topic or discuss a variety of other ones, as the relationship between poverty and poor outcomes has been researched deeply.

Here are some additional tips for your essay:

  • Try to use examples to illustrate your points about various aspects of the issue. Drug addiction essay quotations from people who are affected by the condition or have overcome it can offer valuable insights. They also legitimize your findings by providing parallels with the real world.
  • Alcohol essays are an excellent choice, as the substance is legal and available to everyone without much difficulty. Nevertheless, its effects can be devastating, especially if a person’s consumption is chronic.
  • Try to write a drug abuse essay outline before starting work, as it will help you to organize the essay. Select some prominent ideas that you want to discuss and organize them in a manner that represents a logical progression. You do not have to discard all of the other concepts, as you can make them sub-headings under your main titles.
  • Be sure to include a drug abuse essay introduction and conclusion in your work. They will help you provide a structure to the essay and make it easier for the reader to understand your ideas. The introduction should describe the topic and provide the thesis, and the conclusion should restate your main points.

Visit IvyPanda for drug abuse essay titles, and other useful samples on various subjects to help you with your writing work!

  • Social Media Impact on Drug Abuse Thus, social media platforms definitely contribute to the misuse of various drugs by romanticizing their consumption and making “social drug use” acceptable among users.
  • Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse Drug trafficking contributes to drug abuse in the society. Drug trafficking also contributes to increased criminal activities that affect the security of citizens.
  • Drug and Alcohol Abuse For along time now, drug and alcohol abuse in the society has been a problem that affects the youth and the society at large. This paper highlights the problems of drug abuse and alcohol drinking […]
  • Drug Abuse and Current Generation Drug abuse also breeds an array of behavioral problems among young people, which may affect their suitability to fit in the society.
  • Consequences of Drug Abuse The endless stream of drugs, obtainable to the individuals with little or no restrictions, poses a serious inquiry. When assessing the advantages of using pharmaceutical drugs, it is essential to consider the severity of health […]
  • Drug Abuse & Its Effects on Families Focusing on the family seems to be by far, the most known and effective way of finding a solution with regards to the “war on drugs” since it more promising to end the vicious cycle […]
  • Drug and Substance Abuse Many experts consider addiction as a disease as it affects a specific part of the brain; the limbic system commonly referred to as the pleasure center.
  • Drug Abuse in Adolescents and Its Causes Scientific research shows that the development factors for adolescent drug abuse are not limited to a set of three to five causes, but are usually linked to the integration of destructive environmental conditions.
  • Teenage Drug Abuse in the United States The problem of teenage drug abuse inflicts a threat to the future society and health state of the overall population in the United States.
  • Merton’s Argument of Deviance: The Case of Drug Abuse The most prominent example in support of Merton’s argument in relation to drug abuse is that cultural and social circumstances play a crucial role in defining people’s desire to engage in drug use.
  • The Formative Evaluation: Program of Addressing Drug Abuse in Schools The proposed program sought to educate students about the challenges of drug abuse, its impacts on academic performance, and the best techniques to avoid the vice.
  • Drug Abuse in Lake County, California The topic of drug abuse is essential for discussion due to the need to develop strategies to prevent and minimize the dangerous consequences of drug abuse in different regions.
  • Community Intervention Practices Against Drug Abuse The key features that result in successful community-based intervention on drug abuse are integrated for effectiveness and efficiency. On the other hand, drug abuse refers to the consumption of substances that elicit particular feelings and […]
  • Drug Abuse and Prevention Strategies When specialists deal with preventative factors, they pay attention to both mental and physical ways to resist the drug. The symbiosis of these procedures is exceptionally efficient in terms of the drug rehabilitation process when […]
  • Drug Abuse Among the Youth Essentially, this case study will allow the evaluation of the prevailing cases of drug abuse among the youth. In this regard, the pain and peer pleasure cannot be persevered to allow an explicit cure of […]
  • Music Analysis: Drug Abuse in Music So in this song the artist is also lamenting the dangers of drugs and the theme of the music is one that advocates against tackling the problem with issues of drug abuse by arguing the […]
  • “Cocaine: Abuse and Addiction” by National Institute on Drug Abuse The literature provides us with a report of a research that has been conducted in the US regarding the topic of cocaine and drug abuse.
  • Drug Abuse in High School and College With respect to social work and the problem of substance abuse, research has been carried out in terms of investigating the relationship between drug abuse and poverty, the effects of drug abuse on the society.
  • Impact of Drug Abuse on Adolescent Development Therefore, it is important for counselors to consider these stages to help them address the issue of substance abuse among adolescents. In the habitual stage, most adolescents take drugs to help them modify their moods.
  • Drug Abuse as a Social Problem This poses as problem to the society because many of the people who are unemployed will resort to different ways of seeking money and pleasure.
  • Drug Abuse and Its Psychological Effects The purpose of this paper is to explore in more depth the psychological effects of addiction on the family and inner circle of the addict.
  • Drug Abuse, Aggression and Antisocial Behavior The use of abusive drugs can cause anger in people because of the effect they have on the brain. An example of how alcohol can cause aggression in a person is that it impairs an […]
  • Policies for Pregnant Women With Drug Abuse Thus, out of all the offered policies, financial support for therapy is the best one, as it motivates prevention and treatment, which, in turn, causes the improvement of this situation.
  • Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Canada Therefore, it contributes as a central factor in the essence of the character, and it is crucial to understand the core definition and the elements that foster the ideology.
  • Mitigating Drug Abuse in Pine View School The inclusion of professionals in the fields of health care, counseling, and drugs is expected to promote the delivery of desirable results.
  • Drug Abuse and Its Negative Effects This paper aims to highlight what the field of psychology says about the negative effects of drugs and why people continue using despite the consequences. The main effect is that it creates a memory of […]
  • Prevention Programs: Drug Abuse Resistance Education This program focuses on handling peer pressure among youths, a crucial cause of drug abuse in the country. The program is also grounded on sound research, which offers the critical elements vital to handling the […]
  • Drug Abuse Among Homeless Young Adults in New Jersey The reason why young adults in New Jersey get involved in drugs and alcohol after becoming homeless is to manage their situations in an attempt to attain the tentative pleasure of life despite their problems. […]
  • Drug Abuse Effects on Health and Nervous System These numerous damages severely affect the quality of the brains work and the health of the nervous system. While discussing the effects of drug addiction, it is essential to notice that it has a devastating […]
  • Drug Abuse. “Nine Years Under” Book by Sheri Booker The book is thought provoking and important because it allows representing the difficult social situation and the problems of gang violence and drugs in the United States from the personal point of view.
  • Substance Abuse: Prevention Strategies and National Benchmarks Still, this desire to get away from problems by means of substances instead of making effort to improve an individual’s environment contributed to the evolution of the challenge of substance abuse into a real public […]
  • Alcoholism, Domestic Violence and Drug Abuse Kaur and Ajinkya researched to investigate the “psychological impact of adult alcoholism on spouses and children”. The work of Kaur and Ajinkya, reveals a link between chronic alcoholism and emotional problems on the spouse and […]
  • Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use National survey results on drug use obtained by Monitoring the Future have a significant value to the development of various approaches with regard to the prevention of drug abuse.
  • The Health Issues Associated With Drug Abuse It is therefore imperative to develop strategies for health promotion to reduce the number of teenagers, the most at-risk family member when it comes to drug abuse.
  • Fentanyl – Drug Profile and Specific and Drug Abuse The drug has the effect of depressing the respiratory center, constricting the pupils, as well as depressing the cough reflex. The remainder 75% of fentanyl is swallowed and absorbed in G-tract.
  • Cases of Drug Abuse Amongst Nursing Professionals It is noteworthy that at the top of the information, the date posted is Monday, February 14, 2011, yet against the information, the date is February 11, 2011.
  • The Treatment of Drug Abuse Any medical practitioner treating a drug abuse patient has to be careful in many aspects, like: He has to be careful on the issue that if the addiction has effected the brain of the patient.
  • Drug Courts and Detoxification: Approach to Drug Abuse Treatment However, since 1989, the US federal system has been providing the majority of drug abusers with proper treatment or education with the help of a drug court option.
  • Drug Abuse in Adolescents Aged 15-19 Years Old: A Public Health Menace In addition, the objectives of the paper are as follows: the first aim is to analyze the collected data and produce a review of the information.
  • Drug Abuse and Addiction Holimon has succeeded in reviving some of her family relations, and she is still putting a lot of effort to get ahead in this area to the fullest extent possible.
  • Sports as a Solution to Youth Substance Abuse: Dr. Collingwood’s View His comments made me realize that it would be unwise by the end of the day for any parent to leave their children under the mercy of the media where they learned that doing drugs […]
  • Intervention Techniques Focusing Drug Abuse and Alcoholism A technique of Family Intervention needs the concern, care and supremacy of love to penetrate the denial and start the treatment.
  • Critical Issues in Education: Drug Abuse and Alcoholism For this case, the ministry concerned has a very hard task of ensuring there are no critical issues that are left unsolved that relate to education, failure to which will affect the performance of students […]
  • The DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) Program’s Effectiveness While evaluating the effectiveness of the DARE program analysis in accordance with the methodologies and evaluation criteria used, the given assessments refer to various methods of the analysis of participants, as well as various data […]
  • Depression and Drug Dependence Treatment and Support She states that her father was the main person who was able to give the right pieces of advice and she was not afraid of making the wrong decision.
  • Drug Abuse and Dependence: Insights from Clients and Professionals If either the client or the professional wishes to determine the extent to which an individual is dependent on drugs, the only thing he or she would have to do is read the individual’s behavior.
  • Biopsychosocial Experience in Drug Abuse Treatment There has to be a preventive strategy in every intervention procedure to avoid the occurrence of a disease. I find the course of treatment in this intervention beneficial for the creation of the needed preventive […]
  • Addictive Behavior Programs and Drug Abuse Trends The involvement of stakeholders is an essential condition for the effectiveness of this model of work and its results, and all the roles should be allocated in accordance with the capabilities of the program’s participants.
  • Substance Misuse in American Youth: A Socio-Cultural Analysis The paper analyzes studies regarding some of the most widespread types of substances, as well as discusses the role of the rap culture in the growing number of young addicts in the U.S.
  • Social Behaviour as a Science: Drug Abuse in Youth Thus, the application of social psychology to the phenomenon of youth drug abuse helps to explain how social factors impact the prevalence of and risk for drug abuse.
  • ACTIQ Prescription Drug Abuse The fast-acting characteristic of ACTIQ is a result of being absorbed in the mucosal lining of the mouth. ACTIQ is a synthetic drug that is available as lozenges/lollipops, which are designed to be sucked in […]
  • Prescription Drug Abuse and Lebanon Students The first two authors are the representatives of the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health at the American University of Beirut, and Martins is from the Department of Mental Health, the John Hopkins University.
  • Financial Planning for Drug Abuse Prevention in Virginia Estates Therefore, the first preferred sources for the program are the County Commission and the Alabama Department of Corrections. The program can be financed by the Montgomery County Commission in the short term and Alabama Department […]
  • Addressing the Drug Abuse in Parolees and Probationers The aim of the program is to address the drug abuse in parolees and probationers during their probations and decrease the use of drugs in them.
  • Problem of Drug Abuse in Schools The research worked on the hypothesis that the treatment would reduce or result in the total cessation of drug use, and better relations with family and friends.
  • Youth Drug Abuse Among, Education, and Policies Although drug abuse encompasses improper use of drugs disregarding the prescriptions of medical practitioners, the principal challenges of drug abuse occasion from abuse of drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and marijuana.
  • Prescription Drug Abuse in the United States The combination of Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are effective for the patients, who want to reduce and control the level of pain.
  • Drug Use Among Parolees and Probationers: A Comprehensive Plan To reduce drug use in probationers and the probability of a new crime, the approach to drug testing needs to be changed.
  • Drug Abuse and Medicaid Program The emergence of alcohol and drug abuse as a problem and the intensification of people with mental health problems, have exposed the society to the likelihood of involvement of the population in substance abuse.
  • Drug Abuse: Age, Gender and Addictive Susceptibility This incorporates the aspects of gender where males and females possess varying biological constitutions that might affect the prescribed treatments in the realms of addiction. It is important to consider the rapidity and susceptibility of […]
  • Prevention Research: The Fight Against Drug Abuse It is agreeable that US’s ‘War on Drugs’ has been an effective substance abuse prevention plan despite the hiccups that the program faces and its inability to attain some of its designated mandates within the […]
  • Drug Abuse Prevention Programs Additionally, it is possible to prospect the success of the program in case the required readiness from the community can be unveiled prior to the program execution.
  • The Cultural Context and Ethics of Prevention of Drug Abuse The first prevention strategy outlined in the document is the involvement of young people in all levels of the prevention program establishment. Concurrently, it is crucial to relate this technique with the subject of culture […]
  • Use of Psychotropic Medications in the Treatment of Drug Abuse This is because the mental illness is, literally, the one that sustains the abuse of drugs and thus after it is healed; the patient will have no reason to continue abusing the drugs.
  • Drug Abuse: Awareness Amongst the Youths This project is going to carry out a public awareness campaign with the aim of educating the young people on the hazards related to the vice of drug and substance abuse. The awareness campaign is […]
  • A New Alcohol and Drug-Abuse Rehabilitation Center in Liverpool Hospital, Sydney The hospital, in response to this distress, has decided to bring help closer to the people of Liverpool by the construction of the annex facility.
  • Spirituality Effect on Drug Abuse Treatment Programs The hypothesis of the study was that spirituality is appropriate in the formal treatment of addiction; the study confirmed this hypothesis.
  • Drug Abuse and Religious Spirituality Concept Particularly, this high rate of relapses was determined by Olmstead et al.as a direct result of a degree of failure on the part of drug abuse treatment programs to sufficiently address the primary reason why […]
  • Drug Abuse and Harmful Health Effects The principle recognizes the importance of helping drug addicts out of the activity but also sees the importance of protecting their rights to health matters if the country is to realize economic development.
  • The Extent of Drug Abuse Among People in America Toronto Mayor Rob Ford Said He Lied about Crack Cocaine Use Because He Was Embarrassed Mayor lied about the use of crack cocaine The article titled “Toronto Mayor Rob Ford said he lied about crack […]
  • Drug Use and Abuse in America: Historical Analysis The new law was similar to the Boggs Act of 1951 in that it employed the same formula of using perceived increase in drug use in the country.
  • Drug Abuse as an Ethical Issue On the side of duties and obligations, the societal norms stipulate that individuals should be caring to other members of the society especially the children and the old.
  • Reasons Behind Youth’s Engagement to Drug Abuse in the 21st Century Although youths in the 21st century engage in drug abuse due to several factors, it suffices to declare factors such as the rising unemployment status, peer pressure, and their hiked tendency to copy their parents’ […]
  • Drug Abuse and Society Regardless of the many intervention measures that can be adopted to solve this problem of drug abuse, the most effective intervention measure is to create awareness to youths to enable them change their behaviors and […]
  • Prescription Painkillers, the New Drug Abuse of Choice Studies attribute the recent increase in the misuse of prescription drugs to an increase in the use of the Internet, which facilitates the growth of illegitimate online drug stores and uncontrolled online prescription drug sales.
  • Drug Abuse: Comprehensive Review The effects associated with drug abuse tend to vary depending on an individual’s age and the phase of drug abuse that the person is in.
  • Adolescent’s Drug Abuse and Therapy Success When one accepts to put up with negative peer pressure, they end up giving up the personal trusts and values thus the pressure becomes a form of a negative force.”Does peer pressure affect the decision […]
  • What Are Influences That Cause Drug Abuse on Youth?
  • What Are Some Solutions to Drug Abuse?
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  • What Does Drug Abuse Truly?
  • Why Do Children Need to Be Educated About Drug Abuse?
  • Why Has the American Government Not Managed to Stop Drug Abuse All These Years?
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Home — Essay Samples — Nursing & Health — Public Health Issues — Drug Addiction

