All About Climate

Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area.

Earth Science, Meteorology, Geography, Physical Geography

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  • National Geographic Education: What is the Future of Earth's Climate?

Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. Weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-to-day, month-to-month or even year-to-year. A region ’s weather patterns , usually tracked for at least 30 years, are considered its climate . Climate System Different parts of the world have different climates . Some parts of the world are hot and rainy nearly every day. They have a tropical wet climate . Others are cold and snow-covered most of the year. They have a polar climate . Between the icy poles and the steamy tropics are many other climates that contribute to Earth’s biodiversity and geologic heritage . Climate is determined by a region ’s climate system. A climate system has five major components: the atmosphere , the hydrosphere , the cryosphere , the land surface, and the biosphere . The atmosphere is the most variable part of the climate system. The composition and movement of gases surrounding the Earth can change radically, influenced by natural and human-made factors. Changes to the hydrosphere , which include variations in temperature  and salinity , occur at much slower rates than changes to the atmosphere . The cryosphere is another generally consistent part of the climate system. Ice sheets and glaciers reflect sunlight, and the thermal conductivity of ice and permafrost profoundly influences temperature . The cryosphere also helps regulate thermohaline circulation . This “ocean conveyor belt” has an enormous influence on marine ecosystems and biodiversity . Topography

Topography and vegetation influence climate by helping determine how the Sun’s energy is used on Earth. The abundance of plants and the type of land cover (such as soil , sand , or asphalt ) impacts evaporation and ambient temperature . The biosphere , the sum total of living things on Earth, profoundly influences climate . Through photosynthesis , plants help regulate the flow of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere . Forests and oceans serve as “ carbon sinks ” that have a cooling impact on climate . Living organisms alter the landscape , through both natural growth and created structures such as burrows , dams , and mounds . These altered landscapes can influence weather patterns such as wind , erosion , and even temperature . Climate Features The most familiar features of a region ’s climate are probably average temperature and precipitation . Changes in day-to-day, day-to-night, and seasonal variations also help determine specific climates . For example, San Francisco, California, and Beijing, China, have similar yearly temperatures and precipitation . However, the daily and seasonal changes make San Francisco and Beijing very different. San Francisco’s winters are not much cooler than its summers, while Beijing is hot in summer and cold in winter. San Francisco’s summers are dry and its winters are wet. Wet and dry seasons are reversed in Beijing—it has rainy summers and dry winters. Climate features also include windiness , humidity , cloud cover , atmospheric pressure , and fogginess . Latitude plays a huge factor in determining climate . Landscape can also help define regional climate . A region ’s elevation , proximity to the ocean or freshwater , and land-use patterns can all impact climate . All climates are the product of many factors, including latitude , elevation , topography , distance from the ocean, and location on a continent . The rainy, tropical climate of West Africa, for example, is influenced by the region ’s location near the Equator ( latitude ) and its position on the western side of the continent . The area receives direct sunlight year-round, and sits at an area called the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ, pronounced “itch”), where moist trade winds meet. As a result, the region ’s climate is warm and rainy. Microclimates Of course, no climate is uniform . Small variations , called micro climates , exist in every climate region . Micro climates are largely influenced by topographic features such as lakes, vegetation , and cities. In large urban areas , for example, streets and buildings absorb heat from the Sun, raising the average temperature of the city higher than average temperatures of more open areas nearby. This is known as the “ urban heat island effect.” Large bodies of water, such as the Great Lakes in the United States and Canada, can also have micro climates . Cities on the southern side of Lake Ontario, for example, are cloudier and receive much more snow than cities on the northern shore. This “ lake effect ” is a result of cold winds blowing across warmer lake water. Climate Classification In 1948, American climatologist Charles Thornthwaite developed a climate classification system that scientists still use today. Thornthwaite’s system relies on a region ’s water budget and potential evapotranspiration . Potential evapotranspiration describes the amount of water evaporated from a vegetated piece of land. Indices such as humidity and precipitation help determine a region ’s moisture index . The lower its moisture index value, the more arid a region ’s climate . The major classifications in Thornthwaite’s climate classification are microthermal , mesothermal , and megathermal . Microthermal climates are characterized by cold winters and low potential evapotranspiration . Most geographers apply the term exclusively to the northern latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia. A microthermal climate may include the temperate climate of Boston, Massachusetts; the coniferous forests of southern Scandinavia ; and the boreal ecosystem of northern Siberia . Mesothermal regions have moderate climates . They are not cold enough to sustain a layer of winter snow, but are also not remain warm enough to support flowering plants (and, thus, evapotranspiration ) all year. Mesothermal climates include the Mediterranean Basin , most of coastal Australia, and the Pampas region of South America. Megathermal climates are hot and humid. These regions have a high moisture index and support rich vegetation all year. Megathermal climates include the Amazon Basin ; many islands in Southeast Asia, such as New Guinea and the Philippines; and the Congo Basin in Africa. Köppen Classification System Although many climatologists think the Thornthwaite system is an efficient , rigorous way of classifying climate , it is complex and mapping it is difficult. The system is rarely used outside scientific publishing. The most popular system of classifying climates was proposed in 1900 by Russian-German scientist Wladimir Köppen. Köppen observed that the type of vegetation in a region depended largely on climate . Studying vegetation , temperature , and precipitation data , he and other scientists developed a system for naming climate regions . According to the Köppen climate classification system, there are five climate groups : tropical, dry , mild, continental , and polar . These climate groups are further divided into climate types . The following list shows the climate groups and their types: Tropical

  • Wet ( rainforest )
  • Wet and dry ( savanna )
  • Mediterranean
  • Humid subtropical


  • Warm summer
  • Cool summer
  • Sub arctic (boreal)

Tropical Climates There are three climate types in the tropical group: tropical wet; tropical monsoon; and tropical wet and dry. Tropical Wet: Rainforests Places with a tropical wet climate are also known as rain forests . These equatorial regions have the most predictable weather on Earth, with warm temperatures and regular rainfall. Annual rainfall exceeds 150 centimeters (59 inches), and the temperature varies more during a day than it does over a year. The coolest temperatures , about 20° to 23° Celsius (68°-73° Fahrenheit), occurs just before dawn. Afternoon temperatures usually reach 30° to 33° Celsius (86°-91° Fahrenheit). Rain forests experience very little seasonal change, meaning average monthly temperatures remain fairly constant throughout the year. Tropical wet climates exist in a band extending about 10° of latitude on either side of the Equator . This part of the globe is always under the influence of the intertropical convergence zone. The ITCZ follows a pendulum -like path during the course of a year, moving back and forth across the Equator with the seasons. It moves north during summer in the Northern Hemisphere, and south during the northern winter. Some tropical wet climates are wet throughout the year. Others experience more rainfall during the summer or winter, but they never have especially dry seasons . The U.S. state of Hawaii; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Belém, Brazil, are examples of areas with tropical wet climates . Tropical Monsoon Tropical monsoon climates are most found in southern Asia and West Africa. A monsoon is a wind system that reverses its direction every six months. Monsoons usually flow from sea to land in the summer, and from land to sea in the winter. Summer monsoons bring large amounts of rainfall to tropical monsoon regions . People living in these regions depend on the seasonal rains to bring water to their crops . India and Bangladesh are famous for their monsoon climate patterns. Tropical Wet and Dry: Savanna Tropical wet and dry climates are sometimes called “ savanna ” climates after the grassland ecosystem defined by wet and dry periods. Tropical wet and dry climates sit just outside the ITCZ, near the Equator . They have three seasons. One season is cool and dry —when the warm, moist ITCZ is in the opposite hemisphere. Another season is hot and dry as the ITCZ approaches. The last season is hot and wet as the ITCZ arrives and the region experiences months as a tropical wet climate . Life in these tropical wet and dry regions depends on the wet season’s rains. During years when rains are light, people and animals suffer through drought . During especially rainy years, regions may experience flooding . Havana, Cuba; Kolkata, India; and Africa’s vast Serengeti Plain are in the wet and dry tropics . Dry Climates Regions lying within the dry climate group occur where precipitation is low. There are two dry climate types : arid and semi arid . Most arid climates receive 10 to 30 centimeters (four to 12 inches) of rain each year, and semiarid climates receive enough to support extensive grasslands . Temperatures in both arid and semi arid climates show large daily and seasonal variations . The hottest spots in the world are in arid climates . The temperature in the arid Death Valley National Park, California, U.S., reached 56.7° Celsius (134° Fahrenheit) on July 10, 1913—the highest temperature ever recorded. Although rainfall is limited in all dry climates , there are a few parts of the world where it never rains. One of the driest places on Earth is the Atacama Desert of Chile, on the west coast of South America. Stretches of the Atacama may have never received rain in recorded history. Semi arid regions , such as the Australian outback , usually receive between 25 and 50 centimeters (10-20 inches) of rainfall every year. They are often located between arid and tropical climate regions . Arid and semi arid climates can occur where the movement of warm, moist air is blocked by mountains. Denver, Colorado, just east of the U.S. section of the Rocky Mountains, has this type of dry climate , known as a “ rain shadow .” Mild Climates Regions with mild and continental climates are also called temperate regions . Both climate types have distinct cold seasons. In these parts of the world, climate is influenced mostly by latitude and a region ’s position on the continent . Mediterranean Mediterranean climates have warm summers and short, mild, rainy winters. Mediterranean climates are found on the west coasts of continents between 30° and 40° latitude , and along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Mediterranean summers feature clear skies, cool nights, and little rain. Humid Subtropical Humid subtropical climates are usually found on the eastern sides of continents . In cities such as Savannah , Georgia, in the U.S.; Shanghai, China; and Sydney, Australia, summers are hot and humid. Winter can be severely cold. Precipitation is spread evenly through the year and totals 76 to 165 centimeters (30-65 inches). Hurricanes and other violent storms are common in these regions . Marine West Coast Weather on both sides of a continent generally becomes cooler as latitude increases. The marine west coast climate , a type of mild climate typical of cities such as Seattle, Washington, in the U.S. and Wellington, New Zealand, has a longer, cooler winter than the Mediterranean climate . Drizzle falls about two-thirds of winter days, and temperatures average about 5° Celsius (41° Fahrenheit). Continental Climates Areas with continental climates have colder winters, longer-lasting snow, and shorter growing seasons . They are the transition zones between mild and polar climates . Continental climates experience extreme seasonal changes. The range of weather in continental climate regions makes them among the most spectacular sites for weather phenomena . In autumn, for instance, vast forests put on their annual show of brilliant color before shedding their leaves as winter approaches. Thunderstorms and tornadoes , among the most powerful forces in nature, form mostly in continental climates . There are three types of continental climate —warm summer, cool summer, and sub arctic . All these climates exist only in the Northern Hemisphere. Usually, continental climates are found in the interior of continents . Warm Summer Warm summer climate regions often have wet summer seasons, similar to monsoon climates . For this reason, this climate type is also called humid continental . Most of Eastern Europe, including Romania and Georgia, has warm summer climates . Cool Summer Cool summer climates have winters with low temperatures and snow. Cold winds , sweeping in from the Arctic , dominate winter weather . People living in these climates have grown accustomed to the harsh weather , but those unprepared for such cold may suffer. Many of French Emperor Na poleon Bonaparte’s soldiers, for example, were used to the mild Mediterranean climates of France. Thou sands died in bitter cold as they retreated from Russia’s cool summer climate in the winter of 1812. Subarctic North of regions with cool summer climates are regions with subarctic climates . These regions , including northern Scandinavia and Siberia , experience very long, cold winters with little precipitation . Sub arctic climates are also called boreal climates or taiga . Polar Climates The two polar climate types, tundra and ice cap, lie within the Arctic and Antarctic Circles near the North and South Poles. Tundra In tundra climates , summers are short, but plants and animals are plentiful. Temperatures can average as high as 10° Celsius (50° Fahrenheit) in July. Wildflowers dot the landscape , and flocks of migratory birds feed on insects and fish. Whales feed on microscopic creatures in the region ’s cold, nutrient -rich waters. People have adapted to life on the tundra for thou sands of years. Ice Cap Few organisms survive in the ice cap climates of the Arctic and Ant arctic . Temperatures rarely rise above freezing, even in summer. The ever-present ice helps keep the weather cold by reflecting most of the Sun’s energy back into the atmosphere . Skies are mostly clear and precipitation is low. In fact, Ant arctica , covered by an ice cap 1.6-kilometers (one-mile) thick, is one of the largest, driest deserts on Earth. High Elevation Climates Many geographers and climatologists have modified the Köppen classification system over the years, including geographer Glen Trewartha, who added a category for high-elevation climates . There are two high elevation climate types : upland and highland. Both highland and upland climates are marked by very different temperatures and levels of precipitation . Climbing a lofty mountain or reaching a plateau can be like moving toward the poles . On some mountains, such as Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, the climate is tropical at the base and polar at the summit. Often, high- elevation climate differs from one side of the mountain to the other. Influence of Climate The enormous variety of life on Earth is largely due to the variety of climates that exist and the climate changes that have occurred in the past. Climate has influenced the development of cultures and civilizations . People everywhere have adapted in various ways to the climates in which they live. Clothing Clothing, for example, is influenced by climate . Indigenous Arctic cultures of Europe, Asia, and North America, for example, developed warm, durable , fur and animal-skin clothing. This clothing was necessary for survival in the icy climate near the North Pole . Many parkas worn by Arctic peoples are not only insulated , but waterproof. This combats both the frigid temperatures and precipitation found in polar climates . Lightweight, papery tapa cloth , on the other hand, is part of many cultures in the warm, humid climates of Polynesia , in the South Pacific. Tapa cloth was traditionally made from dried leaves, coconut fibers, and breadfruit bark. Tapa cloth is delicate and loses strength when wet, which would be deadly near the poles but only inconvenient near the Equator . Shelter Climate also influences how civilizations construct housing. For instance, the ancient Anasazi people of southern North America built apartments into tall cliffs . The sheltered, shady area kept residents cool in the hot, dry desert climate . The yurt is a part of the identity of many cultures across the windy , semi arid steppe of Central Asia. Yurts are a type of original “mobile home,” a portable , circular dwelling made of a lattice of flexible poles and covered in felt or other fabric. Yurts protect residents from fierce winds , and their portability makes them an ideal structure for nomadic and seminomadic herding cultures on the grassland . Agriculture The development of agri culture was very dependent on climate . Ancient agricultural civilizations , such as those in Mesopotamia and India, flourished where the climate was mild. Communities could grow crops every season, and experiment with different types of crops , livestock , and farming techniques . The mild, Mediterranean climate in which the Roman Empire developed, for instance, allowed farmers to cultivate crops , such as wheat, olives, grapes, barley, and figs. Livestock included cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and even honeybees. Like the ancient Romans, ancient cultures of the Amazon Basin in South America were also able to develop agricultural practices. The chief domesticated trees in the Amazon were mostly harvested for food and medicine : Brazil nuts, Inga ynga fruit (commonly known as “ice-cream beans”), Amazon tree grapes, abiu (another tropical fruit), and cacao fruits (whose seeds are known as cocoa beans). Today, farmers are still in tune with the climate . They plant certain crops according to the expected amount of rainfall and the length of the growing season . When the weather does not follow the typical climate pattern, it can mean hard times for farmers and higher food costs for consumers. Climate Change Climate does not change from day to day like weather , but it does change over time. The study of historic climate change is called paleoclimatology . Climate changes happen slowly over hundreds or even thou sands of years. For example, periodic glacial periods have covered large portions of Earth with ice caps. Some paleoclimatology evidence shows that the Sahara Desert was once covered by plants and lakes during a warm “wet age.” Climate change can happen for many reasons. The movement of tectonic plates , volcanic activity, and the tilt of Earth’s axis all have effects on climate . For example, after the eruption of the island volcano of Krakatoa, Indonesia, in 1883, winters and even summers in Asia and Europe were colder and darker. Volcanic ash blocked the sun. Farmers had to adjust to shorter, weaker growing seasons . Climates around the world were changed for years. The so-called “ Little Ice Age ” was a period of climate change extending from the 12th through the 19th centuries. The Little Ice Age was not a true glacial period , but describes colder climates around the world. In Europe, canals in Great Britain and the Netherlands were often frozen solid, allowing for ice skating. In North America, European colonists reported especially harsh winters. Global Warming Since the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, human activity has begun to impact climate . The current period of climate change is sometimes called “ global warming .” Global warming is often associated with a runaway “ greenhouse effect .” The greenhouse effect describes the process of certain gases (including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide (N2O), fluorinated gases , and ozone) trapping solar radiation in a planet's lower atmosphere . Greenhouse gases let the sun’s light shine onto Earth’s surface, but they trap the heat that reflects back up into the atmosphere . In this way, they act like the glass walls of a greenhouse. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon and keeps Earth warm enough to sustain life. However, human activities that include burning fossil fuels and cutting down forests release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere at an unprecedented rate. The current period of climate change has been documented by rising temperatures , melting glaciers , and more intense weather phenomena . Our planet’s temperature has risen about 1.1° C (2° F) since the late 19th century. Sixteen of the last 17 warmest years on record have occurred in the 21st century. According to NASA, not only was 2016 the warmest year on record, but eight of the 12 months that make up the year were the warmest on record for those respective months. The current period of climate change is also associated with the massive retreat of glaciers , ice sheets , and sea ice. Warmer temperatures have reduced the number of glaciers of Montana’s Glacier National Park from 150 in 1850 to just 26 today. In 2017, one of the largest icebergs ever recorded entered the ocean as a huge chunk of the Larsen C ice shelf broke off the Ant arctic Peninsula. Warmer ocean temperatures and warmer ambient air temperatures likely contributed to the fracturing of the ice shelf and the massive Ant arctic ice sheet associated with it. Finally, both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly during the past several decades. The famed Northwest Passage , the treacherous route connecting the North Atlantic and North Pacific ocean basins , is now habitually free of ice and safe enough for cruise ships to navigate . Melting glaciers and ice sheets , as well as expansion of seawater as it warms, have contributed to unprecedented sea level rise . Sea level rises at about 2.3 millimeters (0.2 inch) every year, contributing to up to 900% more frequent flooding in coastal areas. Increasing temperatures can change the climate impacts and even the classification of a region . For instance, low-lying islands may be flooded as seawater rises. The populations of island nations, such as Maldives or Comoros, have been forced to contemplate becoming “ climate refugees ”—people forced to leave their homes and migrate to a different region . Heat in the atmosphere may increase the interaction of diverse weather systems . Unusually arid climates in a semi arid region may prolong droughts , for instance. In regions with mild climates , the increased atmospheric moisture associated with humid climates may increase the likelihood of hurricanes and typhoons . Climate change is also impacting organisms and species range . Organisms that have adapted to one climate may have to migrate or adapt to warmer temperatures . Manatees, for instance, are marine mammals native to tropical waters. As temperatures increase, manatees have been migrating as far north as New York City, New York. Polar bear populations, on the other hand, are venturing farther south as Arctic sea ice becomes more scarce . Climate change can be mitigated through reducing greenhouse- gas emissions . This can mean investing in new technologies, relying more on renewable energy sources, making older equipment more energy- efficient , or changing consumer behavior.

