No Frills Study Skills
From the skills team at the university library, assessed presentation learn from your essay structure.
Many students panic when they first have to create an assessed presentation. For some this is because they are unfamiliar with the software needed, but for many it is because they are unsure how to structure a presentation and what makes effective slides.
In this post we look at the similarities in structure between presentations and essays – which for many are a more familiar prospect.
The basic structure of an essay is an introduction, followed by a main body and finishing with a conclusion. Presentations are just the same. Your first few slides should be an introduction, the bulk of your presentation represents the main body and then the final few slides are bringing everything together just like a conclusion.
We have already written a blog post all about what goes into an essay introduction so you should see some similarities.
Here is a breakdown of a typical presentation introduction:
- A really well designed title slide that grabs the attention
- A slide that gives the audience the big picture
- A slide that shows what you will be focusing on
- A slide that tells the audience what is to come in your presentation (its structure)
- A slide that uses the word ‘you’ or ‘your’ in the title to connect with the audience
The main difference is the last point mentioned above (this doesn’t have to be the last slide in your introduction by the way, it often works best after the ‘focusing on’ slide). By having a slide that uses the word ‘you’ or ‘your’ in its title you show why the people in front of you should bother paying attention. Unlike an essay, it is a lot more noticeable if they stop doing so and it can really affect your confidence – so you want to do everything you can to maximise their engagement. Here are a couple of examples from my own presentations:
Presentation main body
The slides in the main body of your presentation should take a lesson directly from essay paragraph structure. In essays, we emphasis PEEL structure – Point, Evidence, Explanation and Link. This exact same structure works perfectly for presentation slides:
To look at each of these elements in a little more detail:
Making a point
Just like the ‘point’ sentence in an essay paragraph, the heading of every slide should actually assert something – giving information rather than just introducing a topic. Look at the example below:
In an essay, you would normally follow your point by providing evidence from your reading that backs it up. On a slide, it is best if the evidence that supports or illustrates the point is visual because presentations are in essence a form of visual communication. Still working with the slide from the previous example, you can see how this works:
Explain it to the audience
Detail can go into your verbal narration. For example, the written information on the above slide is not needed on the slide itself because you can verbally give it in the narration.
This is very important, first because it stops you putting too much text and detail on the slide (we don’t need more bullet points!); and secondly, because it is actually impossible to listen and read simultaneously – so by taking the text away, your audience may actually listen to what you are saying.
Your narration is a crucial and integral part of your presentation, just like your critical explanations are essential throughout your essays.
A good essay paragraph will either end by linking the point back to the essay question or link it to the following paragraph. In the same way, part of your presenatation narration could show why the point of the current slide is important to the presentation as a whole and/or make a link to the next slide.
As with introductions, you can look at our previous blog post on essay conclusions and see similarities with what is here.
You should always reserve the last few slides of your presentation to conclude things satisfactorily. You will need at least:
- one slide that summarises your main points
- one slide that connects your presentation back to the wider topic
- one slide containing the most important point of your presentation
I usually make the ‘most important point’ slide the final one in the presentation. The final slide is on screen as you answer questions so it is searing itself into your audience’s conscience for a long time and should stay with them when you have finished.
Don’t waste your final slide with “Any questions” or “Thanks for listening”. These can just be verbal, they don’t need illustrating and would be a waste of your most important slide.
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- How to write an essay outline | Guidelines & examples
How to Write an Essay Outline | Guidelines & Examples
Published on August 14, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.
An essay outline is a way of planning the structure of your essay before you start writing. It involves writing quick summary sentences or phrases for every point you will cover in each paragraph , giving you a picture of how your argument will unfold.
Table of contents
Organizing your material, presentation of the outline, examples of essay outlines, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about essay outlines.
At the stage where you’re writing an essay outline, your ideas are probably still not fully formed. You should know your topic and have already done some preliminary research to find relevant sources , but now you need to shape your ideas into a structured argument.
Look over any information, quotes and ideas you’ve noted down from your research and consider the central point you want to make in the essay—this will be the basis of your thesis statement . Once you have an idea of your overall argument, you can begin to organize your material in a way that serves that argument.
Try to arrange your material into categories related to different aspects of your argument. If you’re writing about a literary text, you might group your ideas into themes; in a history essay, it might be several key trends or turning points from the period you’re discussing.
Three main themes or subjects is a common structure for essays. Depending on the length of the essay, you could split the themes into three body paragraphs, or three longer sections with several paragraphs covering each theme.
As you create the outline, look critically at your categories and points: Are any of them irrelevant or redundant? Make sure every topic you cover is clearly related to your thesis statement.