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Drug Addiction Essay Examples

Hook examples for drug addiction essays, the personal story hook.

Start your essay with a personal story or anecdote related to drug addiction. Share an experience or the journey of someone who has struggled with addiction to create an emotional connection with your readers.

The Shocking Statistics Hook

Begin with alarming statistics or data about drug addiction rates, overdoses, or the economic impact of addiction. Highlight the gravity of the issue to capture the reader's attention.

The Historical Perspective Hook

Explore the historical context of drug addiction. Discuss the evolution of drug policies, societal perceptions, and the impact of substances on different cultures and time periods.

The Celebrity Case Study Hook

Examine the stories of well-known individuals who have battled drug addiction. Discuss their struggles, treatment, and how their experiences shed light on the broader issue of addiction.

The Societal Consequences Hook

Highlight the societal consequences of drug addiction, such as family breakdowns, crime rates, and the burden on healthcare systems. Explain why addressing addiction is essential for the well-being of communities.

The Brain Science Hook

Introduce the science behind addiction by discussing how drugs affect the brain's reward system. Explain the neurological aspects and why addiction is considered a complex brain disorder.

The Recovery Success Hook

Share stories of individuals who have successfully recovered from addiction. Emphasize the themes of resilience, rehabilitation, and hope to inspire readers and showcase the possibility of recovery.

The Policy and Legislation Hook

Discuss drug policies and legislation related to addiction. Explain how policies have evolved and their impact on addiction treatment, prevention, and societal attitudes.

The Prevention and Education Hook

Highlight the importance of prevention and education programs. Discuss initiatives aimed at raising awareness, providing resources, and educating the public about the dangers of drug addiction.