The Big Chill Antarctica’s frigid climate makes it the only continent on Earth with no permanent human residents. The coldest temperature ever recorded at ground level on Earth—-89.2° Celsius (-128.5°Fahrenheit)—was at Vostok Station, Antarctica.

Climograph A climograph depicts the highs and lows of temperature and precipitation over a set period of time. Climographs can summarize daily, monthly, yearly, or decades-long weather patterns to help climatologists identify a region’s climate.

Did the Language You Speak Evolve Due to Heat? Some research indicates that the concentration of a language’s vowels and consonants may be due in some part to the climate of the language’s region. Vowel-heavy languages, such as Hawaiian, may have been influenced by pockets of warm air that can “punch into a sound wave”, making it harder to distinguish consonants such as “k” and “ch.”

Geographic Perspective British geographer Andrew John Herbertson described climate like this: "Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get."

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Essay 26. This Is How Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Are Connected

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Climate at a particular location is the average of the weather over a 20 or 30 year time frame. Climate warming is expected to yield extreme weather events at odds with that historical record, and the rising likelihood of extremes in recent years can be attributed to this ongoing change.

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You asked: How does global warming cause more extreme weather?

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Q: Can you explain why global warming causes more extreme weather? The connection to heat waves makes intuitive sense, but more hurricanes, snowstorms, heat waves and cold snaps have me confused. — live chat reader

A: A reader asked this question in a recent live chat I hosted. I hold these chats periodically to answer your questions big and small about the environment. There’s an intuitive way to think about it. The greenhouse effect is adding more and more energy into Earth’s systems. When that happens, like shaking a snow globe, old patterns are bound to change.

Meet our Climate Coach

Here’s how it works. Humans continue to release enormous amounts of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. Like a pane of glass, these gases allow much of the sunlight to pass through the atmosphere as shortwave solar radiation . But once it reaches the surface, much of this energy is absorbed and re-emitted as longer wave radiation, which we experience as heat.

Some escapes back into space. But the thickening layer of greenhouse gases means more and more is trapped below the atmosphere. To feel how this works, try sitting (briefly) in a car on a hot sunny day.

This heats things up, of course. Since the late 1800s, temperatures have already risen 1.1 degrees Celsius (2 degrees Fahrenheit). This also sends more moisture from evaporation into the atmosphere, increasing the size and frequency of heavy precipitation . It can even cause localized cooling or snowstorms.

In parts of Siberia, for example, snowfall appears to be increasing. As sea ice melts in the Arctic Ocean, more water is evaporating into the atmosphere. That’s boosting cloudiness and snowfall, say scientists in Environmental Research Letters . The rising snowfall is shifting weather patterns, bringing even more frigid air from the poles to lower latitudes during the winter.

But that’s an exception. Localized cooling doesn’t change the fact that the Arctic is warming nearly four times faster than anywhere else on the planet , and we’re headed for a dangerously hot world.

Complex interactions like these make the effects of climate change specific to each place on the globe, even if there are a few cool spots.

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  • Published: 13 January 2021

Reflections on weather and climate research

  • Wenjia Cai   ORCID: 1 ,
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To celebrate the first anniversary of Nature Reviews Earth & Environment , we asked six researchers investigating weather and climate to outline notable developments within their discipline and provide thoughts on important work yet to be done.

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Broadly, what are some of the key advances and exciting future prospects in your discipline within weather and climate research ?

Wenjia Cai. To date, countries and cities that account for more than half of global GDP have set or intended to set carbon neutrality goals, leading to a vast amount of literature focused on the impacts of different carbon mitigation pathways. Of this booming research area, distinct progress has been made in incorporating additional dimensions to the impacts, improving analysis resolution and developing solution-oriented results.

Traditionally, research in mitigation impacts was very much focused on understanding the technical or macroeconomic costs. Such a narrow focus, however, is no longer satisfactory. Instead, thanks to interdisciplinary research and advances in integrated assessment models with multiple modules, great attempts have been made to assess the multiple dimensions of mitigation impacts, including environmental, ecological, employment, health, equity and other social costs 1 . In this way, research can compare and select a specific carbon mitigation pathway that does not conflict with other sustainable development goals.

Studies within the field of mitigation impacts are also usually focused on global or national scales, or, at best, at provincial scales with sectoral details. However, to achieve a just transition, provincial-level and sectoral-level results are not enough. Owing partially to the emergence of multi-source data and big data, researchers are now zooming in to explore the distributional effects. For example, there are capabilities to assess how mitigation impacts are distributed among different regions or even emission sources, and between groups with different age, income, gender, race and educational backgrounds. With this knowledge, policymakers can more effectively choose a carbon mitigation pathway that rectifies structural inequalities and addresses factors that privilege some while disadvantaging others.

Although most current studies can identify benefits and trade-offs for the predefined carbon mitigation pathways, they are usually powerless when faced with the ‘now what’ question raised by the policymakers. That is, most studies cannot provide practical solutions and quantitative suggestions on how to maximize the benefits and reduce the trade-offs. Therefore, due to the policy need, incorporating these impacts analyses into policymaking has become a new area of considerable growth. Such studies can take the two-way interactions between pathways and impacts into consideration and help identify a solution with the least social cost or the most social benefit.

Despite these advances, we should not forget the original intentions of analysing carbon mitigation pathways — that is, to push for early and adequate climate action. Have we achieved this intention after decades of development in economics of climate change? Yes and no. Yes because an increasing number of countries are making pledges for carbon neutrality by around the 2050s. No because global greenhouse gas emissions in the last decade are still rising at a rate of 1.5% per year, contrasting to the 7.6% annual average reduction rate required by the 1.5 °C target. Although COVID-19 puts most economies on pause and gives them a chance to choose a green recovery, we still see many recovery plans highly associated with fossil fuels. Why is the gap widening between the reality and the target? From my perspective, it is because the academic efforts to date still fail to solve the temporal and spatial mismatch problem that has long been embedded in the impacts analyses of addressing climate change.

In particular, early and adequate actions imply getting over the reluctance to transform business and life today and, yet, the benefits, or the avoided damages, are usually expected in the far future, at the risk of being free-ridden by someone in other regions. For policymakers who look no further ahead than the next election, those huge benefits can be easily ignored if not cashable within their political term.

Therefore, it is important to further specify the temporal and spatial details of the impacts of different carbon mitigation pathways. To be clearer, the academic community needs to better explore the short-term (or even immediate) and local mitigation impacts 2 . For example, the newly built renewable energy power plants are becoming cheaper than new coal or gas-fuelled power plants, even when the environmental externalities from coal and gas are excluded 3 . This cost competitiveness will push for spontaneous decarbonization of the power system today, reduce the energy cost of the whole economy and spare money for extra investment and consumption. Moreover, the better air quality brought by renewable energy would reduce the local health burden immediately and improve human well-being and labour productivity. Both of the above-mentioned effects would contribute to short-term local economic growth, which is the eternal pursuit of local policymakers around the world. Cases like these should become an important supplement to existing studies.