Order of information
When you have your material organized into several categories, consider what order they should appear in.
Your essay will always begin and end with an introduction and conclusion , but the organization of the body is up to you.
Consider these questions to order your material:
- Is there an obvious starting point for your argument?
- Is there one subject that provides an easy transition into another?
- Do some points need to be set up by discussing other points first?
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Within each paragraph, you’ll discuss a single idea related to your overall topic or argument, using several points of evidence or analysis to do so.
In your outline, you present these points as a few short numbered sentences or phrases.They can be split into sub-points when more detail is needed.
The template below shows how you might structure an outline for a five-paragraph essay.
- Thesis statement
- First piece of evidence
- Second piece of evidence
- Importance of topic
- Strong closing statement
You can choose whether to write your outline in full sentences or short phrases. Be consistent in your choice; don’t randomly write some points as full sentences and others as short phrases.
Examples of outlines for different types of essays are presented below: an argumentative, expository, and literary analysis essay.
Argumentative essay outline
This outline is for a short argumentative essay evaluating the internet’s impact on education. It uses short phrases to summarize each point.
Its body is split into three paragraphs, each presenting arguments about a different aspect of the internet’s effects on education.
- Importance of the internet
- Concerns about internet use
- Thesis statement: Internet use a net positive
- Data exploring this effect
- Analysis indicating it is overstated
- Students’ reading levels over time
- Why this data is questionable
- Video media
- Interactive media
- Speed and simplicity of online research
- Questions about reliability (transitioning into next topic)
- Evidence indicating its ubiquity
- Claims that it discourages engagement with academic writing
- Evidence that Wikipedia warns students not to cite it
- Argument that it introduces students to citation
- Summary of key points
- Value of digital education for students
- Need for optimism to embrace advantages of the internet
Expository essay outline
This is the outline for an expository essay describing how the invention of the printing press affected life and politics in Europe.
The paragraphs are still summarized in short phrases here, but individual points are described with full sentences.
- Claim that the printing press marks the end of the Middle Ages.
- Provide background on the low levels of literacy before the printing press.
- Present the thesis statement: The invention of the printing press increased circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation.
- Discuss the very high levels of illiteracy in medieval Europe.
- Describe how literacy and thus knowledge and education were mainly the domain of religious and political elites.
- Indicate how this discouraged political and religious change.
- Describe the invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg.
- Show the implications of the new technology for book production.
- Describe the rapid spread of the technology and the printing of the Gutenberg Bible.
- Link to the Reformation.
- Discuss the trend for translating the Bible into vernacular languages during the years following the printing press’s invention.
- Describe Luther’s own translation of the Bible during the Reformation.
- Sketch out the large-scale effects the Reformation would have on religion and politics.
- Summarize the history described.
- Stress the significance of the printing press to the events of this period.
Literary analysis essay outline
The literary analysis essay outlined below discusses the role of theater in Jane Austen’s novel Mansfield Park .
The body of the essay is divided into three different themes, each of which is explored through examples from the book.
- Describe the theatricality of Austen’s works
- Outline the role theater plays in Mansfield Park
- Introduce the research question : How does Austen use theater to express the characters’ morality in Mansfield Park ?
- Discuss Austen’s depiction of the performance at the end of the first volume
- Discuss how Sir Bertram reacts to the acting scheme
- Introduce Austen’s use of stage direction–like details during dialogue
- Explore how these are deployed to show the characters’ self-absorption
- Discuss Austen’s description of Maria and Julia’s relationship as polite but affectionless
- Compare Mrs. Norris’s self-conceit as charitable despite her idleness
- Summarize the three themes: The acting scheme, stage directions, and the performance of morals
- Answer the research question
- Indicate areas for further study
If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
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- False cause fallacy
- Sunk cost fallacy
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You will sometimes be asked to hand in an essay outline before you start writing your essay . Your supervisor wants to see that you have a clear idea of your structure so that writing will go smoothly.
Even when you do not have to hand it in, writing an essay outline is an important part of the writing process . It’s a good idea to write one (as informally as you like) to clarify your structure for yourself whenever you are working on an essay.
If you have to hand in your essay outline , you may be given specific guidelines stating whether you have to use full sentences. If you’re not sure, ask your supervisor.
When writing an essay outline for yourself, the choice is yours. Some students find it helpful to write out their ideas in full sentences, while others prefer to summarize them in short phrases.
You should try to follow your outline as you write your essay . However, if your ideas change or it becomes clear that your structure could be better, it’s okay to depart from your essay outline . Just make sure you know why you’re doing so.
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