The Personal Reflection Hook

Begin with a thought-provoking question or reflection on the broader implications of drug addiction. Encourage readers to consider their own perspectives and attitudes toward addiction.

My Life as a Drug Addict

The temperance models of drug addiction, made-to-order essay as fast as you need it.

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Drug Addiction Solution: a Comprehensive Approach

The problem of drug addiction: causes, effects and solutions, drug addiction is a powerful evil demon, the terrible social problem of drug abuse, let us write you an essay from scratch.

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Substance Abuse: Drug Types, Alcohol, Tobacco, and More

Drug abuse, its effect on health, and preventative measures, the relation between drug addiction and crimes among the youth, hidden impact of substance abuse, get a personalized essay in under 3 hours.

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Drug Addiction in Our Brain

An examination of the genetic risk factors in drug addiction, biological basis of addiction, the drug abuse problem, teenage drug abuse in the united states, impact of drug abuse on today's society, the theme of drug and alcohol abuse in books and films, investigating causes of drug abuse /effects /intervention strategies in kenya, technology addiction among youth and its impact, the negative consequences of drugs consumption, the effects and possible solutions of drug abuse in society, the addiction of america with drugs, analysis of substance abuse through biological, psychological and sociological perspectives, prescription drug abuse among teenagers, arguments against legalization of illicit street drugs, a view of the usage of suboxone in the battle against dependency on opioid, the downtown eastside community of people, important ideas on perceptions & attitude of youth towards narcotic drugs, hate being sober: why african americans experience substance abuse in their community, drug abuse in kenya.

Contrary to the popular belief, drug addiction is an issue that is not only met among famous rock stars or people living in the streets with no home or shelter of any kind. In truth, since the evolution of synthetic drugs, even middle school children have become the victims of drug addiction. The same can be said about people who tend to live with the help of strong painkillers and medication that contains narcotic substances. Finally, we can take the ongoing issue of recreational marijuana, which is also addictive. It shows that once you start exploring this social issue, it goes way further than we initially think.

While the subject of drug addiction can be met all over the world for decades, it does not get enough coverage or statistics regarding the range or scope of the problem. It has always been in discussion since the famous Opium Wars that you might have heard of while at school or in college. Still, the modern side of the problem has been linked to the nightclubs and entertainment among young people. You can see some of our free samples on this subject to get a better idea. Regardless if you take the past or the modern times, it will have enough to write about.

Starting with the World Federation Against Drugs (an international NGO) to famous celebrities who have battled addiction, we have several people who have started an international movement to show young people how a person cannot battle the woes of addiction alone without professional medical help. The examples include Robert Downey Jr, Demi Lovato, Ben Affleck, Bradley Cooper, Drew Barrymore who has announced that she was an addict while being only 13, Elton John, Jamie Lee Curtis, a famous children’s book author, Keith Urban, Daniel Radcliffe, Eric Clapton, Carrie Fisher (Star Wars), and many others.

  • Mental and physical degradation.
  • Violation of the federal laws.
  • Inability to recover without ruining one’s body.
  • The physical danger of overdose.

Even if you have not faced any person with an addiction in your life, it is still something that we should not ignore. As a college student and a responsible person, you can make a major difference by protecting people from this awful situation with the help of education and social help. It also relates to people in recovery who require help and support. As the social stigma is quite strong, the addicts are usually left on their own and rarely ask for help, not only because they do not realize that they need help. By providing better information and exploring this subject, you can make a difference and save lives.

It does not matter what topic you may be given or have the freedom to choose for your college essay, you can explore the economical state, criminal situation, and many other aspects of life. For example, one of our paper samples talks about Bangladesh and drug addiction among young people while the other one explores the process of overcoming this problem. You can also start a debate regarding recreational marijuana and all those dangerous cocktails in modern nightclubs. The possibilities are virtually endless, which is why this topic is often approached by colleges worldwide.

The most important aspect here is understanding that you (or your friend) cannot cope alone without professional medical help. One of the reasons why addiction rehabs are present in the life of the ex-addicts is the role of the chemical processes in one’s body, which means that a person receives special medication to decrease the reception of the elements that lead to dangerous consequences. In addition, providing mental support is also important, which is something you can do as a student. Finally, the best method is to prevent something bad from happening, which can be done with the help of educational materials and discussions with young people.

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good thesis statement for addiction

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Thesis Paper on Drug Addiction

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Drug addiction has long been and still is a topical issue around the world. There are different reasons why people get addicted and various levels to which people become dependent on drugs. Some people start taking them because of pure curiosity, others so as to improve their athletic performance or reduce stress and get rid of depression. It doesn't matter why people start, the main thing here is to get help at the right time and not to ruin their life and health. When people start taking drugs, with time the way their brain functions and looks is altered. First of all, drug taking causes elevation of dopamine level in brain, which results in the feeling of pleasure. Brain remembers this event and wants it repeated. So, the drug a person takes eventually reaches the significance that other physiological needs have. As a result, the person's abilities to think clearly, control behavior, exercise good judgment and feel well without drugs intake becomes affected. This, in its turn, causes problems in relations with family, friends, at work or in university. It is extremely important to recognize drug addiction at the right moment, preferably in the beginning, so as not to spoil social relationships and health. It is necessary to understand that the sooner the problem will be attended, the better it is for the treatment progress. There are certain symptoms of drug abuse: when drug is getting people into legal trouble, if because of it people start neglecting their responsibilities, when they use drugs under dangerous conditions, and when they cause problems in relationships.

Related Papers

Kenneth Blum

good thesis statement for addiction

Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

Matteo Rivera

Tabish S. A.

Life throws up innumerable situations, which we greet with both negative and positive emotions such as excitement, frustration, fear, happiness, anger, sadness, joy etc. All human beings are not equipped to take on changes or difficult situations in life, naturally. Out of them, many don’t adapt to those situations. The result normally is— those situations and accompanying stress overwhelm people. The mind-boggling changes in every sphere of life—culture, profession, modes of transportation and rapid lifestyle changes put pressure on men to adjust with equal speed. Stress begins to wear them out and there is a loss of resiliency against adverse situations of life. Consequently, they begin to pull away from others and give in to depression. It is said that life acts and you react. Our attitude is our reaction to what life hands out to us. A significant amount of stress symptoms can be avoided or aroused by the way we relate to stressors. Stress is created by what we think rather than by what has actually happened. For instance, handling adopted children, adolescents, academic failures, retirements or sudden loss of money needs a relaxed attitude, focused will and preparedness to face the quirks of life positively. Otherwise one tends to feel stressed and reacts in anger and frustration. Children of stressed out parents are more likely to be ill equipped to handle stressors positively. They may suffer from emotional disturbances, depression, aggressive behaviour or confusion besides chances of weak physical constitutions, which again can be a source of anxiety. With a better control of attention one can feel that the world is a more congenial place to live in. A right attitude can make a resilient person out of us in the face of stressful situations. We can choose to stand aside; or to take weak and ineffective measures; or to implement robust and enduring measures to protect the health and wealth of populations.

Philosophy, Psychology and Psychiatry

Julian Savulescu

Philosophers and psychologists have been attracted to two differing accounts of addictive motivation. In this paper, we investigate these two accounts and challenge their mutual claim that addictions compromise a person’s self-control. First, we identify some incompatibilities between this claim of reduced self-control and the available evidence from various disciplines. A critical assessment of the evidence weakens the empirical argument for reduced autonomy. Second, we identify sources of unwarranted normative bias in the popular theories of addiction that introduce systematic errors in interpreting the evidence. By eliminating these errors, we are able to generate a minimal, but correct account, of addiction that presumes addicts to be autonomous in their addictive behavior, absent further evidence to the contrary. Finally, we explore some of the implications of this minimal, correct view.

Adrian Carter , Ruud ter Meulen , David J Dm Frcp Frcpsych Fmedsci Nutt , W. Hall

The potential developments mentioned in this report raise issues that are likely to become important for policymakers within Member States and will require careful consideration at European level in regard to the EU's role. They raise important questions for both drug policy and human rights and may have implications for the future regional role of the EU in developing policies, monitoring the activities of Member States and taking appropriate action with regard to Member States' policies.

The Promises and Perils of Neuroscience Research on Addiction

Ruud ter Meulen , Wayne Hall

Neuroscience research is uncovering the neurochemical mechanisms that produce the behavioural and cognitive problems observed in those with an addiction. This includes: the pharmacological sites at which drugs act (eg receptors); the neurochemicals involved in the metabolism (eg enzymes) and trafficking of drugs (eg transporters) that regulate their activity within the brain; and the molecular changes that occur in the brain as a result of continuous use of addictive drugs over long periods of time (see Chapter 2).

Addiction and drug abuse exact an enormous toll upon European society, largely as a result of premature death, physical harm and increased health care costs, violence and crime. A significant proportion of the European population will become addicted to licit or illicit drugs during their lifetime. Given the health and social burden of addiction, there is strong public interest in preventing addiction and improving the chances that addicts will stop using drugs.