Christa Clapp. Just three years ago, researchers were lamenting the scarcity of journal articles on climate finance, and investors were being urged by non-governmental organizations and student protestors to consider the moral imperative of divesting from fossil fuels 4 . That has now changed. We have new journals and special issues, university courses and programmes dedicated to sustainable finance, a shift in the discourse from a moral imperative to risk-framing, and companies answering questions related to the climate, environment and sustainable development goals from active investors.

As awareness of climate change has increased in the financial sector, research has expanded to understand investors’ motivations for acting on climate risk, assess the willingness of investors to pay a premium for green-labelled financial products, quantify the investments required to transition to a low-carbon economy and recognize stranded assets resulting from a transition to higher carbon prices.

However, the research community is still catching up to the change in pace of the financial sector, and far greater understanding is required in the environmental impacts of finance. In particular, there remains very little interdisciplinary research on how financial regulations and investment decisions can impact the climate, vital for understanding how the financial sector can support the transition to a low-carbon and climate-resilient economy. This imbalance may arise, in part, from a lack of data, but is also undoubtedly linked to research silos, specifically, financial implications being separate from environmental studies. Future efforts are required to break down these silos, particularly given that crossover between finance, environmental science and policy is increasingly required to influence sustainable development decisions.

The recent growth in voluntary and regulatory initiatives for climate risk disclosure can provide increased transparency to investors, but to make an environmental impact, the disclosed information needs to be analysed, compared and incorporated into financial decisions. The European Union Taxonomy tool on sustainable finance aims to facilitate disclosure (including on the energy efficiency of new buildings), yet, cannot fully substitute for environmental regulations, such as stricter building codes or stronger carbon pricing mechanisms. However, there is very little research on the market implications and environmental impacts of climate risk disclosure regulation. For instance, what is the expected impact on financial markets, and, ultimately, on the environment, of the EU directive to large companies on ‘non-financial’ reporting of climate risk?

To meet these growing demands on climate risk disclosure, investors are asking questions about how to align investment portfolios comprised of a range of diverse companies with the Paris Agreement. Decision-makers in the financial sector today face a confusing array of climate risk information, either reported in an inconsistent manner by companies themselves or wrapped up in aggregated environmental, social and corporate governance scores. There are many new tools for assessing risk, but these generally lack transparency on methods and data 5 . At the firm level, the IPCC and the International Energy Agency have a whole new customer base for their climate and energy scenarios. Yet, being focused on mid-century or end-of-century trajectories, existing scenarios are ill-suited to guide very-near-term risk-based investment decisions, presenting challenges for debt decisions with a 3–5-year time frame.

At the macro level, central banks are increasingly concerned about financial instability and macroeconomic impacts of climate risk resulting from tightening carbon prices or increasing damage costs from flooding, fires and other extreme events. Explorations on potential instability require coordination across financial and climate change modelling and research communities. Indeed, the Network of Central Banks and Supervisors for Greening the Financial System (NGFS) calls for increased risk disclosure from financial institutions. However, with 37 different case studies of environmental risk analysis showcased by the NGFS, all with different scope and perspective, the overall effect could be described as scattershot 6 .

These challenges in assessing market and system impacts and improving climate risk data for financial decisions highlight that sustainable finance is a rich field for further research. In the coming years, researchers in the fields of finance, climate science and policy must further integrate interdisciplinary perspectives to bring new insights to the burgeoning field of sustainable finance, in particular, to understand how financial sector regulations and initiatives can support, or hinder, climate action.

Indrani Das. Some of the most compelling science questions in glaciology have focused on West Antarctica, including the inherent instability and potential irreversible retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS).

Driving advances in such questions has been enormous progress in satellite and airborne technologies, making it possible to monitor ice sheets and their floating extensions — ice shelves — on a continental scale, and ice elevation on a global scale, all with better accuracy. The combined data from NASA’s ICESat and ICESat-2, for example, have shown that the WAIS contributed ~7.5 mm of sea level equivalent during 2003–2019 (ref. 7 ). In addition, multiple national and international satellites with various sensors are now collecting critical ice-sheet-wide parameters, including ice surface elevation, ice surface velocity, surface melt features and albedo, and gravimetric ice mass change, shaping our fundamental knowledge of dominant processes impacting ice sheet mass balance and ice dynamics required to improve projections of sea level rise.

Where satellite technology does not exist, airborne surveys have been conducted to further understanding. NASA’s Operation IceBridge, a major airborne mission, recently concluded after surveying both poles for a decade. IceBridge provided measurements of critical parameters such as ice surface elevation changes from laser altimetry; ice thickness, bedrock topography and snow accumulation rates from ice-penetrating radars; and bathymetry using gravimeters. These critical remote sensing datasets are used in continental-scale ice sheet and ocean models, in the evaluation of regional climate models, and to better understand how ice sheets and ice shelves interact with the warming atmosphere and the ocean.

In addition to data advances, progress has been made in understanding the potential instability of West Antarctica. The WAIS is considered to be fundamentally unstable because it is situated on a reverse-sloping (sloping inland) bed located largely below sea level. The grounding line of the WAIS — that is, the region where the ice sheet loses contact with the bedrock and starts to float, forming an ice shelf — is theoretically susceptible to runaway retreat via a process called marine ice sheet instability 8 (MISI). MISI progresses when the grounding line retreats on a reverse bed slope where ice is progressively thicker. Any further retreat on this slope always produces a progressively larger ice flux because of increased ice thickness and because ice starts to move faster to counter the increased mass loss. This process, although may be initially triggered by climate, can become irreversible because of the positive feedback between ice dynamics and mass balance. Indeed, the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and the Cryosphere suggests that rapid ice loss from glacier acceleration in the Amundsen Sea could indicate the onset of MISI, but that observational records are too limited to assess the irreversibility 9 .

In the meantime, studies have now clearly demonstrated that ocean-induced basal melt is responsible for faster grounding line retreats and rapid thinning of ice shelves in the warmer Amundsen Sea sector of the WAIS. This thinning includes the large, fast-moving and fast-changing Thwaites Glacier and its equally impressive neighbour, the Pine Island Glacier. The warm circumpolar deep water from the Amundsen Sea thins their ice shelves, transports heat to their grounding lines and carves melt channels underneath their ice shelves. Surface-melt-induced ice shelf hydrofracture, subglacial hydrology and bed conditions impact the mass loss but are harder to constrain. In addition, poorly understood theories need to be tested for their feasibility, such as the marine ice cliff instability. The ice shelf of Thwaites Glacier, in particular, has suffered extensive damage from basal melting, crevassing and calving of icebergs. If Thwaites Glacier retreats completely, it may cause structural damage to the nearby areas too. This area holds enough water to raise the sea level by ~3 m, although complete retreat may take a few centuries based on our current understanding of important processes that govern the mass loss 10 . However, because of the interrelations and feedbacks between some of the processes, it is often challenging to isolate the main drivers of mass loss.

Sustained observations, both remote sensing and field-based, are, therefore, crucial to improve our understanding of the hierarchy of physical processes and for their accurate parameterization in the continental-scale ice sheet models to identify the main drivers of change and improve projections of sea level rise. Ongoing international observation and modelling efforts such as the International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration are a good step forward. Integrating high-resolution observations with Earth system models that accurately represent dominant physical processes is critical for improving projections of sea level rise, as is evaluating these models against further observations. However, as ice sheets are continually evolving in response to climate, this task is not trivial and requires huge coordinated efforts. We are experiencing climate change right now. Therefore, continued science activities should also progress together with coastal planning and management to effectively mitigate the impacts of climate change and sea level rise.

Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick. Over the last two decades, we have endured a litany of high-impact extreme events across the globe. Catastrophic wildfires have simultaneously raged over North America and Australia. Heatwaves have collectively caused tens of thousands of deaths over Europe, India and Pakistan. Severe hurricanes have ravaged communities spanning the USA to the Philippines. And new types of extremes, such as marine heatwaves, have been discovered, along with their devastating impacts on marine ecosystems.

It is not a stretch to say that our scientific understanding of climate and weather extremes has exploded over recent years. A notable facilitator of this expansion is the availability of data at spatial and temporal scales on which many (though not all) extreme events occur. Observations, reanalyses and climate models, for instance, now readily encapsulate daily or sub-daily timescales, a marked development since pre-CMIP3. In a similar manner, the increased spatial resolution of models and observational products has allowed for a better understanding of how extremes are changing, as well as the physical mechanisms underpinning them. For example, finer-scale regional models have more realistic representations of tropical cyclones compared with global climate models. Moreover, models that simulate the type and persistence of blocking highs associated with heatwaves also provide better representations of heatwaves themselves. It is a certainty that accessibility to high-resolution spatio-temporal data has been fundamental in allowing scientists to categorize, measure, detect changes in and understand the drivers of many types of climate and weather extremes.

However, whilst high-resolution data are necessary for improving our understanding of extremes, it is not sufficient. Extremes, by their definition, are rare events, and, thus, adequate sampling is critical. Large, multi-member climate model ensembles have helped to address this undersampling and have been key in demonstrating the important role internal climate variability has on extremes 11 . Indeed, trends in extremes can differ greatly even in the same climate model, where otherwise identical realizations have miniscule changes in their initial conditions, suggesting the crucial importance of the timing and periodicity of variability phases on the overall detected signal. Such findings are not possible in smaller samples of extreme events — inclusive of observations — where only one representation of a plausible temporal pattern of variability is present.

Moreover, we have now reached a point where increasing resolution is no longer enough to advance our understanding of extreme events. For example, simply increasing the resolution of contemporary CMIP6 climate models does not improve the simulation of precipitation extremes 12 . Whilst high(er) resolution data were, therefore, initially critical in adequately detecting extremes in climate models, the inclusion of key physical processes and their exchanges is now equally important in understanding how extreme events evolve, decay, interact and change over decadal or longer timescales. Appropriately developing fine-scale physics in a climate model is a monumental task, further compounded by access to adequate computational resources and the number of climate models that require this improvement. These roadblocks are likely impediments on further leaps in advancing knowledge of climate extremes that will exist for some time yet.

Detection and attribution research is another noteworthy advance, quantifying the role of anthropogenic climate change behind extreme events. This field has rapidly advanced over the last 15 years, supported by robust statistical methods and advances in high-resolution and larger sample sizes of model data. However, assessments of how anthropogenic climate change has altered the frequency and/or intensity of a specific (perhaps record-breaking) event, or driven long-term changes in that event for a particular region, are only as good as the model(s) employed. For example, if a model cannot adequately simulate a known physical mechanism of an extreme, then it is very unlikely to simulate how climate change affects that mechanism, and, thus, the corresponding extreme in the attribution assessment. Attribution assessments are undoubtedly powerful tools and an extraordinary development, but could also benefit from increasing process-scale understanding of extremes within climate models in the future.

A new era of climate extremes is now emerging, with black-swan events in the form of wildfires, heatwaves (marine and atmospheric), tropical cyclones, droughts and floods occurring over many parts of the globe. Compound extremes are also being recognized, where different extreme events closely occur together in time and/or space 13 . If we are to adapt to, and effectively mitigate, anthropogenic climate change, we must advance our understanding of these types of extremes — and soon — as it is changes in extremes that have the most devastating impacts. While climate model resources will continue to be useful to study changes in extreme events, we require a major development in the understanding and modelling of physical mechanisms on a scale similar to the availability of daily data in the mid-2000s to obtain anything more than an incremental advance over the next 15 years.

Adelle Thomas. Several recent notable advances have been apparent within climate adaptation research, expanding understanding of how societies are adapting, the limits of adaptation, as well as loss and damage. Early research, for example, largely focused on theoretical ideologies and justifying the need for adaptation on top of mitigation. More recently, however, there has been a concentration of literature that explores the lived experiences of adaptation in different contexts and scales, increasing and diversifying the evidence base on how societies are responding to climate risks. For instance, the recent growth of research on community-based adaptation stems from acknowledgement of the importance of harnessing local knowledge and increasing local adaptive capacities to address the impacts of climate change 14 .

The expanding adaptation literature has also supported key advances in recognizing the limits of adaptation. Recent empirical studies have built on prior theories of potential tipping points and boundaries of adaptation to show how specific communities and ecosystems are already experiencing adaptation limits. For example, small-scale farmers are finding that existing adaptation strategies are insufficient to prevent loss of crops and are, therefore, shifting to different livelihoods as a result. Analysis of the constraints and limits to adaptation echoes the early period of adaptation research when there was an assumption that successful mitigation would negate the need for adaptation. We now increasingly understand that there are limits to the ability of adaptation to reduce climate risk and that, despite adaptive efforts, climate impacts still remain.

Moreover, loss and damage literature has broadened, spanning analysis of the many conceptualizations of what the term encompasses, to acknowledgement of the importance of the non-economic negative impacts of climate change (such as loss of sense of place and damage to culturally and spiritually significant landscapes). Indeed, the importance of loss and damage in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) spurred inclusion of this research for the first time in the IPCC in the SR1.5 (ref. 15 ). The increasing evidence base on loss and damage responds to calls from particularly vulnerable nations and communities that are already experiencing impacts of climate change despite adaptive efforts.

These advances point to the need for a focus on transformation in future adaptation research, particularly as it becomes increasingly evident that small-scale and incremental adaptation measures currently being planned and implemented are insufficient to prevent climate risks. Although the IPCC SR1.5 underscored the necessity of widespread and unprecedented levels of both mitigation and adaptation to address the challenges of climate change, there is still limited research on these topics. Research that explores transformational adaptation possibilities and modalities for a range of actors reflecting different contexts and scales, and also how actors must collaborate to facilitate transformation, is desperately needed.

However, when considering future prospects for adaptation research, the events of 2020 cannot be ignored. The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant effects on all of us, including those that are already most vulnerable to climate change. Research plans have been cancelled or postponed, and modalities that have served more qualitative adaptation research in the past — such as in-person interviews and focus groups — are increasingly unfeasible. The global Black Lives Matter movement brought to the fore long-standing systemic and institutionalized racism that is present not only in the United States but in many nations around the world. Such racial injustice has resulted not only in the deaths of black people as a result of police brutality but also in the increased vulnerability of black people and other communities of colour to the impacts of climate change. Systemic racism also results in the marginalization of black climate experts, who face additional burdens of operating within unjust structures. These events signal the need for more inclusive, equitable and innovative approaches to adaptation research moving forward.

There is, thus, also a need for transformation in our approaches to adaptation research. We must look at our own roles in economic and social power relations that have historically been unjust and act to facilitate change. How can we contribute to closing the research gap of studies that originate from the Global South and that consist not only of case studies but also of contributions to and critiques of adaptation theory 16 ? How can we bolster the sparse literature that includes or even centres racial disparities that are present in adaptation processes? How can we support development of truly transformational adaptation that does not reinforce existing unjust structures but also transforms underlying systems that have led to existing inequalities? How can we conduct meaningful research to enact change when modalities are restricted? These are big questions and there are no easy fixes. Simple steps such as being more inclusive of locally based researchers, working with civil society organizations and developing community science approaches to more actively engage and work with at-risk communities are a start to addressing issues of justice, as well as to developing innovative research processes. Continuing and expanding such measures even when the pandemic is a memory and the racial justice protests are no longer in the media is critical to transform the practice of adaptation research to be more inclusive, just and innovative.

Jessica E. Tierney. Atmospheric CO 2 levels now exceed 400 ppm — a value that the Earth has not experienced in 3 million years — and most of this rise occurred in the last 60 years. As a palaeoclimatologist, this is frightening. The rate of anthropogenic carbon emissions is higher than any known event in geological history. We are already seeing the impacts unfold, right before our eyes: melting ice, rising sea level, more acidic oceans.

Where are we headed in the future? We know that a high-CO 2 world is a warmer world, but how much warmer will it get? Climate model projections diverge on this because models have different sensitivities to rising CO 2 . Many of the new models participating in the CMIP6, which will guide the next IPCC assessment, have high climate sensitivity, meaning that they predict a large warming by the end of the century. How do we know whether this is realistic? And, beyond temperature changes, what about the water cycle? How will regional water availability change in a warmer world? Even with all of the improvements that have been made regarding the representation of land and atmospheric processes, climate models still disagree about both the sign and the magnitude of precipitation change in most regions across Earth.

In my view, the past is the key to the future. As we seek to narrow projections of future change, there is a renewed role for palaeoclimate studies to understand what is possible. Past climates can be used to constrain climate sensitivity, study what happens during extreme CO 2 emissions, understand regional-scale and seasonal-scale changes in the water cycle, and determine the response of the cryosphere 17 . In particular, ancient warm climates — such as the Pliocene (3 million years ago), the Eocene (50 million years ago) and the middle Cretaceous (90 million years ago) — offer key opportunities to study what happens to the Earth in a high-CO 2 world.

While constraining metrics like Earth’s climate sensitivity and the strength of climatic feedbacks has long been a fundamental goal of palaeoclimatology, a number of recent advances in both palaeoclimate modelling and reconstruction techniques have allowed for a firmer connection to form between studies of past and future climate. As a community, we are developing more quantitative methods to rigorously represent uncertainty, such as using Bayesian inference, and we are starting to adapt spatio-temporal reconstruction techniques like data assimilation for use in palaeoclimates 18 . We are also seeing increasing efforts to collate, synthesize and analyse large datasets from key intervals in time, like the Last Glacial Maximum (the coldest climate of at least the last 100 million years) 18 and the early Eocene ‘greenhouse’ (50 million years ago) 19 . In addition to serving as ‘targets’ for climate models to be tested against, temperature and CO 2 data from these time periods can be used to constrain climate sensitivity in radically altered climates. Encouragingly, palaeoclimate information tends to suggest values around 3–4 °C that have long been the climate community’s ‘best guess’ 18 , 19 . On the flip side, we are discovering that Earth system models with a sensitivity above 5 °C per doubling of CO 2 (of which there are several in CMIP6) fail to simulate past climates, producing results that are either too cold or too hot because they are too sensitive to CO 2 (ref. 20 ). Unfortunately, these studies tend to happen after the climate model development phase, rather than during it. Palaeoclimatologists are trying to encourage modern climate researchers to involve us in the model development phase and benchmark the models against palaeoclimates. In this way, we can avoid using models to predict future climate that cannot predict the past (which, arguably, are not trustworthy, especially under high-emissions scenarios) and narrow projections.

The water cycle is the new frontier for palaeoclimatology. Tree rings have given us an amazing view of regional drought changes over the last few thousand years, but, before that, our understanding gets hazy. In particular, we do not yet have a good handle on what happens to regional patterns of precipitation in warm climates. While there is a long-held view that high CO 2 causes “wet regions to get wetter and dry regions to get drier”, we know from theory that this maxim does not really hold over land. In the subtropics in particular, we need to consider changes in the seasonal cycle in rainfall and how the monsoon systems respond to warmer temperatures. The palaeoclimate evidence that is out there already is intriguing. For example, the presence of ancient lake basins in the region where I live (the south-west USA) that date to the Pliocene suggests that, somewhat counter-intuitively, the south-west region was wetter in this warmer world. I am confident that, with more study — using both on-the-ground data and climate model simulations — we can get a better view of what happens to the regional water cycle in warm climates and that this will be key to understanding future water availability.

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S.P.-K. is supported by Australian Research Council grant number FT170100106. I.D. acknowledges the G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation.

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Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

Center for International Climate Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway

Christa Clapp

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA

Indrani Das

Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick

Climate Analytics, Berlin, Germany

Adelle Thomas

Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience Research Centre, University of The Bahamas, Nassau, Bahamas

Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Jessica E. Tierney

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Wenjia Cai is an Associate Professor of Global Change Economics in the Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Her research interest is the evaluation of climate mitigation’s impacts on environment and health. She is the co-director of the Lancet Countdown Regional Centre for Asia and leads the China report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change. She was a member of the Chinese delegation to the UN climate negotiations.

Christa Clapp leads the climate finance work at CICERO and is a co-founder and managing partner of CICERO Shades of Green Ltd., a subsidiary of the research institute that is a global leader in green ratings for bonds. She is a Lead Author for the IPCC 6th assessment report on finance and investment.

Indrani Das is an Associate Research Professor at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, USA. As a glaciologist and climate scientist, her research uses remote sensing observations and ice sheet modelling to understand the evolving ice sheets, ice shelves and their interactions with the ocean and the atmosphere. Indrani is a strong proponent of STEM education and science communication.

Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick is a Senior Lecturer/ARC Future Fellow at the Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. As a Climate Scientist specializing in extreme events, her expertise focuses on heatwaves — how to measure them, how they have changed, how they will change — and employing detection and attribution methods to understand how climate change is influencing heatwaves and their impacts.

Adelle Thomas is a Senior Research Associate with Climate Analytics and Director of the Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience Research Centre at the University of The Bahamas. As a human-environment geographer, her expertise centres on adaptation, limits to adaptation, and loss and damage, particularly in the small-island developing-state context. She is a Lead Author for the IPCC 6th assessment report on limits to adaptation and was a Lead Author for the IPCC SR1.5.

Jessica E. Tierney is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Arizona. Her research focuses on using geochemical, statistical and modelling techniques to reconstruct past climate changes in order to better understand our future. She is a Lead Author in Working Group I for the upcoming IPCC AR6 assessment report.

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Correspondence to Wenjia Cai , Christa Clapp , Indrani Das , Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick , Adelle Thomas or Jessica E. Tierney .

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Cai, W., Clapp, C., Das, I. et al. Reflections on weather and climate research. Nat Rev Earth Environ 2 , 9–14 (2021).

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Accepted : 20 November 2020

Published : 13 January 2021

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Essays About Climate Change: 7 Interesting Topic Ideas

Here, we’ll look at essays about climate change’s causes, effects, and impacts that you can use in your next essay.

Climate change is happening in real-time, and global warming activists are working hard to raise awareness around how human activities affect the health of the Earth.

From greenhouse gas emissions to fossil fuels, many causes of climate change cause temperature increases, changes in weather patterns, and other negative impacts on the environment. Many activists are working not just to teach others about how climate change affects the Earth but also to spread the word about how using renewable energy (such as solar energy) can help protect the Earth’s biodiversity, calm weather conditions, and positively impact human health by mitigating the effects of global warming.

Global warming has been a hot and controversial topic over the past few years. While activists argue that human activities cause global warming, some people hold strong to the belief that global warming is a naturally occurring phenomenon that would go on regardless of air pollution due to carbon emissions and other factors that contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Thankfully, there are many things that people can do to positively affect Earth’s atmosphere, from small behaviors (like biking to work once a week instead of driving) to large actions (creating policy changes through organizations like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

Here are 7 interesting climate change essay topics.

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1. Global Climate Change Initiatives: What’s Working Now

2. global warming isn’t just affecting the environment: it’s affecting the world’s most vulnerable populations, 3. global warming and our landscape: how our oceans and skies may change , 4. global warming and extreme weather: what to expect in coming years, 5. which nations are—and aren’t—equipped to handle the effects of global warming, 6. climate change truths: proof that global warming is happening, 7. civil disobedience as a means of creating climate change awareness, the final word on essays about climate change, what can people do to offset climate change, what are some of the most recent environmental issues caused by climate change.

If you’re interested in how global warming affects the planet , it can be exciting to write an essay on what people of power are doing to fight climate change. This essay is important to discuss how global warming and climate change affect the planet. You won’t need to delve too deeply into the science behind climate change, but you’ll want to be sure that your reader has a basic understanding before you start to talk about initiatives that are helping to protect the Earth. 

Climate change initiatives change constantly, so you must look at the latest global efforts to help lower carbon emissions and help preserve what’s left of the Earth’s ozone layer. Be sure to check in on research and initiatives from the United Nations and Greenpeace, and other organizations committed to fighting for the planet’s health. Check out these articles about Earth .

There are devastating social and political effects of climate change and how countries repeatedly draw lines in the sand against global warming—only to erase those lines when it’s politically or economically beneficial to do so. In an essay on the sociological and political effects of climate change, you can discuss how climate change effects disproportionately affect people in the most vulnerable areas of the world.

Many people in less economically stable areas of the world experience difficulty recovering from disastrous weather events linked to global warming. When writing an essay about how global warming affects vulnerable populations, it’s key to write about both how people are affected immediately (lack of access to medical care, lack of housing, food scarcity, etc.) and how people are affected long term (including how local economies change after a weather-related disaster). 

Wolchover discusses the very real possibility that climate change could eliminate the way we currently know the sky—and the implications that could have on weather, the atmosphere, and the biodiversity of the Earth. In an essay on how the landscape as we know it could change, it’s important to reflect on important parts of life that we take for granted—such as glancing at the blue and white sky above—could be swept out from under us if we fail to take action to reverse climate change.

Melting glaciers and rising sea levels mean that beloved coastlines could disappear. It’s also possible that the sky could change, with clouds as we currently know them disappearing from our horizons. When writing an essay on how climate change could affect the way the Earth looks, be sure to use descriptive language, helping readers to fully picture how the world outside their front door could change if global warming continues on its predicted path. You might also be interested in these articles about climate change for students .

Essays About Climate Change: Global warming and extreme weather

Many people only think about weather changes, how extreme weather events can affect humanity, and how temperature changes can cause ocean levels to rise when faced with climate change. Sadly, many people believe that climate change will lead to wars, economic stress, and health issues due to biodiversity and water supply changes.