Wayne J Hankey

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Roland Möllby

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• Papathanasiou-Zuhrt, D. 2014, The TRAP Project (Territories of River Action Plans) Interpreting Heritage Places. A Good Practice Planning Guide. Methodologies. Applications. Good Practices, Vol. 1, 2 and 3. INTERREG IVC 20072013, RIP/1006R4/TRAP, Development Agency of Western Macedonia, Kozani.

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Writing a Paper: Thesis Statements

Basics of thesis statements.

The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper. Specific means the thesis deals with a narrow and focused topic, appropriate to the paper's length. Arguable means that a scholar in your field could disagree (or perhaps already has!).

Strong thesis statements address specific intellectual questions, have clear positions, and use a structure that reflects the overall structure of the paper. Read on to learn more about constructing a strong thesis statement.

Being Specific

This thesis statement has no specific argument:

Needs Improvement: In this essay, I will examine two scholarly articles to find similarities and differences.

This statement is concise, but it is neither specific nor arguable—a reader might wonder, "Which scholarly articles? What is the topic of this paper? What field is the author writing in?" Additionally, the purpose of the paper—to "examine…to find similarities and differences" is not of a scholarly level. Identifying similarities and differences is a good first step, but strong academic argument goes further, analyzing what those similarities and differences might mean or imply.

Better: In this essay, I will argue that Bowler's (2003) autocratic management style, when coupled with Smith's (2007) theory of social cognition, can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover.

The new revision here is still concise, as well as specific and arguable.  We can see that it is specific because the writer is mentioning (a) concrete ideas and (b) exact authors.  We can also gather the field (business) and the topic (management and employee turnover). The statement is arguable because the student goes beyond merely comparing; he or she draws conclusions from that comparison ("can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover").

Making a Unique Argument

This thesis draft repeats the language of the writing prompt without making a unique argument:

Needs Improvement: The purpose of this essay is to monitor, assess, and evaluate an educational program for its strengths and weaknesses. Then, I will provide suggestions for improvement.

You can see here that the student has simply stated the paper's assignment, without articulating specifically how he or she will address it. The student can correct this error simply by phrasing the thesis statement as a specific answer to the assignment prompt.

Better: Through a series of student interviews, I found that Kennedy High School's antibullying program was ineffective. In order to address issues of conflict between students, I argue that Kennedy High School should embrace policies outlined by the California Department of Education (2010).

Words like "ineffective" and "argue" show here that the student has clearly thought through the assignment and analyzed the material; he or she is putting forth a specific and debatable position. The concrete information ("student interviews," "antibullying") further prepares the reader for the body of the paper and demonstrates how the student has addressed the assignment prompt without just restating that language.

Creating a Debate

This thesis statement includes only obvious fact or plot summary instead of argument:

Needs Improvement: Leadership is an important quality in nurse educators.

A good strategy to determine if your thesis statement is too broad (and therefore, not arguable) is to ask yourself, "Would a scholar in my field disagree with this point?" Here, we can see easily that no scholar is likely to argue that leadership is an unimportant quality in nurse educators.  The student needs to come up with a more arguable claim, and probably a narrower one; remember that a short paper needs a more focused topic than a dissertation.

Better: Roderick's (2009) theory of participatory leadership  is particularly appropriate to nurse educators working within the emergency medicine field, where students benefit most from collegial and kinesthetic learning.

Here, the student has identified a particular type of leadership ("participatory leadership"), narrowing the topic, and has made an arguable claim (this type of leadership is "appropriate" to a specific type of nurse educator). Conceivably, a scholar in the nursing field might disagree with this approach. The student's paper can now proceed, providing specific pieces of evidence to support the arguable central claim.

Choosing the Right Words

This thesis statement uses large or scholarly-sounding words that have no real substance:

Needs Improvement: Scholars should work to seize metacognitive outcomes by harnessing discipline-based networks to empower collaborative infrastructures.

There are many words in this sentence that may be buzzwords in the student's field or key terms taken from other texts, but together they do not communicate a clear, specific meaning. Sometimes students think scholarly writing means constructing complex sentences using special language, but actually it's usually a stronger choice to write clear, simple sentences. When in doubt, remember that your ideas should be complex, not your sentence structure.

Better: Ecologists should work to educate the U.S. public on conservation methods by making use of local and national green organizations to create a widespread communication plan.

Notice in the revision that the field is now clear (ecology), and the language has been made much more field-specific ("conservation methods," "green organizations"), so the reader is able to see concretely the ideas the student is communicating.

Leaving Room for Discussion

This thesis statement is not capable of development or advancement in the paper:

Needs Improvement: There are always alternatives to illegal drug use.

This sample thesis statement makes a claim, but it is not a claim that will sustain extended discussion. This claim is the type of claim that might be appropriate for the conclusion of a paper, but in the beginning of the paper, the student is left with nowhere to go. What further points can be made? If there are "always alternatives" to the problem the student is identifying, then why bother developing a paper around that claim? Ideally, a thesis statement should be complex enough to explore over the length of the entire paper.

Better: The most effective treatment plan for methamphetamine addiction may be a combination of pharmacological and cognitive therapy, as argued by Baker (2008), Smith (2009), and Xavier (2011).

In the revised thesis, you can see the student make a specific, debatable claim that has the potential to generate several pages' worth of discussion. When drafting a thesis statement, think about the questions your thesis statement will generate: What follow-up inquiries might a reader have? In the first example, there are almost no additional questions implied, but the revised example allows for a good deal more exploration.

Thesis Mad Libs

If you are having trouble getting started, try using the models below to generate a rough model of a thesis statement! These models are intended for drafting purposes only and should not appear in your final work.

  • In this essay, I argue ____, using ______ to assert _____.
  • While scholars have often argued ______, I argue______, because_______.
  • Through an analysis of ______, I argue ______, which is important because_______.

Words to Avoid and to Embrace

When drafting your thesis statement, avoid words like explore, investigate, learn, compile, summarize , and explain to describe the main purpose of your paper. These words imply a paper that summarizes or "reports," rather than synthesizing and analyzing.

Instead of the terms above, try words like argue, critique, question , and interrogate . These more analytical words may help you begin strongly, by articulating a specific, critical, scholarly position.

Read Kayla's blog post for tips on taking a stand in a well-crafted thesis statement.

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A Review of the Prevention of Drug Addiction: Specific Interventions, Effectiveness, and Important Topics


This study was a narrative review on prevention of addictive behaviors with an effort to clarify the major concepts of prevention and its dimensions.

The PsycInfo and MedInfo databases were used to identify prevention. Α total of 65 articles were found 46 of which were included in the review. Τhe data were analyzed using content analysis.

For a better understanding of the results, it was deemed advisable to categorize them into: (a) the types of major interventions and the theoretical approaches on which they were based, (b) the results of the review articles according to (1) variables and factors concerning the prevention proved important through the review and (2) a number of more general important topics which arose in the prevention of addictive behaviors.


The results highlighted the greater effectiveness of community-based programs, applied primarily in broader contexts but also secondarily in high-risk groups. Τhe results were discussed based on the combination of the emerged factors with each other and prevention experience.


One of the most important questions in the field of psychotropic substances addiction, including alcohol abuse, is which ways, methods, techniques, or interventions are effective in substance use prevention. Given the fact that there are various kinds of prevention strategies, this question becomes even more complicated as it is hard to find and systematize these factors. It is essential to continue research in this direction since the question why young people resort to substances and get addicted to them has not been fully answered yet. Furthermore, it is generally accepted that prevention is better than treatment.

Psychotropic substances addiction refers to the substance-related disorders as described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V). Although the psychological mechanism of addictive substance use is considered to be common with or at least similar to that of addiction to illegal substances and alcohol, in this study, the surveys that focus exclusively on alcohol were not included. The reason for this decision was that articles on alcohol prevention are numerous and could be investigated –as already done- in a separate study. Besides, alcohol use displays certain peculiarities; for example, it is a legal and easily accessible substance.

Traditionally, prevention strategies have been categorised into primary, secondary, and tertiary preventions. Primary prevention refers to the prevention of substance use and abuse. Secondary prevention refers to the early identification and treatment of individuals already using substances, while tertiary prevention refers to the treatment and reduction of harm in people who have already used substances and have consequences from their use. We can literally talk about prevention only in primary and partially in secondary types. Tertiary prevention is essentially not prevention but treatment and reduction of harm.

Another distinction that has been made in recent decades (e.g., National Advisory Mental Health Council Workgroup on Mental Disorders Prevention Research 1 ) classifies prevention strategies into universal, selective, and indicated preventions. The universal strategies apply to the general population (e.g., students) in order to inform and raise awareness about the issue of drugs. 2 Selective strategies target individuals at increased risk of substance use and abuse (e.g., children of addicts, children growing up in high-risk environments or neighborhoods). Indicated strategies are for people who may not already be addicted to drugs but have had a contact with them (e.g., young people experimenting with substances).