While the thought of weather disasters is terrifying, many people feel better when they know what to expect. When writing an essay on the possible implications of climate change in the coming years, be sure to include quotes from the latest research. As climate change continues, predictions change, and your essay must include facts and figures from the most recent studies.

Some countries are well-prepared for global warming and understand the steps they need to take to prepare for changing weather patterns and rising sea levels. Other countries are not as well equipped. 

When writing an essay on which nations are best prepared to deal with the consequences of global warming, it’s smart to choose a few countries on which you’d like to focus. You may want to compare and contrast your own country and surrounding countries, or you may want to compare and contrast countries that are well-prepared to deal with the consequences of global warming with countries that are not well-prepared. 

In your essay on which countries are prepared to deal with global warming, you may also want to offer suggestions that countries that are not prepared could use to better protect their landscapes and citizens from climate change. Looking for more? You might be interested in these essays about natural disasters .

An essay on the reality of climate change can address the many factors that contribute to global warming  and the evidence that climate change has negatively affected the environment, including lower populations of animals, wildfires, droughts, etc., floods.

Some people do not believe that climate change is a real phenomenon. When writing about climate change truths, it’s also important to address why some people do not believe in climate change and refute these arguments with the latest research in climate science. 

When does the plant’s health become more important than following the law? According to experts, historically, large protests can pave a long-lasting change. According to social science research, the key is that at least 3.5% of the population needs to get involved in creating a difference.

It can be tough to decide when breaking the law is the way to get things done, but according to history, civil disobedience has a way of creating positive change. When writing about whether civil disobedience is the right way to bring about climate change awareness, research the latest news stories on how people are working to make others aware of global warming. 

You’ll also want to write about how citizens worldwide can be fined or otherwise punished for civil disobedience when covering this topic. Including this information in your essay can help your reader understand the lengths people are willing to go to raise climate change awareness. If possible, it’s also smart to include a first-person anecdote in your essay on civil disobedience and climate change, as this can help make the idea of peaceful protest for positive change more real to your reader. For more, see these articles about pollution .

Overusing natural resources, failing to take care of the planet, and refusing to explore renewable energy sources have all put the Earth in a bad place. Natural disasters and melting polar ice caps are likely to worsen as people fail to take action and change the behaviors that negatively impact the environment.

Thankfully, many groups are working to raise awareness about climate change, helping citizens make the small adjustments to life that can go a long way in improving the planet’s health. Reading essays about climate change and understanding the problem can be the first step toward understanding how to create positive change.

FAQs On Essays About Climate Change

People can take many simple actions to offset the effects of climate change, including biking to work or taking public transportation instead of driving, cutting down on meat consumption, limiting travel, and switching to renewable energy sources (such as solar power).

Rainfall changes have caused some of the most severe effects of global warming in recent years, including droughts, floods, and wildfires.

If you’d like to learn more, in this guide, our writer explains how to write an argumentative essay .

essay of climate and weather

Amanda has an M.S.Ed degree from the University of Pennsylvania in School and Mental Health Counseling and is a National Academy of Sports Medicine Certified Personal Trainer. She has experience writing magazine articles, newspaper articles, SEO-friendly web copy, and blog posts.

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Climate highlights of 2023

This year was a busy year for our team at providing updated maps, graphs, stories, and deeper explanations of our planet’s changing climate. There were many weather and climate events across the globe from extreme rainfall, to record warmth, and a major ENSO transition (just to name a few). So, before 2023 officially wraps up we want to highlight some of the stories, maps, and graphs that we brought you this year.

Extreme rainfall

U.S. map of percent of normal precipitation for Dec 25-Jan 23

Percent of normal U.S. precipitation over the past 30 days (December 25, 2022, through January 23, 2023) after a series of weather events known as atmospheric rivers, fueled by tropical moisture, flooded the U.S. West with rain and snow. Places where precipitation was less than 100 percent of the 1991-2020 average are brown; places where precipitation was 300 percent or more than average are blue-green. NOAA image, based on analysis and data provided by the Climate Mapper website.

Where best to start than in January? A series of NINE atmospheric rivers in the first few weeks of the year dropped FEET of rain and snow across California and other parts of the West Coast. This series of events significantly improved drought conditions across a large chunk of the western United States and provided California with 80 percent of their average seasonal snowpack. To date, the drought across the West has improved for many locations and California remains drought-free, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor . California gets another honorable mention this year, when former Hurricane Hilary in August caused the National Hurricane Center to issue its first ever tropical storm watch (and later warning) for the state.

Polar vortex

The seasonal cycle of polar vortex temperatures (background maps) and winds (white arrows). NOAA animation, based on Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data provided by Laura Ciasto.

Moving on to February, the polar vortex once again began making headlines following a sudden stratospheric warming event . This topic was so popular among our readers, it spawned the creation of our seasonal (December through March) Polar Vortex Blog , which kicked off just a few weeks ago with this first posting . The experts in the latest post hint that another warming event may be possible in January 2024. Be sure to bookmark our Polar Vortex Blog to follow along with what the polar vortex could bring us this winter season.

ENSO transition

Weekly surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific Ocean compared to the long-term average from December 5, 2022, to May 14, 2023. Week by week, the cooler-than-average waters (blue) of the La Niña climate pattern fade, and the warmer-than-average waters that (orange and red) signal a possible El Niño emerge. NOAA image, based on CoralReef Watch data processed by NOAA Viz Lab.

In March we said “goodbye” to La Niña and in June we officially said “hello” to El Niño . Since June we have answered several of your burning questions…

  • How does El Niño affect snowfall over North America?
  • What are El Niño’s impacts on the Northern Hemisphere?
  • And, has climate change already affected ENSO?

One thing is certain, El Niño is here and there is  more than a 50% chance that it will end up “historically strong,” potentially ranking in the top 5 on record. Our experts will continue to monitor this year’s El Niño and bring twice monthly updates through our ENSO Blog .

Record warmth

A bar graph of September 2023 temperatures compared to average from 1850-2023.

September temperature compared to the 20 th -century average from 1850 to 2023. Septembers have grown warmer at a rate of nearly 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.6 degrees Celsius) per century over the modern temperature record. NOAA graph, based on data from NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information.

There is an all but certain chance ( greater than 99% ) that 2023 will rank as Earth’s warmest year on record according to NOAA’s long-term record. The oceans experienced record high temperatures globally for many months, which lead to a historic heat wave and widespread coral bleaching throughout the Florida Keys. Antarctic sea ice experienced a record-low summer minimum AND record-low winter maximum this year. Meanwhile, the Arctic experienced a record-warm summer which contributed to the continued decline of sea ice across the region, according to this year’s Arctic Report Card . Several heat waves impacted the United States this summer bringing life-threatening conditions to Puerto Rico, prolonged triple-digit heat to Texas in June , and record temperatures to portions of the Southwest in July .

Greenhouse gas emissions

Global Carbon Dioxide from the Climate Dashboard for Climate Highlights of 2023

The modern record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels began with observations recorded at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. This graph shows the station's monthly average carbon dioxide measurements since 1958 in parts per million (ppm). The seasonal cycle of highs and lows (small peaks and valleys) is driven by Northern Hemisphere summer vegetation growth, which reduces atmospheric carbon dioxide, and winter decay, which increases it. The long-term trend of rising carbon dioxide levels is driven by human activities. At Mauna Loa, the highest monthly value each year occurs in May. In May 2023, carbon dioxide hit 424 ppm —a new record. NOAA image, based on Mauna Loa monthly mean data from NOAA Global Monitoring Lab . 

And finally, increasing greenhouse gas emissions (including carbon dioxide ) have continued to be a hot button item this year. According to the Global Carbon Budget report , there is an urgent need to significantly reduce emissions to meet global climate targets and avoid severe and deleterious effects of climate change. Carbon dioxide peaked at 424 parts per million in May at NOAA’s Mauna Loa Atmospheric Baseline Observatory, which is more than 50% higher than before the industrial era. We wrote about the importance of reducing our carbon dioxide emissions , even if other countries don’t do the same and explained why, if carbon dioxide hits a new high every year, isn’t every year hotter than the last . You can track the rise of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases on our Global Climate Dashboard .

It is our mission to bring you all scientific data and information about climate science, adaptation, and mitigation in order to further understanding about our climate and promote a climate-smart nation. Our team is very passionate about what we do, and we look forward to bringing you more content in 2024!

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Climate Change and Extreme Weather Conditions Essay

Climate change has been widely discussed in all aspects. In this regard, the latest global heat wave rekindled the debate on climate change. Proponents of climate change argue that human activities are to be blamed for the current global climate change. Essentially, human activities are cited as the major cause of global warming.

The Intergovernmental Panel’s on Climate Change (IPCC) recent reports indicates close links between human activities and changes in the global climate (Burke 2). The relationships between human activities and global warming are yet to be ascertained though the symptoms are obvious. In fact, extreme weather conditions experienced around the world are attributed to human actions.

The current heat wave is one of the extreme weather conditions resulting from climate change due to human activities. Even though critics argue against the link between extreme weather conditions and climate change, scientific evidence clearly indicate a strong correlation between the global warming and the extreme weather conditions.

However, researchers in this field have been cautious when drawing conclusions directly linking extreme weather conditions to climate change (Burke 2). The opponents question the validity and reliability of current data basing their arguments on the history of world climate. Historically, the world has experienced calamitous heat waves, floods as well as other extreme weather conditions without human activities involved.

In the recent past, scientists have continued to draw in data linking the two variables. The agreement across the board is that human activities such as emissions of the greenhouse gases have contributed to global warming. As such, there should be sustained measures to limit the greenhouse gas emissions (Thurber 2). Unless such measures are undertaken, dangerous heat waves as well as floods are likely to re-occur. In addition, prolonged draughts as well as coastal flooding have increased chances of extreme weather conditions occurrence.

Nonconformist scientists and politicians often dispute about the predictions, yet the number of disasters arising from extreme weather conditions is undoubtedly escalating. In addition, similar data from various sources cannot be disputed on the ground of validity and reliability (Thurber 2). In fact, data from climate agencies indicate similar results with slight variations.

For instance, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Climate Data Center (NCDC) indicate that the last thirteen years have experienced the hottest periods within 132 years. Precisely, the hottest period ever recorded since 1895 occurred from 2001 to 2013. The IPCC, which has been involved in various researches around the world, predicts more extreme weather conditions in the coming decade (Zaelke and Veerabhadran 2).

Moreover, the IPCC reports that the frequencies of extreme weather conditions have increased. Previously, the heat waves occurred once in 20 years. Currently, the heat waves occur two times in one decade. The prediction is that continuous emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere leads to reoccurrences of global warming within two years.

Heat waves are not the only extreme weather conditions that are expected to occur but also flooding, hurricanes, prolonged drought, coastal flooding as well as ice storms are expected in the next decade. The IPCC, which is concerned with the climate studies, normally has accurate predictions and warn associates against premature judgments (Zaelke and Veerabhadran 2). The panel depends on clear evidence to make conclusive predictions.

The reason is that many factors that tend to explain the variations in world temperatures are not directly linked. In other words, there is disconnection between the current causes of extreme weather conditions and the similar past climate situations. The explanations provide facts used by critics to argue their case. In addition, the conclusions drawn from the data taken within 132 years cannot be linked with the similar data from another century.

Consistent with the recent report released by the IPCC and the UN panel, human actions contribute immensely to climate change. The reports follow the studies undertaken to determine the relationship between climate change and human activities. In fact, the reports indicate that typhoons, hurricanes and coastal flooding are likely to increase in this decade (Shank 1). The recent reports concur with previous information on climate change and extreme weather conditions.

In addition, the studies indicate that greenhouse gas emissions are the major cause of climate change (Zaelke and Veerabhadran 2). Some of the effects of greenhouse gas are the extremely high and low atmospheric temperatures. The cyclic global temperatures are prone to intense weather conditions. The data is supported by basic atmospheric science arguing that warmer air causes intense drought and heat waves. The result also explains the cause of the recent heat waves.

According to the reports, the extreme temperatures are also likely to cause increased frequency of precipitation associated with typhoons, cyclones, hurricanes as well as coastal floods. In addition, available data indicate that heavy rains are expected to rise in many parts of the world within this century due to increased atmospheric pressure and temperature (Shank 1).

Even though recent statistics are almost similar to the previous information, the accuracy of data collection and analysis improves the reliability of the conclusions drawn. In other words, the two agencies are majorly concerned with accuracy of the data to draw plausible correlations between the human activities and the global warming.

The IPCC and the UN also found out increasing human susceptibility to extreme weather conditions. While carbon emissions continue to be unabated, human vulnerability to the extreme weather conditions persistently increases (Leonhardt 1).

Flawed decisions on climate change by governments and industrialists together with continued increasing populations are exposing the majority of people to the harms of extreme weather conditions.

Human activities including land use, rapid urbanization, unchecked coastal developments and growth of megacities have led to the increased vulnerability of rural and urban communities to the tribulations resulting from extreme weather conditions. The reports argue that necessary measures have to be taken to avert extreme weather related problems.

Global warming related problems have been cited to vary from social to economic aspects. In other words, climate change significantly influences the political and socio-economic trends around the globe. In particular, the global climate changes have affected the trends of global economic growth.

For instance, the Colorado floods and Yosemite Rim Fire are examples of the devastating effects of climate change. In addition, the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) argued that over fifty percent of extreme weather events in 2012 were influenced by changes in climate (Leonhardt 1). The consequences of the calamities ranged from crippling of tourism to loss of homes and livelihoods.

Further, the weather events posed risks to the economic growth. Moreover, a research by the US Department of Energy (USDE) asserted that energy infrastructure is gradually more susceptible to extreme weather events emanating from climate change. For example, the wildfire that occurred in close proximity to Yosemite National Park in San Francisco led to the declaration of state of emergency due to the threats the wildfire posed to the city’s electricity supply plant.

According to Yale Project on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC), most American citizens are prepared to engage in peaceful civil defiance against organizations promoting global warming in operations. The government’s lack of environmental policy change initiatives is increasingly perturbing the public.

For instance, the Keystone XL pipeline project is facing mass opposition from the public due to the venture’s environmental implications (Shank 1). Through such protests, the government has initiated climate bill, carbon tax as well as having set up the strict limits of carbon emissions into the atmosphere.

Moreover, companies have been on the forefront in ensuring paradigm shifts towards carbon reductions and major ventures in renewable sources of energy (Gillis 1). Studies also indicate that abrupt changes experienced on the planet including melting, acidifying, flooding and warming have led to a completely different globe. In other words, higher amounts of black carbon in the atmosphere heat up the Earth.

Consequently, extreme weather events characterized by heat waves, heavy rains and violent storms occur. Such weather conditions adversely affect vegetation and animals. Scientists link such extreme weather conditions to climate change. The assessment of climate science by the IPCC indicates that the continuous warming of the atmosphere, sea level rise, alterations in the global water cycle and diminishing snow levels are the results of the human influence.

The panel has achieved remarkable successes through endorsement of the carbon budget for humanity. In reality, the regulation of the amount of carbon and greenhouse gases by industries and clearing of forests have led to burning up of approximately a trillion metric tons of carbon and the reduction of planetary warming to about two degrees above the sea level (Shank 1).

However, climate-cynic organizations contend that the report by the IPCC is hysterical and exaggerated. For instance, the Heartland Institute argues that anticipated global warming would be insignificant to be transformed into climatic calamity. In essence, the critics argue that due to the slow rates of global warming experienced over the last decade, rapid reductions in global warming are imminent (Gillis 1).

The administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have put forward the necessary steps that the government should implement to counter the rising climate alterations nationally and at the global level. As the world experiences continuous warming with highest levels of humidity occurrence over the last ten years, the deficiency of actions to curb climate change has negatively influenced the ambiance.

As such, governments are embracing market-based models in reduction of greenhouse gas discharges by imposing carbon taxes on power plants releasing higher amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Augmented ventures in clean energy expertise are also critical in spurring firm economic inclination along with habitable atmosphere.

Most importantly, the amendment of Montreal Protocol (MP) of 1989 will be significant in solving the ozone problems by phasing out warming chemicals including the hydro-fluorocarbons. In reality, the presence of common sense conservative principles based on protecting health, utilization of superior expertise available and innovativeness in economy to obtain solutions have been instrumental in solving climate concerns such as depletion of the ozone layer, pollution of rivers and problems caused by acid rain.

The US citizens have increased calls for the adoption of hydraulic fracturing process in the extraction of natural gas to prevent the emission of carbon in the atmosphere. The use of hydraulic fracturing process will also reduce threats to drinking water and the environment (Gordon 2).

Further, the government is encouraging the utilization of alternative energy sources including wind and solar power. Moreover, increased investments in research, innovative-generation of energy such as use of nuclear plants and experimental expertise are significant in ensuring low-carbon presence in the atmosphere.

Environmental experts have come up with diverse strategies aimed at ensuring a habitable atmosphere. For instance, the actions taken by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) under the Clean Air Act (CLA) have restricted the discharge of effluents from power plants.

In fact, the EPA has stringent discharge standards for the stationary sources leading to virtual elimination of coal-fired plants. However, significant steps put forward at the United Nations climate caucus produce positive impacts on promoting political goodwill to climate change.

In this regard, the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) projects focusing on reducing of greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon, methane, lower-level ozone and hydro-fluorocarbons, will reduce global warming by 40%. In addition, the diminution in global warming is capable of preventing over three million demises resulting from the contamination of the environment.

As it can be observed, climate scientists have continuously forecasted and warned about the increased global temperatures that lead to extreme weather conditions, such as severe droughts, intense flooding as well as ferocious storms. Reports by the United Nations and other climate change agencies indicate that human activities are to be blamed for the extreme weather situations as well as climate changes experienced all over the globe today.

In addition, the scientists warn that weather extremes are projected to worsen in the coming years. In essence, the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities augment heat and coastal floods as well as increase levels of precipitation (Bordessa 1). The UN report stated that higher temperatures triggered such disasters as floods, heat waves and snowstorms.

As such, the UN has moved to establish the maximum frontier on greenhouse gas emissions. The scientists warn that if humans continue disgorging the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere through their activities, irreversible climate changes are eminent. Actually, the utilization of economical natural gases and current fuel principles as well as rules regulating mercury have led to the reduction of greenhouse gas discharge into the atmosphere by seventeen percent

Additionally, the utilization of filters on automobiles and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels have benefited California by cutting the level of warming effect caused by diesel by over fifty percent. Further, many countries in the developing world are embracing resourceful biomass stoves, solar lamps and modern brick kilns as opposed to conventional mud stoves and utilization of kerosene lamps leading to reduction of carbon emissions into the atmosphere.

Moreover, several initiatives include reduction of leaks from gas pipes, capturing methane from waste dumps and water treatment plants as well as reducing discharges from rice paddies. In essence, the elimination of such temporary climate noxious wastes is significant in slowing the pace of global warming.

Works Cited

Bordessa, Kris. “Global Climate Change Linked to Extreme Weather?” Wired 11 February 2012: 1. Web.

Burke, Marshall. “Weather and Violence.” The New York Times 30 August 2013: 2. Web.

Gillis, Justin. “U.N. Panel Finds Climate Change Behind Some Extreme Weather Events.” The New York Times 18 November 2011: 1. Web.

Gordon, Kate. “Let’s Upgrade Our Insurance Policy on Climate-Change Risk.” The Wall Street Journal 25 September 2013: 2. Web.

Leonhardt, David. “It’s Not Easy Being Green.” The New York Times 9 February 2013: 1. Web.

Shank, Michael. “Fed Up With Climate Change Apathy.” US News 19 September 2013: 1. Web.

Thurber, Mark. “Carbon Pricing Is the Best First Step to Address Global Warming.” The Wall Street Journal 25 September 2013: 2. Web.

Zaelke, Durwood and Veerabhadran Ramanathan. “Going Beyond Carbon Dioxide.” The New York Times 6 December 2012: 2. Web.

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IvyPanda. (2023, December 22). Climate Change and Extreme Weather Conditions.

"Climate Change and Extreme Weather Conditions." IvyPanda , 22 Dec. 2023,

IvyPanda . (2023) 'Climate Change and Extreme Weather Conditions'. 22 December.

IvyPanda . 2023. "Climate Change and Extreme Weather Conditions." December 22, 2023.

1. IvyPanda . "Climate Change and Extreme Weather Conditions." December 22, 2023.


IvyPanda . "Climate Change and Extreme Weather Conditions." December 22, 2023.

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Home / Essay Samples / Environment

Essays on Climate & Weather

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Rain Man: Analysis and Plot of the Classic Drama Film

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A Report on Rainwater Harvesting System in Malaysia

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essay of climate and weather

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Climate Change Essay for Students and Children

500+ words climate change essay.

Climate change refers to the change in the environmental conditions of the earth. This happens due to many internal and external factors. The climatic change has become a global concern over the last few decades. Besides, these climatic changes affect life on the earth in various ways. These climatic changes are having various impacts on the ecosystem and ecology. Due to these changes, a number of species of plants and animals have gone extinct.

essay of climate and weather

When Did it Start?

The climate started changing a long time ago due to human activities but we came to know about it in the last century. During the last century, we started noticing the climatic change and its effect on human life. We started researching on climate change and came to know that the earth temperature is rising due to a phenomenon called the greenhouse effect. The warming up of earth surface causes many ozone depletion, affect our agriculture , water supply, transportation, and several other problems.

Reason Of Climate Change

Although there are hundreds of reason for the climatic change we are only going to discuss the natural and manmade (human) reasons.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Natural Reasons

These include volcanic eruption , solar radiation, tectonic plate movement, orbital variations. Due to these activities, the geographical condition of an area become quite harmful for life to survive. Also, these activities raise the temperature of the earth to a great extent causing an imbalance in nature.

Human Reasons

Man due to his need and greed has done many activities that not only harm the environment but himself too. Many plant and animal species go extinct due to human activity. Human activities that harm the climate include deforestation, using fossil fuel , industrial waste , a different type of pollution and many more. All these things damage the climate and ecosystem very badly. And many species of animals and birds got extinct or on a verge of extinction due to hunting.

Effects Of Climatic Change

These climatic changes have a negative impact on the environment. The ocean level is rising, glaciers are melting, CO2 in the air is increasing, forest and wildlife are declining, and water life is also getting disturbed due to climatic changes. Apart from that, it is calculated that if this change keeps on going then many species of plants and animals will get extinct. And there will be a heavy loss to the environment.

What will be Future?

If we do not do anything and things continue to go on like right now then a day in future will come when humans will become extinct from the surface of the earth. But instead of neglecting these problems we start acting on then we can save the earth and our future.

essay of climate and weather

Although humans mistake has caused great damage to the climate and ecosystem. But, it is not late to start again and try to undo what we have done until now to damage the environment. And if every human start contributing to the environment then we can be sure of our existence in the future.

{ “@context”: “”, “@type”: “FAQPage”, “mainEntity”: [ { “@type”: “Question”, “name”: “What is climate change and how it affects humans?”, “acceptedAnswer”: { “@type”: “Answer”, “text”: “Climate change is a phenomenon that happens because of human and natural reasons. And it is one of the most serious problems that not only affect the environment but also human beings. It affects human in several ways but in simple language, we can say that it causes many diseases and disasters that destroy life on earth.” } }, { “@type”: “Question”, “name”: “Can we stop these climatic changes?”, “acceptedAnswer”: { “@type”: “Answer”, “text”: “Yes, we can stop these climatic changes but for that, every one of us has to come forward and has to adapt ways that can reduce and control our bad habits that affect the environment. We have to the initiative and make everyone aware of the climatic changes.” } } ] }

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Climate Change Essay

500+ words essay on climate change.

Climate change is a major global challenge today, and the world is becoming more vulnerable to this change. Climate change refers to the changes in Earth’s climate condition. It describes the changes in the atmosphere which have taken place over a period ranging from decades to millions of years. A recent report from the United Nations predicted that the average global temperature could increase by 6˚ Celsius at the end of the century. Climate change has an adverse effect on the environment and ecosystem. With the help of this essay, students will get to know the causes and effects of climate change and possible solutions. Also, they will be able to write essays on similar topics and can boost their writing skills.

What Causes Climate Change?

The Earth’s climate has always changed and evolved. Some of these changes have been due to natural causes such as volcanic eruptions, floods, forest fires etc., but quite a few of them are due to human activities. Human activities such as deforestation, burning fossil fuels, farming livestock etc., generate an enormous amount of greenhouse gases. This results in the greenhouse effect and global warming which are the major causes of climate change.

Effects of Climate Change

If the current situation of climate change continues in a similar manner, then it will impact all forms of life on the earth. The earth’s temperature will rise, the monsoon patterns will change, sea levels will rise, and storms, volcanic eruptions and natural disasters will occur frequently. The biological and ecological balance of the earth will get disturbed. The environment will get polluted and humans will not be able to get fresh air to breathe and fresh water to drink. Life on earth will come to an end.

Steps to be Taken to Reduce Climate Change

The Government of India has taken many measures to improve the dire situation of Climate Change. The Ministry of Environment and Forests is the nodal agency for climate change issues in India. It has initiated several climate-friendly measures, particularly in the area of renewable energy. India took several steps and policy initiatives to create awareness about climate change and help capacity building for adaptation measures. It has initiated a “Green India” programme under which various trees are planted to make the forest land more green and fertile.

We need to follow the path of sustainable development to effectively address the concerns of climate change. We need to minimise the use of fossil fuels, which is the major cause of global warming. We must adopt alternative sources of energy, such as hydropower, solar and wind energy to make a progressive transition to clean energy. Mahatma Gandhi said that “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but not any man’s greed”. With this view, we must remodel our outlook and achieve the goal of sustainable development. By adopting clean technologies, equitable distribution of resources and addressing the issues of equity and justice, we can make our developmental process more harmonious with nature.