Preventive interventions in the three categories described above may have different goals, including the following: (a) increasing the knowledge about drugs in adolescents; (b) reducing the use of drugs; (c) delaying the onset of first use; (d) reducing abuse of drugs; and (e) minimising the harm caused by the use of drugs. 3 Additionally, regarding the context of implementation of prevention interventions, it is evident that these interventions can aim at different settings such as schools, families, the wider community, the media, 4 or even in places of gathering of young people e.g., cultural centres, parks, cafes, and so on.

The field of prevention is in general very broad as it includes prevention policies, designs, methods, techniques, and interventions. The design of interventions requires the appropriate theoretical background and the deployment of previous knowledge and results. Furthermore, it potentially includes various intervention implementation frameworks, a different extent of involvement, and participation of the individuals e.g., children, parents, and teachers.

There are a lot of important dimensions to be investigated in what is broadly defined as prevention. The effectiveness of the interventions is an important parameter. Effectiveness is usually defined as a reduction in substance use or a reduction in the positive attitude towards substances, after the implementation of a prevention program. The sustainment, however, of positive results on a long-term basis is an even more important dimension. The active participation of the involved members and the retention of the therapeutic results are other necessary components for the implementation of effective interventions.

As far as the evaluation of interventions is concerned, reliability should be tested as youth substance use programs are often of limited generalizability due to methodological restrictions and the absence of consistency in evaluation of interventions. 5

Furthermore, it should be mentioned that the concepts usually studied (e.g., self-efficacy, motivation for change, coping skills) are complex and hard to be assessed in self-report measures. In addition, these psychological processes may not be part of conscious awareness and thus may not be possible to be evaluated using self-report measures. Additionally, it is doubtful whether they are indeed related to the underlying pathology of addiction. 6

The main objective of this narrative review was to investigate the key modern trends in the prevention of psychotropic addiction and to identify which interventions are most effective and where and how they are performed.

A specific review of factors important for the prevention of drugs was conducted in PsycInfo and MedInfo databases, entering as search items for the factors the words “prevention”, “addiction”, “drug addiction”, “drugs”, “drug prevention strategies”, “substance use” and “dependence” or the combination of the above words. The data were collected from 2018 to 2021. The search included articles published from 2000 onwards. A total of 65 articles were found among which 46 articles were included in the review. Articles that clearly referred to the prevention of substance use (interventions, strategies, or prevention systems) were included in this study. Articles that indirectly referred to prevention or were restricted to medication or genetic aspects of prevention were excluded. Regarding the type of articles, 26 of them were research articles and 20 were review articles. Among the research articles, 11 were correlational quantitative studies, 9 were quasi-experimental studies, and 6 used qualitative designs. Concerning the participants, 34 of the studies were conducted on school-based programs and 9 on community-based prevention programs. The remaining ones did not refer to specific intervention programs and focused on theoretical elements or prevention and health policies systems.

Taking into consideration the above mentioned as well as the theoretical concerns and the steady need to improve the problematic parts, a search of relevant findings from research and review articles was conducted. Given the dissimilarity of the research studies found, the data were analyzed using content analysis and systematized in different categories according to the point on which each research focused. For a better understanding and categorization of the research results, it was deemed expedient to mention a) the major interventions and techniques used in the studies and b) the results categorized through the above-mentioned analysis.

(A) With regard to the type and the theoretical approach of the interventions applied in the studies found in this review, a wide range of theoretical approaches and techniques were identified that illustrate the preferred trends in prevention over the past years. Characteristically, there is a great heterogeneity among the programs and methods. 7 , 8 Before reviewing the results in the following section, these interventions are elaborated. The following categorization of interventions was chosen because it contributes to a systematic and comprehensive display ( Table 1 ).

a) A lot of studies used interventions that could be characterized as environmental interventions 9 - 11 which highlight mainly the implementation of interventions in a more natural, social, and cultural environment where the individuals act and behave. The aim of these interventions was to increase the cultural belonging to achieve which, a lot of interventions used culturally-based techniques. 12

b) A second category of studies, possibly the one encompassing the majority of them, includes the studies that used more cognitive-based techniques, namely interventions whose broader theoretical framework relies on the cognitive-behavioral approach. Thus, it specifically includes social skills interventions, strengthening families programs and life skills trainings, 13 enhancing communication channels interventions, CHAT- a solution focused strategies program, increasing self-efficacy methods, 14 - 16 McGuires’s persuasion, 17 CHOICE program, Cherokee self-reliance program, 18 Project ALERT program, Persuasion Communication Model, SMART program, random student drug testing, 19 development and monitoring of career goals, and internet-based prevention programs. 20

c) A third research category includes methods that could be characterized in a broader sense as humanistic. These methods are based on the restricted results of the mainly informative (based on providing information) and more cognitive approaches and illustrate the experiential character of prevention. Thus, a lot of prevention strategies deal with the promotion of youth development, 21 peer-to-peer mentoring, 22 motivational interviewing 23 , 24 (a method with a cognitive background as well), narrative therapy, educational and career counseling, and positive youth development strategies with the active participation of teachers and parents. 21 , 25 Obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where these strategies can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring the success of an intervention. 21 A common characteristic of these methods is the intent of active participation of all the community members such as local media and teen networks. Some of them, when implemented in a school-based environment, are delivered by teachers, 26 not by specialized scientists alien to the school environment.

(B) In the second and main part of this section, the results of the reviewed articles are presented as categorized based on (a) variables and factors concerning the effectiveness proved important through the review and (b) a number of important topics highlighted for the prevention of addictive behaviors ( Table 2 ).

a) Concerning the variables and/or the factors that proved more or less important to the implementation of prevention programs, the self-efficacy variable is the most frequently mentioned one. Self-efficacy is the optimistic self-belief in one’s competence or chances of successfully accomplishing a task and producing a favorable outcome. 27 , 28 The building of self-efficacy seems to be a characteristic of addiction-proof children. 14 Apart from self-efficacy, other variables from the cognitive approach associated with successful efforts of prevention are motivational enhancement, life coping skills, decision-making, 20 enhanced drug resistance skills, increased knowledge, and behavior determinants (attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, intention) more negative towards drugs. 13

The variables that derive from the humanitarian tradition and positive psychology have very positive results when included in prevention programs. Thus, the promotion of positive youth development and the cultivation of an optimistic future orientation, 21 the development of hopefulness, 29 harmony among family members, 30 and the strengths and the enforcement of a healthy lifestyle have been repeatedly associated with a reduction in use of addictive substances. The positive role of self-reliance which is defined as being true to one’s self and being connected, responsible, disciplined, and confident 18 can be included in the same context.

Other studies investigated the social support and generally the effect of the social environment on addiction prevention. The results are usually controversial. Therefore, the influence of friends and peer pressure 31 may be associated with high-risk behaviors, but friends are preferred in seeking help. 26 , 30 Self-evidently, having family members who use drugs and adverse life events are associated with high risk. 31 , 32 On the other hand, peer networks and dynamic group leaders can also help to motivate the students. 33 The role of the teachers in prevention is estimated to be positive, as their involvement in prevention programs is associated with lower risk. A positive impact seems to be attributed to parenting monitoring and strict parenting as well as religiosity. 26 Especially in the school context, it seems that belonging to the public school network, development of activities targeting sexuality, development of “Health at School Program” activities, offering extracurricular activities, and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs are associated with program implementation. 34

b) With regard to the more general important topics highlighted in substance addiction prevention, a first point is that a lot of researches were based on an informative approach about prevention (e.g., decision), 31 namely the provision of information to the target group (youths or students) about the negative effects of addiction that is expected to lead to a logical refusal of substance use. The major conclusion drawn is that prevention strategies based mainly or exclusively on information have poor results, 17 , 35 which is confirmed by a study according to which most youths were aware of the adverse health effects of substance use. 31 However, other studies based on internet-based interventions supported that intervention groups have more knowledge and are less likely to use cannabis. 20 It is recommended to adopt a broader approach which embraces other directly or indirectly involved individual groups (parents, teachers) and control the quantity and quality of the information provided. 35 , 36 Relevant to the provision of appropriately purposeful information about substance use was the finding about the inadequate awareness and messages in workplace, 37 an example of the expansion of prevention in environments outside the school.