We hope students liked this essay on Climate Change and gathered useful information on this topic so that they can write essays in their own words. To get more study material related to the CBSE, ICSE, State Board and Competitive exams, keep visiting the BYJU’S website.

Frequently Asked Questions on climate change Essay

What are the reasons for climate change.

1. Deforestation 2. Excessive usage of fossil fuels 3. Water, Soil pollution 4. Plastic and other non-biodegradable waste 5. Wildlife and nature extinction

How can we save this climate change situation?

1. Avoid over usage of natural resources 2. Do not use or buy items made from animals 3. Avoid plastic usage and pollution

Are there any natural causes for climate change?

Yes, some of the natural causes for climate change are: 1. Solar variations 2. Volcanic eruption and tsunamis 3. Earth’s orbital changes

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  • Environmental Science

Weather vs. Climate: What's the Difference?

23 Nov 2022

Format: APA

Academic level: High School

Paper type: Essay (Any Type)

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  • Climate Change Essays

Climate change has affected people in several ways. It has affected people's health, and agriculture leading to food insecurity, and the supply of water and ecosystems have been disrupted. Due to the extreme weather conditions, the air quality people use to breathe has decreased as a result of wildfires. According to the United States Environmental Protection report in 2017, climate change impacts people's health, infrastructure, transport systems, food, energy, and the supply of water (Pecl et al., 2017). Thus, climate change affects people's way of life in all aspects. Whereas weather is the information on the atmospheric condition changes of a certain place, the climate is the statistical weather conditions information that indicates the average conditions of weather over a long period. The weather of a certain place is determined by the temperatures, humidity, rain, and wind, among other factors within a day or a short period (The National Academy of Sciences & Royal Society, 2020). On the other hand, the climate is determined by the weather conditions over a long period in a certain place. The weather is observed daily; thus, it affects people's daily activities while the climate impacts agriculture and people's lifestyle. Climate has been changing from one century to another, and the globe has heavily felt its effects. Some of the important factors that cause climate change are greenhouse gases, nature, and human activities. According to the Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences'2020 report, human activities have increased Carbon (IV) Oxide's concentration in the atmosphere by more than 40% since 1970. The carbon (IV) Oxide increase has led to more heat being trapped, leading to global warming. Nature also contributes to climate change. Volcanos, for instance, emit carbon (IV) Oxide to the atmosphere but at a relatively lower rate compared to that emitted by human activities (Kaddo, 2016). Natural fires also contribute to climate change, but human activities are mainly the major cause of climate change. Looking at the already felt effects of climate change, if climate change increases, the planet earth will be uninhabitable. Extreme weather conditions will lead to the complete destruction of the ozone layer; thus, the earth's radiated heat will not be regulated. The ecosystems will be destroyed; thus, it will no longer sustain life. 


Kaddo, J. (2016). Climate Change: Causes, Effects, and Solutions. A with Honors Projects. 164. 

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The National Academy of Sciences & Royal Society (2020). Climate Change Evidence and causes. 

Pecl, G. T., Araújo, M. B., Bell, J. D., Blanchard, J., Bonebrake, T. C., Chen, I. C., ... & Falconi, L. (2017). Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being.  Science ,  355 (6332). 

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Essay on Climate Change

Climate Change Essay - The globe is growing increasingly sensitive to climate change. It is currently a serious worldwide concern. The term "Climate Change" describes changes to the earth's climate. It explains the atmospheric changes that have occurred across time, spanning from decades to millions of years. Here are some sample essays on climate change.

100 Words Essay on Climate Change

200 words essay on climate change, 500 words essay on climate change.

Essay on Climate Change

The climatic conditions on Earth are changing due to climate change. Several internal and external variables, such as solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, volcanic eruptions, plate tectonics, etc., are to blame for this.

There are strategies for climate change reduction. If not implemented, the weather might get worse, there might be water scarcity, there could be lower agricultural output, and it might affect people's ability to make a living. In order to breathe clean air and drink pure water, you must concentrate on limiting human activity. These are the simple measures that may be taken to safeguard the environment and its resources.

The climate of the Earth has changed significantly over time. While some of these changes were brought on by natural events like volcanic eruptions, floods, forest fires, etc., many of the changes were brought on by human activity. The burning of fossil fuels, domesticating livestock, and other human activities produce a significant quantity of greenhouse gases. This results in an increase of greenhouse effect and global warming which are the major causes for climate change.

Reasons of Climate Change

Some of the reasons of climate change are:


Excessive use of fossil fuels

Water and soil pollution

Plastic and other non biodegradable waste

Wildlife and nature extinction

Consequences of Climate Change

All kinds of life on earth will be affected by climate change if it continues to change at the same pace. The earth's temperature will increase, the monsoon patterns will shift, the sea level will rise, and there will be more frequent storms, volcano eruptions, and other natural calamities. The earth's biological and ecological equilibrium will be disturbed. Humans won't be able to access clean water or air to breathe when the environment becomes contaminated. The end of life on this earth is imminent. To reduce the issue of climate change, we need to bring social awareness along with strict measures to protect and preserve the natural environment.

A shift in the world's climatic pattern is referred to as climate change. Over the centuries, the climate pattern of our planet has undergone modifications. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has significantly grown.

When Did Climate Change Begin

It is possible to see signs of climate change as early as the beginning of the industrial revolution. The pace at which the manufacturers produced things on a large scale required a significant amount of raw materials. Since the raw materials being transformed into finished products now have such huge potential for profit, these business models have spread quickly over the world. Hazardous substances and chemicals build up in the environment as a result of company emissions and waste disposal.

Although climate change is a natural occurrence, it is evident that human activity is turning into the primary cause of the current climate change situation. The major cause is the growing population. Natural resources are utilised more and more as a result of the population's fast growth placing a heavy burden on the available resources. Over time, as more and more products and services are created, pollution will eventually increase.

Causes of Climate Change

There are a number of factors that have contributed towards weather change in the past and continue to do so. Let us look at a few:

Solar Radiation |The climate of earth is determined by how quickly the sun's energy is absorbed and distributed throughout space. This energy is transmitted throughout the world by the winds, ocean currents etc which affects the climatic conditions of the world. Changes in solar intensity have an effect on the world's climate.

Deforestation | The atmosphere's carbon dioxide is stored by trees. As a result of their destruction, carbon dioxide builds up more quickly since there are no trees to absorb it. Additionally, trees release the carbon they stored when we burn them.

Agriculture | Many kinds of greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere by growing crops and raising livestock. Animals, for instance, create methane, a greenhouse gas that is 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide. The nitrous oxide used in fertilisers is roughly 300 times more strong than carbon dioxide.

How to Prevent Climate Change

We need to look out for drastic steps to stop climate change since it is affecting the resources and life on our planet. We can stop climate change if the right solutions are put in place. Here are some strategies for reducing climate change:

Raising public awareness of climate change

Prohibiting tree-cutting and deforestation.

Ensure the surroundings are clean.

Refrain from using chemical fertilisers.

Water and other natural resource waste should be reduced.

Protect the animals and plants.

Purchase energy-efficient goods and equipment.

Increase the number of trees in the neighbourhood and its surroundings.

Follow the law and safeguard the environment's resources.

Reduce the amount of energy you use.

During the last few decades especially, climate change has grown to be of concern. Global concern has been raised over changes in the Earth's climatic pattern. The causes of climate change are numerous, as well as the effects of it and it is our responsibility as inhabitants of this planet to look after its well being and leave it in a better condition for future generations.

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Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Water Manager

A career as water manager needs to provide clean water, preventing flood damage, and disposing of sewage and other wastes. He or she also repairs and maintains structures that control the flow of water, such as reservoirs, sea defense walls, and pumping stations. In addition to these, the Manager has other responsibilities related to water resource management.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

Landscape Architect

Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as  M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Urban Planner

Urban Planning careers revolve around the idea of developing a plan to use the land optimally, without affecting the environment. Urban planning jobs are offered to those candidates who are skilled in making the right use of land to distribute the growing population, to create various communities. 

Urban planning careers come with the opportunity to make changes to the existing cities and towns. They identify various community needs and make short and long-term plans accordingly.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood.  Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Dental Surgeon

A Dental Surgeon is a professional who possesses specialisation in advanced dental procedures and aesthetics. Dental surgeon duties and responsibilities may include fitting dental prosthetics such as crowns, caps, bridges, veneers, dentures and implants following apicoectomy and other surgical procedures.


Individuals in the optometrist career path can work as postsecondary teachers, occupational amd industrial safety programs, consultant in the eye care industry or do research in optometry colleges. Individuals in the optometrist career path can also set up their own private clinics and work independently. In an overpopulated country like India, the demand for optometrist is very high and is expected to rise further in the coming years. In India, the population to optometrist ratio is two lakh to one, whereas it is ten thousand to one in developed countries like the US. 

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Fashion Blogger

Fashion bloggers use multiple social media platforms to recommend or share ideas related to fashion. A fashion blogger is a person who writes about fashion, publishes pictures of outfits, jewellery, accessories. Fashion blogger works as a model, journalist, and a stylist in the fashion industry. In current fashion times, these bloggers have crossed into becoming a star in fashion magazines, commercials, or campaigns. 


Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Content Writer

Content writing is meant to speak directly with a particular audience, such as customers, potential customers, investors, employees, or other stakeholders. The main aim of professional content writers is to speak to their targeted audience and if it is not then it is not doing its job. There are numerous kinds of the content present on the website and each is different based on the service or the product it is used for.

Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication) , B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media) , or  MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.  

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

Quality Systems Manager

A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 


A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

Procurement Manager

The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 

Production Planner

Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

.NET Developer

.NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

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Weather and Climate Essay

Weather and Climate Essay

All areas of all parts of the world have a combination of weather in climate in all areas. However, weather and climate do not have the same definition. The atmospheric change over a short span of time is weather. Meanwhile, climate is how the weather acts over a long period of time. In most places, the weather can vary in minutes, hours, days, or seasons. For example, the climate may have changed if winter is a little colder or if the summer is hotter than usual. Weather includes things such as the sun shining, rain, hail, floods, etc.

​Heatwaves is a common climate change that happens often. Heat waves occur when high pressures occur over an area for a ling period of time. This long period of time can be from several days to several weeks. In July of 2018, a heatwave occurred in Tokyo, Japan. The temperatures reached the triple digit numbers. This increase in temperature caused over 23,000 people to become sick and hospitalized. The temperature resulted in the pools being too hot to swim in and the air conditioners to stop working in people’s houses. The temperature reached 106 degrees and was to be considered a ‘disaaster’. Most of the people that were taken to the hospital was over the age of 65years old.

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​Another major affect of weather and climate is hurricanes. A hurricane is stronger than a tropical storm and it only becomes a hurricane if the winds of the storm exceeds 74 mph. A major hurricane that occurred in the psst recent years was Hurricane Harvey. This hurricane was very catastrophic and it made landfall in Rockport, Texas. When the hurricane made landfall it was known to be a category 4. Harvey began being tracked in the beginning of August in 2017. The roots finally become a topical storm on August 17th. This hurricane made landfall eight days later. This hurricane caused deadly winds as well as floods and this killed many people and animals.

​​Just like hurricanes and heatwaves, snow storms occur often as well in the winter. Winter storm Jonas occurred from January 21st and January 29th of 2016. The warmer side of the storm caused severe thunderstorms that included tornadoes. The cold part of the snowstorm caused most ares to see at least 1 foot of snow. It caused power outages and made the roads slippery causing caution for any drivers. The combination of strong winds and snow caused many trees and limbs to fall. Blizzards are formed once very hot air mixes with freezing air. For a blizzard, winds usually exceed 35 miles per hour in a time span of three hours .This can affect people because with power outages, the are unable house a heater and this can possibly cause frostbite. The roads are slippery or full of snow causing many accidents or even car problems.

​Recently in Hattiesburg, there was a severe thunderstorm which caused heavy rains and winds. This weather led to this city having a tornado warning and that eventually led to a tornado watch. The skies were very dark and cloudy and the winds began to pick up. This thunderstorm involved lightening and trees to be knocked down. A tornado did make landfall causing damage to houses and vehicles. There was no major injuries, and following this thunderstorm and tornado watch, it continued to rain until it passed over.

​These are all examples of how weather and climate can be affected of long and short periods of time. From a thunderstorm that can last about a day or two or a hurricane or snow storm that can last weeks or months at a time.

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Essay on earth’s weather and climate (4258 words).

essay of climate and weather


Here is your essay on Earth’s Weather and Climate!

The term ‘earth sciences’ is used to describe all the sciences concerned with the structure, age, composition and atmosphere of the earth. It includes the basic subject of geology, with its sub- classifications of geochemistry, geomorphology, geophysics, mineralogy, seismology and volcanism, oceanography, meteorology, and paleontology.