The importance of development stages and the transition from one development stage to the next was another topic highlighted in the review. 38 Studies focused on the understanding and recognition of possible genetic risks and protective factors at the crucial age of children and teenagers. 39 , 40 Some data seem to be confirmed, such as the fact that the onset of substance use at a later stage reduces the problematic use. 12

A lot of studies 18 , 41 - 43 mentioned the effectiveness of culturally grounded interventions. These interventions are culturally sensitive, which means that they primarily take into consideration the cultural characteristics of the population on which the intervention is implemented. Quite often sub-techniques are used that deploy special cultural characteristics of a place (e.g. canoe). 41 The positive results of these efforts reinforce the poorer results of interventions, where a prevention program is transferred and implemented invariably from one country to another, mainly from a developed country to a so-called developing country. 42 Therefore, the integration of appropriate theory and cultural elements seems to be necessary. However, there are also findings that consider that risk and protective factors concerning majority-based research may also be predictors for minorities. 43

Similar to the above is the finding that a lot of preventive interventions followed the ground-up methodology, namely the configuration of interventions after relevant research in population members, where the intervention was implemented later on. 16 , 20 Therefore, in case the aim is to apply an intervention in the school-based environment, the prevention strategies are configurated and chosen after some preliminary work (e.g., focus groups) with the affected populations (e.g., teachers, students), which illustrates the needs of these particular individuals at a specific time. This is in contrast with the most common method (up-ground) where already tested interventions are applied to various populations. 40

As mentioned in the methods section, the greatest part of interventions took place in school-based environments that seem to be probably the most suitable ones for the implementation of interventions, as indicated by findings about effectiveness. 19 However, the findings are not always consistent, as there are also findings that suggest minor to insignificant positive results. 17 Furthermore, certain findings indicated a lower effectiveness in boys compared with girls and better results in children of a low socio-economic level compared with children of a higher socio-economic level. 42 With regard to the frequent implementation of prevention programs in school-based environments, a question of generalization is raised, as expected, namely to what extent the whatsoever results achieved in this environment can be sustained outside this environment. 20

A classic study indicated small- to medium- sized differences in behavioral problems between students who participate for the longest period of time and those who participate for the shortest time 19 which highlighted the importance of the sustainment of the results as well as the retention of students both in the school-based environment and the prevention programs. As noted, the impact of education and persuasion programs tended to be small, at best. When positive effects were found, they did not persist. 17 Furthermore, in terms of effectiveness, the flexibility in delivering the program, such as offering the program in different days and times, seems quite important. 22 However, low effectiveness, indicated even by large-scale studies, is probably attributed to issues of methodology, such as selection strategies. 43

A matter of greater importance with various social aspects that was highlighted was social responsibility with regard to addiction prevention. 44 The importance of the involvement of all the community members leads to the conclusion that prevention concerns potentially every member of the society and not just the populations included in the so-called high-risk groups. Thus, the involvement of school, neighborhood, family, and various associations and religious bodies 45 - 48 seems to be important as it enhances the conscientiousness and responsible behavior of the citizens towards such a vitally important matter. In the same context, the importance of a broader collaboration and consistency between policy design and implementation of educational interventions 17 is also highlighted; however, this is a very complex issue which faces various obstacles during its implementation such as the cost of the interventions. 4

The policy issue comes to the forefront when addiction prevention issues are dealt with. Roumeliotis 49 showed drug addiction is presented as a problem to be handled by experts rather than politics. This shows an important shift in the role of policies in prevention and treatment. Certainly, there is an increasing trend towards harm reduction and even educational approaches and other more traditional forms of prevention including harm reduction. 48 These matters are underlined by the necessity for transdisciplinary scientific collaborations that have the potential to strengthen substance use and abuse research and prevention. 49 Transdisciplinarity is distinguished from other forms of cross-disciplinary collaboration, such as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity. Transdisciplinarity is the process whereby researchers work jointly using a shared conceptual framework that draws together discipline-specific theories, concepts, and approaches to address a common problem. 49

As indicated in the first part of the results, there is great heterogeneity in the interventions and techniques of addiction prevention. This might imply a great variety of available methods and strategies that can be used. The selection of the suitable methods in each case should be based on the needs of the population to which the respective program is applied and on the study of the effectiveness of the available interventions. Any combination of methods and techniques is legitimate as long as it is based on a justified theoretical background and previous experience from prevention programs. The reported trend of environmental interventions 8 - 10 is a positive step, as it takes into account people’s needs in the natural and social environment in which they act. Given the prevalence of cognitive-behavioral methods on a large scale in the treatment of mental disorders, it is absolutely natural for similar interventions to be used in prevention as well. 15 , 16 These interventions, which require a rational data processing, have a proven effectiveness; however, quite often they seem to be inadequate for the prevention of rather complex psychosocial problems, such as addiction. For this reason, there is a prevalence of more experiential interventions (either in combination with cognitive-behavioral techniques or not), which attempt to include not only the directly affected people (e.g., the students) but also parents, teachers, and other community members or bodies. 34 , 35 Apart from the above mentioned, other factors should be taken into account including ‘Who is training the trainers?’, ‘How can quality delivery be ensured on a large scale?’, ‘How can a universal program become part of a chain of prevention?’ and ‘How do we handle the needs of practitioners?’ 50 - 52

With regard to the factors/variables that play an important role in addiction prevention, as expected, the findings highlighted already known variables, such as self-efficacy 14 - 16 and the development of positive characteristics like hopefulness 29 and social support. 31 It could be assumed that based on the repeated findings, an effective prevention program could include the development of cognitive and social skills in line with the development of a positive lifestyle, way of thinking, feeling, and behaving. The introduction of complementary concepts and interventions from the field of positive psychology would be a suggested step at the therapeutic level. Such interventions could be the emergence and strengthening of strengths as well as mental resilience and positive emotions, such as hope and gratitude. According to Peele, 53 addiction-proof children have skills to gain real rewards in life, values that sustain moderation, and reject addiction in favor of pursuing positive goals, and confidence that they can achieve these goals. This is in contrast with addiction-prone children, who are more likely to come from backgrounds that deny them any opportunity, are plagued by bad feelings (depression, anxiety, lack of purpose), and have history of dependence. The reinforcement of these characteristics seems to be even more effective when teachers, parents, and the broader community are involved in the program. Therefore, prevention should concern a bigger part of society and should not be implemented fragmentarily only to the population at risk.

As indicated by the findings, in the review of substance addiction prevention, certain repeated matters raised which were evaluated in order to improve future choices and practices. Therefore, the restricted effectiveness of strategies based exclusively on information 17 , 35 has been confirmed, as aptly pointed out by Zafeiridis. 54 As we live in an era in which information constitutes a basic part of our lives, information is recommended to be provided at an initial stage of prevention, whereas later on it should become more experiential. As indicated, it is important to control the quantity and quality of the information 35 , 36 to be essentially helpful to parents, teachers, and children.

Prevention programs should also take into account the importance of development stages. 38 A reasonable conclusion drawn by the findings is that prevention should be applied at a young age (even at pre-school age), because the beginning of substance use later on reduces the possibility of problematic use. This is probably due to the fact that young people, from an age onwards, have already managed to develop important cognitive and emotional mechanisms of dealing with situations. The recognition of protective factors, as well as risk factors at a crucial age is also helpful in designing an effective intervention.

An issue dealt with in numerous researches was the importance of culturally-based interventions. 17 , 41 The programs implemented in developed countries can form a good knowledge and practice basis, but it is obvious that they should not be applied invariably in different cultural environments. A good suggestion in this regard would be the development of programs through the ground-up methodology, which initially illustrates the population needs, followed by the design of prevention interventions. To this end, the theoretical knowledge should be deployed and there should also be an integration of the appropriate theory and cultural elements.

With regard to the usual choice of implementing prevention programs in school-based environments, 19 it seems that school-based environment remains the most suitable one for these interventions as it combines the daily involvement of the child in a series of activities in the community environment where potentially significant others, such as teachers and parents, are also involved. The utilization of research findings is important in order to increase the so far minor positive results and generalize them in different conditions outside school.

On a broader level, it is commonplace that substance addiction prevention should be dealt with not only by the directly affected populations but by various bodies, such as associations, communities, religious bodies, as well as every individual member of the society. It is a reasonable assumption that the increase in social responsibility brings about an increase in individual responsibility and that the social well-being is interrelated with the individual one.

Finally, on a policy level, drug prevention is not something only experts should deal with, but requires an active political will and active involvement of the citizens. Accordingly, not only transdisciplinarity, but also the consistency of policy design and implementation of educational interventions is required and vital. To overcome possible obstacles, the cost of prevention should be calculated and compared to that of interventions. Effective prevention can, therefore, have multiple benefits on both personal and social levels.

The results of this study concerning the prevention of drug use showed the most effective interventions are those implemented in community contexts, such as schools, at a young age, and based on experiential methods tailored to the needs of each population. Humanitarian approaches are effective and can be applied in parallel with cognitive and behavioral approaches. In this context, methods from positive psychology could be used. It is important for clinicians working in the community to implement or recommend prevention programs with the above characteristics. Nevertheless, even for those clinicians who do not work in the community, it is important to know what really prevents substance use to make the right referrals and give the right directions. At the level of health services, it is important that prevention programs are implemented primarily universally in a broad context such as schools but also secondarily selectively in high-risk groups. Finally, it is important to emphasize that substance abuse prevention is not just for mental health professionals but also for the whole community, teachers, parents, and every individual citizen.

The present narrative review highlighted some important issues for addiction prevention. However, this was not a systematic review or meta-analysis. Further studies are recommended to conduct a more systematic review.


I thank the colleagues in the Department of Psychology at the University of Western Macedonia and the students in the course of psychopathology for their support.

Citation: Flora K. A review of the prevention of drug addiction: specific interventions, effectiveness, and important topics. Addict Health . 2022;14(4):288-295. doi:10.34172/ahj.2022.1348

Conflict of Interests

Author declares no conflict of interests.

Ethics Approval

Not applicable.

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Thesis Paper on Drug Addiction

Drug addiction has long been and still is a topical issue around the world. There are different reasons why people get addicted and various levels to which people become dependent on drugs . Some people start taking them because of pure curiosity, others so as to improve their athletic performance or reduce stress and get rid of depression. It doesn’t matter why people start, the main thing here is to get help at the right time and not to ruin their life and health.

drug addiction essay

Thesis about Drug Addiction

It is extremely important to recognize drug addiction at the right moment, preferably in the beginning, so as not to spoil social relationships and health. It is necessary to understand that the sooner the problem will be attended, the better it is for the treatment progress. There are certain symptoms of drug abuse : when drug is getting people into legal trouble, if because of it people start neglecting their responsibilities, when they use drugs under dangerous conditions, and when they cause problems in relationships.

It is absolutely necessary to prevent drug addictio n levels’ raise, and it is necessary for all the people to take part in this prevention program. Only if we…

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Top 7 Examples Of A Good Thesis Statement


Today I want to talk about one of the greatest challenges facing any student who wants to pass his or her written assignment with flying colors. You are right – I am going to explain how to write an excellent thesis statement . So, look through these seven ideas and come up with a thesis statement that will impress your professor.

Idea 1: Understand What Thesis Statement Is

Just like you don’t start your journey without an accurate road map, you cannot write a decent paper without a clear thesis statement. Basically, thesis statement is the “road map” of your paper.

Still hard to understand? Ok, below is a short list of what thesis statement is :

  • Short sentence presenting an argument to the reader.
  • Backbone around which all subsequent work is structured.

And here is the list of what thesis statement is not :

  • Introduction of the topic: “This paper will examine/discuss/analyze etc…”
  • Introduction of the author: “I am going to confirm/prove/refute etc…”
  • Asking your reader a question: “What is the antecedent/effect/consequence etc…?”

Idea 2: Compose A Thesis Statement Outline

Your professor should have told you that an outline is helpful to write a good paper. Well, the same rule applies to writing a thesis statement.

A strong thesis statement includes the following elements:

  • Qualification

Now, let’s see how all these elements work together in the following thesis statement: “ In an overwhelming majority of cases ( qualification ) , income-based inequality leads to health disparities ( topic and position ) because of the fallacies in the national insurance system ( reason ) . ”

I believe that developing thesis statements can be fun. Make sure of it yourself and compose a thesis statement using the following formula:

Topic: “ Eating sweets”

Position: “A good idea”

Qualification: “Always”

Reason: “Makes you happy”

Now, as your “sweet” thesis is complete, and your brain is recharged with glucose, you are ready to learn some more thesis statement ideas.

Idea 3: Always Distinguish Between Debatable And Non-Debatable

Naturally, debatable thesis statement is preferable, especially if you plan to write an argumentative or persuasive paper.

To understand the difference, I suggest comparing between the two theses statements.

debatable and non-debatable thesis statement

Non-Debatable Thesis Statement: “Pollution is bad for the environment”

There are at least two reasons why this short (and pretty clumsy) to call this thesis statement a non-debatable. In the first place, the word pollution has a negative denotation : when reading this word, we already understand it stands for something not very good. Second, neither study indicates that pollution has any advantage. So, there’s simply nothing to argue about.

Non-debatable thesis statement is commonly boring, so you should better have a debatable one.

Debatable Thesis Statement: ”At least 25 percent of the federal budget should be spent on limiting pollution.”

It is a perfect example of a debatable statement, since reading it people may have thoughts like: “Right, we should invest more in limiting pollution”, “We must allocate more resources to education”, or “He’s crazy! Where will we find the money?!”

Idea 4: Different Types Of Essay Need A Different Thesis Statement

Experts suggest a rule of thumb: determine the type of essay before drafting a thesis statement.

Basically, essays are divided into three types:

Thesis example: Shaped by religious tradition and belief the supremacy of Western culture, 20 th century United States foreign policy has reinforced racism against the Middle East (Source: University of Evansville).

  • Argumentative

Thesis example: High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness (Source: University of Evansville).

Thesis example: The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying, attending classes, and socializing with peers (Source: University of Evansville).

NB: You can learn more about different types of essays by visiting the aforementioned Purdue Online Writing Lab , University of Evansville ’s website or other reputable resource.

Idea 5: A Good Thesis Statement Is Always Narrow

At times, there are too many things that seem relevant to your essay. But the problem is that you cannot fit them all in your paper, unless you want to confuse the reader. So, consider writing on a limited number of topics and include them in your narrowed thesis.

good thesis statement

To see the difference between a broad and a narrowed thesis statement, consider the examples below.

Thesis Example 1   : Drug use is detrimental to society (Source: Purdue Online Writing Lab) .

Thesis Example 2  : Illegal drug use is detrimental because it encourages drug violence (Source: Purdue Online Writing Lab) .

I hope you didn’t have any difficulties with distinguishing between the broad and the narrowed thesis statements. Indeed, the second thesis has been narrowed to reflect a specific aspect of illegal drug use – drug violence.

Idea 6: Good Thesis Statement Picks Up A Side

Remember that a strong thesis statement picks up one side or another, but never both. This idea can be illustrated by the thesis statements below:

Thesis Statement Example 1:

Drug use is detrimental because it encourages drug violence, therefore it should be outlawed. But there are instances when people take drugs for medical reasons. It means that drug use is a controversial public issue, and we cannot introduce a regulation that would satisfy everyone.

In fact, it’s the worst thesis statement I’ve ever seen. The main problem with this thesis is that while familiarizing it, the reader will likely feel confused: “So, what on earth is he thinking about drug use?! Is it good? Is it bad?”

Like in a real-life conversation, you cannot pick up both sides, since your interlocutor might think that you don’t have your opinion at all. So, do not let anyone question your critical thinking and pick up one side only.    

And now consider another example of an argumentative essay thesis.

Thesis Statement Example 2 :

Drug use is detrimental to society because it encourages drug violence, therefore strict measures must be taken to stop illicit drug trafficking.

I think it is a MUCH better thesis statement, because it clearly reveals the thought that you want to convey in your essay: Drug use should be stopped .

Still stuck on your thesis statement? Then go to the final, seventh idea…

Idea 7: Use Thesis Statement Generator To Compose A Statement

You can find plenty of thesis statement generators online. And even more pleasant is the fact that most of these statement generators are free.

With minor differences, most thesis statement generators have a universal algorithm:

  • State the topic
  • State your opinion about the topic
  • Provide the strongest reason that supports this opinion
  • Give one more or several strong assertions to support your opinion
  • Put all the elements together by pressing the button.

Voila, your thesis statement is complete!

However, a friendly advice is to edit the generated thesis prior to submission. Make sure that it is clear, succinct, thought provoking and deserves the highest grade!

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  • The Opioid Abuse Epidemic

Statement on the Opioid Abuse Epidemic

August 2, 2017

The American College of Surgeons (ACS) Division of Advocacy and Health Policy and Division of Education Patient Education Committee jointly developed the following Statement on the Opioid Abuse Epidemic. The ACS Board of Regents approved the statement at its June 2017 meeting in Chicago, IL.

The use and abuse of both prescription and illicit drugs has increased dramatically in recent years and has become a major public health concern. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of overdose deaths involving opioids, both prescription and heroin, has quadrupled since 1999. Coinciding with this increase, the sale of prescription opioids nearly quadrupled from 1999 to 2014. A most alarming result of these practices is the increased accessibility of addictive opioids.

Surgeons have a responsibility to minimize their patients’ postoperative pain while addressing the societal imperative to avoid overprescribing. There has been wide variation in the limits and restrictions placed on prescribers by payors and state legislatures. Many of the proposed policies will have a significant impact on patient safety and the way surgeons prescribe opioids and may expose specific patient populations to unnecessary suffering.

The ACS is committed to helping to prevent opioid abuse and addiction in surgical patients. The College’s guiding principles are as follows:

  • Set expectation that PDMPs are fully functional and interoperable with electronic health records
  • Establish state/federal grant programs to enhance PDMPs
  • Reduce barriers to PDMP access by nonphysician licensed independent practitioners and physicians’ designated agents
  • Identify patients at high risk for opioid addiction, substance use disorder, or an opioid-related adverse drug event
  • Establish guidelines for acute pain management of the opioid-addicted patient
  • Set expectations and educate patients and caregivers prior to surgery, during discharge, and throughout follow-up
  • Provide evidence-based education and evaluation training programs on opioid and nonopioid alternatives for pain management for the entire surgical team—surgeons, residents, and other health professionals
  • Strengthen postoperative surveillance by both patients and providers to expand the evidence on use, response to alternative therapies, and potential issues with long-term use in acute surgical and palliative care patients
  • Fully functional opioid tracking system for Veterans Affairs (VA) patients
  • A system to track prescriptions issued at all federal facilities, including the VA, to outside treating providers and pharmacists
  • Expansion of the VA Opioid Safety Initiative
  • Detach questions regarding pain management on patient satisfaction surveys from physician reimbursement
  • Examine the impact of insurer and state-based government regulations on prescribing practices and patient experience
  • Exemptions for the postoperative and/or injured surgical patients who are expected to require opioid analgesics for more than seven days
  • Exceptions from prescriber mandates for patients undergoing cancer treatment, cancer rehabilitation, and palliative care
  • E-prescribing of controlled substances to improve tracking, reduce opportunities for fraud, and limit episodes where patients in pain are without relief
  • Partial filling of opioid prescriptions
  • Disposal programs to prevent misuse or diversion of unfinished prescriptions

Related Pages

Certificates of special or added qualifications.

Certificates of special or added qualifications are designed to recognize specialists who have acquired further education and training.

The Importance and Standards of Telehealth in Surgical Practice

This statement outlines the importance of telehealth in surgical practice and to establish standards for its optimal use for the benefit of patients.

Indications for the Use of Permanently Implanted Cardiac Pacemakers

ACS believes the implantation of pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators is an appropriate part of residency training for cardiothoracic surgery.

Surgery Using Lasers, Pulsed Light, Radiofrequency Devices, or Other Techniques

ACS statement due to increased usage of laser surgery and to provide professional guidance to state and federal regulatory bodies.

Insurance, Alcohol-Related Injuries, and Trauma Centers

This statement was developed in order to assist trauma centers in identifying problem drinkers and in providing interventions for those at risk.

Surgical Residencies and the Educational Environment

This statement expands upon the content of the College's Statement on Fundamental Characteristics of Surgical Residency Programs.

Support of Motorcycle Helmet Laws

The following statement in support of motorcycle helmet laws was developed by the Subcommittee on Injury Prevention and Control.

Laparoscopic and Thoracoscopic Procedures

Revised ACS statement issued to address advances in minimally invasive operations and a surgeon's qualifications to perform such procedures.

Statement Regarding Clinical Trials

ACS believes that surgeons should reassure their breast cancer patients that the current controversies are not likely to change treatment conclusions.

Principles of Patient Education

The ACS supports the Patients Bill of Rights and the IOM recommendations that have underscored the rights and responsibilities of patients.

good thesis statement for addiction

Jury is chosen in Hunter Biden's federal firearms case and opening statements are set for Tuesday

W ILMINGTON, Del. (AP) — A jury was seated Monday in the federal gun case against President Joe Biden’s son Hunter , after prospective panelists were questioned about their thoughts on gun rights and drug addiction while the first lady watched from the front row of the courtroom.

Opening statements were set to begin Tuesday after the jurors — six men and six women plus four women serving as alternates — were instructed by Judge Maryellen Noreika not to talk or read about the case.

Hunter Biden has been charged in Delaware with three felonies stemming from a 2018 firearm purchase when he was, according to his memoir, in the throes of a crack addiction. He has been accused of lying to a federally licensed gun dealer, making a false claim on the application by saying he was not a drug user and illegally having the gun for 11 days.

The case is going to trial following the collapse of a plea deal that would have avoided the spectacle of a trial so close to the 2024 election. Hunter Biden has pleaded not guilty and has argued he's being unfairly targeted by the Justice Department, after Republicans decried the now-defunct plea deal as special treatment for the Democratic president's son.

The proceedings are unfolding just days after Donald Trump, the presumptive 2024 Republican presidential nominee, was convicted of 34 felonies in New York City. A jury found the former president guilty of a scheme to cover up a hush money payment to a porn actor to fend off damage to his 2016 presidential campaign. The two criminal cases are unrelated, but their proximity underscores how the courts have taken center stage during the 2024 campaign.

Jury selection moved at a clip. The pool was chosen from roughly 65 people. Those who answered “yes” on an initial questionnaire were quizzed individually by Noreika to determine whether they could be fair and impartial. Their names were not made public.

The questions tested their knowledge of the case, surveyed their thoughts about gun ownership and inquired whether they or anyone close to them have struggled with substance abuse or addiction. Other questions focused on the role politics may have played in the charges.

One potential juror who was sent home said she didn’t know whether she could be impartial because of the opinion she had formed about Hunter Biden based on media reports.

“It’s not a good one,” she replied when an attorney asked her opinion.

Another was excused because he was aware of the case and said, “It seems like politics is playing a big role in who gets charged with what and when.”

Jurors who were chosen included a woman whose sister was convicted about 10 years ago of credit card fraud and drug charges in Delaware. One male juror's father had been killed in a crime involving a gun, and his brother went to jail for possession of a narcotic. Another woman on the panel has a husband who is a gun owner and formerly in law enforcement. A third juror, also a woman, gets her news from YouTube and said she was vaguely aware of the case.

Hunter Biden also faces a separate trial in California in September on charges of failing to pay $1.4 million in taxes . Both cases were to have been resolved through the deal with prosecutors last July, the culmination of a yearslong investigation into his business dealings.

But Noreika, who was nominated to the bench by Trump, questioned some unusual aspects of the deal, which included a proposed guilty plea to misdemeanor offenses to resolve the tax crimes and a diversion agreement on the gun charge, which meant as long as he stayed out of trouble for two years the case would be dismissed. The lawyers could not come to a resolution, and the deal fell apart. Attorney General Merrick Garland then appointed the top investigator, former U.S. attorney for Delaware, David Weiss, as a special counsel in August, and a month later Hunter Biden was indicted.

This trial isn't about Hunter Biden's foreign business affairs — which Republicans have seized on without evidence to try to paint the Biden family as corrupt. But it will excavate some of Hunter Biden's darkest moments and put them on display.

The president's allies are worried about the toll the trial may take on the elder Biden , who’s long been concerned about his only living son and his sobriety and who must now watch as his son's painful past mistakes are publicly scrutinized.

Allies are also worried the trial could become a distraction as the president tries to campaign under anemic poll numbers and as he is preparing for an upcoming presidential debate with Trump.

In a statement Monday, the president said he has “boundless love" for his son, "confidence in him and respect for his strength.”

“I am the President, but I am also a Dad,” he said, adding that would have no further comment on the case. “Jill and I love our son, and we are so proud of the man he is today.”

The president was nearby, in their Wilmington home, which he left shortly after court adjourned for a campaign reception in Greenwich, Connecticut. He is traveling to France on Tuesday and will be gone the rest of the week. The first lady is scheduled to join him later. Hunter Biden’s sister, Ashley Biden, was also in court, and his wife, Melissa.

Aboard Air Force One on the way to Connecticut on Monday night, White House press secretary Karine Jean-Pierre was asked if the case might affect the president’s ability to do his job and replied, “Absolutely not.”

“He always puts the American people first, and is capable of doing his job,” said Jean-Pierre, who declined to say if Biden got updates on the trial throughout the day or spoke to his son after the proceedings' conclusion.

Earlier, when the court took a break for lunch, Hunter Biden walked over to his mother and leaned over the railing that separates the audience from the trial participants to hug and kiss her on the cheek. Monday was the first lady’s 73rd birthday.

A family friend, Ricky Smith, sat in the audience and embraced him warmly during a break.

“It ain’t right for him to be sitting there because he was a drug addict,” Smith said.

The case against Hunter Biden stems from a period when, by his own public admission, he was addicted to crack. His descent into drugs and alcohol followed the 2015 death of his brother , Beau Biden, from cancer. He bought and owned a gun for 11 days in October 2018 and indicated on the gun purchase form that he was not using drugs.

Defense attorneys have suggested they may argue that Hunter Biden didn’t see himself as an addict when prosecutors say he checked “no” to the question on the form. They will also attack the credibility of the gun store owner.

If convicted, Hunter Biden faces up to 25 years in prison, though first-time offenders do not get anywhere near the maximum, and it's unclear whether the judge would give him time behind bars.

Long reported from Washington. Associated Press Writers Alanna Durkin Richer in Washington and Fatima Hussein aboard Air Force One contributed to this report.

Follow the AP's coverage of Hunter Biden at https://apnews.com/hub/hunter-biden .

Hunter Biden departs from federal court, Monday, June 3, 2024, in Wilmington, Del. (AP Photo/Matt Slocum)


  1. (DOC) Thesis Paper on Drug Addiction

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