Earth's Weather and Climate

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An integrated approach or understanding of earth including the oceans is vital if we have to effectively and sustainably manage earth’s energy, water, mineral, soil and coastal resources for our future generations. A stand-alone view of various phenomena will not serve any purpose as any independent model is unable to sustain the variability of the complexities involved in the earth and ocean sciences, which are gradually converging.

It has therefore become imperative to understand the interdependence and coupling of geological sciences and oceanography. The combined approach to earth and ocean sciences is also the key to predicting and managing natural disasters or hazards like earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunami, etc.

In this context, in a significant development in India, a Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) was formed in July 2006 by restructuring the former Ministry of Ocean Development. The MoES deals with matters relating to meteorology, seismology, climate and environmental science and related earth sciences including ocean science and technology.

It facilitates an integrated view of earth systems viz., ocean, atmosphere and land to provide best possible services in respect of ocean resources, ocean state, monsoon, cyclone, earthquake, tsunami, climate change, etc. The MoES oversees research in earth system sciences, forecast monsoons and other climate parameters, ocean state, earthquakes, tsunamis and earth science phenomena.

The ministry also supports industry in science, aviation, water resources, aquaculture, agriculture, etc., by disseminating weather information. It also develops and coordinates science and technology related to oceans, Polar Regions besides preserving, assessing and exploiting marine living and non-living resources.

Apart from the MoES, an Earth Commission was also set up in January 2007 which acts as a nodal authority on earth sciences set up on the lines of Atomic Energy and Space Commission, The Earth Commission (comprising about 12 members) views in a holistic way phenomena that couple earth, atmosphere and oceans.

It formulates policies of MoES, creates suitable executive, networking and legislative mechanisms, approves major projects, budget, etc. It also establishes recruitment procedures, assesses manpower needs and undertakes HRD and capacity building.

Several projects are being carried out to get information on earth and atmospheric sciences. Deep continental studies are being undertaken to study the structure of the Indian lithosphere. A project has been launched with a view to studying geological, geomorphological, structural and geophysical setting of deep sea fans and is expected to throw light on the nature of oceanic crust and various events in evolution of the Himalayas.

Organisations like Geological Survey of India, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, National Institute of Oceanography and other concerned universities are participating in the programme.

A multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary coordinated project in the field of ‘Himalayan Glaciology’ was initiated during 1986 for studying snow-cover mapping, glacial inventory, hydro-meteorological and hydro- logical, geological and geo- morphological aspects of glaciers. These studies will be helpful in evaluation of snow-melt/glacial-melt contribution in the northern river system. Efforts are being made to link data collection platforms with INSAT for better understanding of glaciers.

A multi-institutional coordinated programme on arid zone research was launched in 1987 to enhance productivity of land, man and animal in arid land regions of the country with application of science and technology. Projects ranging from monitoring the process of desertifica­tion, establishment of natural resource data bases, sand-dune dynamics to surface and ground water inter-relationship are being supported.

Many of the programmes are of importance in the context of understanding how natural disasters take place and how to mitigate their effect.

Weather and Climate :

Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), which was set up on an all- India basis in 1875, is the national agency for providing services in meteorology. Data collected from over 1,400 observatories of different types including data collection platforms is processed by it.

IMD along with the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, conducts fundamental and applied research in meteorological instrumentation, radar meteorology, seismology, agricultural meteorology, hydrometeorology, and satellite meteorology and air pollution. IITM has been conducting cloud seeding experiments for producing rain artificially.

IMD provides grants to certain universities/academic institutions to encourage research in atmospheric sciences and monsoon circulation. It also funds monsoon research by a centre in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. A monsoon activity centre was established at New Delhi under the World Meteorological Organisation Programme.

Meteorological and weather services are provided by IMD from its headquarters at New Delhi and functional offices responsible for clima­tology and forecasting at Pune. There are five regional Meteorological Centres at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Nagpur and New Delhi. For better coordination, Meteorological Centres have been set up in other state capitals.

To render service to agriculturists, weather bulletins are issued daily since 1945 from Meteorological Centres relating to their regions. They give district wise forecasts of weather and warnings against adverse weather. Agrometeorological Advisory Service Centres have been estab­lished at several places and they issue meteorological advisory bulletins to farmers once or twice a week.

Flood meteorological offices have been working at ten different centres to provide meteorological support to flood forecasting organisation of Central Water Commission. Tourism depart­ments at Centre and in states have access to meteorological centres for weather information of interest to tourists.

IMD issues warnings against heavy rainfall, strong winds and cyclonic weather for general public and various private and public organisations including aviation, defence services, ships, ports, fishermen, mountaineering expeditions and agriculturists.

Disaster warning system receivers have been installed in disaster-prone coastal areas of north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh and more would be installed along coastal areas of West Bengal, Orissa, north Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. In addition, IMD operates data collection platforms (DCPs).

Cyclone warnings to ports and ships are issued by Mumbai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneswar and Chennai offices. These are based on conventional meteorological observations from coastal and island obser­vatories, ships in the Indian seas, coastal cyclone detection radars and cloud pictures received from weather satellites.

Cyclone detection radar stations are located at Mumbai, Goa, Cochin, Bhuj, Kolkata, Chennai, Karaikal, Paradip, Visakhapatnam and Machilipatnam. Weather satellite pictures transmitted by Indian National Satellite are received at main Data Utilisation Centre at Delhi and processed and transmitted to users. A cyclone warning and research centre at Chennai investigates problems exclusively relating to tropical cyclones.

Meteorological data is exchanged with many countries through high-speed telecommunication channels. As part of India’s cooperation with World Weather Watch Programme of World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), a regional meteorological centre and regional telecommunication hub functions at New Delhi.

IMD participates in Indian scientific expeditions to Antarctica and scientific cruises of ocean research vessels.

Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Bengaluru, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG), Mumbai, and IITM, Pune, which were formerly a part of IMD, have been functioning as autonomous institutes since 1971.

IIA conducts research in solar and stellar physics, radio astronomy, cosmic radiation, etc. IIG records magnetic observations and conducts research in geomagnetism.

Under the Dynamics of Monsoon programme data are collected at sites covering continuously moist, periodically moist and mainly dry regions of monsoon by using both conventional and modern techniques like instrumented meteorological tower, Doppler sonar, tether -sonde, mini-radiosonde radiometer, etc. Studies using these and other conven­tional data will lead to understanding of dynamics of monsoon, vagaries of which are intimately related to rainfall distribution in North India.

The Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Programme Project is being launched as part of an international programme and includes deployment of data buoys, XBT lines, additional tide gauges, etc. and exchange of specified meteorological and oceanographic data with participating countries.

It will lead to improved understanding of oceano­graphic and atmospheric processes and air-sea interaction mechanism over tropical oceans and to develop reliable climate model relevant to our country. It will also help increase our capabilities for forecasting monsoon and cyclones.

The Monsoon and Tropical Climate (MONTCLIM) Programme is directed towards undertaking studies on monsoon climate variability/ change, modelling atmospheric processes and technology development for atmospheric science research. In order to study the effect of weather and climate in the tropics, efforts are being made to improve parameterisation of land-ocean-atmospheric processes in the atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs).

Indian Climate Research Programme. The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP), aimed at studying short- and medium-term climate variations in India, has become operational. The programme is being implemented under the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and is expected to interface with other regional and international programmes under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP).

The IRCP consists of: (i) analysis of observational data from ground- based, ship-based and satellite-based measurements; (ii) modelling studies with coupled ocean-atmospheric general circulation models (OAGCMs); and (iii) identification of the climate component of agricultural produc­tivity, impact of climate on environment, global warming and climate change, etc.

Under the programme, a pilot study on the Bay of Bengal and monsoon experiment to understand the air-sea interaction processes and monsoon variability have been completed. The Department of Ocean Development has set up buoys, equipped with ocean observation systems, in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

The data will be telemetred through the international maritime satellite, INMARSAT, and received back in India via France. Scientists are keen to gather data on the Bay of Bengal where most cloud formation takes place and moves northwards. They also plan to study how ocean conditions affect rainfall variations in a season (intra-seasonal variation) — a key factor for monsoon forecast models.

A similar effort is on to sail buoys to study the warm waters of Kerala and Minocoy and the role of the Arabian Sea in monsoon fluctuations.

Scientists also plan to sail ships in the Bay of Bengal to study how its water circulation is affected by fresh water discharges from rain as well as major rivers that drain into it—the Ganga, Mahanadi, Irawadi and Brahmaputra. The ships, to be located at intervals of 10, 15 and 20 degrees North latitude, will be equipped with instruments to measure changes in water circulation during different seasons and the monsoon.

The land component of the ICRP has made a beginning with the construction of five highly instrumented towers to study the atmosphere from 10 to 30 metres height at Anand in Gujarat.

The ICRP studies fossil records to analyse climate variations in the past. Scientists are studying fossil pollen in Rajasthan lakes and Himalayan ice cores, pollen in peat in dried up marshy areas, and rings on old trees that vary according to climatic conditions. While pollen studies can give data 5,000 to 10,000 years old, the tree ring technique gives data up to 200 years ago.

To go further back into history, scientists plan to drill and bring out material from shallow and deep ocean waters to analyse climate variability up to 1,000 to 20,000 years ago.

The atmosphere component of ICRP consists of analysis of global data on atmosphere made available through satellites.

Monsoon Forecast :

The first operational long-range forecast of seasonal southwest monsoon rainfall (June-September) of India was issued by IMD in 1986. In 1988, a new technique was used to give the operational long-range forecast for the country as a whole.

Following the significant deviation in its south-west monsoon forecast for 1999 from the actual rainfall received during the period, the IMD has started reworking its ‘long-range forecasting parametric and power regression model’.

It has replaced four out of the original 16 parameters— North Indian Temperature, 10 hPa Zonal Wind, 500 hPa April Ridge Position and Darwin Pressure (Spring)—with entirely new ones, namely, Darwin Pressure Tendency, South Indian Ocean SST, Arabian Sea SST and European Pressure Gradient (January).

The model, in operation since 1988, basically relied on data pertaining to 16 regional and global temperature, pressure, wind and snow cover-related parameters, which have been observed to physically influ­ence the country’s monsoon rainfall performance. Each parameter or predictor was defined in terms of observations made over a specific location and period, which in some cases stretches till end-May.

The forecasting process has a qualitative as well as quantitative dimension, with the former involving an analysis of the configuration of favourable and unfavourable signals from the pre-monsoon behaviour of the 16 parameters. Once the qualitative inferences are drawn, the numerical values of the parameters are taken to generate a quantitative estimate of the monsoon rainfall using a standard statistical ‘power regression’ model.

While the model theoretically had an estimated error range of only plus or minus 4 per cent of the forecast levels, the deviations from the actuals had, in practice, however, been much larger. The reason for the quantitative forecasting errors being larger than original model error in recent times had mainly to do with the fact that statistical relationship of some of the predictors had been weakening with time.

The new parameters have a stronger statistical relationship to the country’s recent monsoon performance and would, therefore, limit the forecast error to the original model range. The overall formulation of the operational 16-parameter model has remained unaltered.

Of the 16 parameters selected the IMD has held 10 to be favourable, which, in quantitative terms, translates into an all-India monsoon rainfall level amounting to 99 per cent of the long period average of 88 cm, within the estimated model error of plus or minus 4 per cent.

Indian scientists carry out numerical modelling exercises on the CRAY-XMP supercomputer which was procured in 1987.

The National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) was set up in 1988 under the DST and has the mandate to develop an operational model for medium-range forecasts. The output information predicts the data of wind, rainfall, temperature, humidity, soil temperature, cloud cover and derived information.

The centre has been developing a model for 3-10 days forecast, and is now able to issue an operational forecast to the IMD a few days ahead. The centre has been quite successful at numerical weather prediction using the T80 model and data from INSAT.

The centre, through its field units, has been providing medium- range forecasts by using global numerical model and agrometeorological advisories (AAS) to the farmers in various agro-climatic zones of the country. These units are located at state agricultural universities and ICAR institutes.

The state-of-the-art numerical models are being used at NCMRWF for generation of weather forecasts over the entire globe using mathematical model with initial condition generated after assimilation of global observations. At present, the forecasts are produced for a 150 km resolution grid that would soon be changed to a higher resolution of 75 km grid or less.

Apart from the fanning community, NCMRWF is also providing the forecast products to IMD, Indian Air Force, and Indian Navy, Snow and Avalanche Studies Establishment and other non-governmental organisations. Recently, the model generation low-level wind fields have started to be used in the ocean state forecasting.

Forecasts are being issued for other applications as well, viz., defence applications, flood forecasting, summer monsoon onset and its progression, important national functions (Inde­pendence Day/Republic Day, etc.) and festivals, Amarnath Yatra (J&K tourism, etc.) and the Everest expeditions.

In addition, forecasts of vertical profiles of wind are provided for launch of space vehicles. NCMRWF products were utilised during various field experiments of national importance conducted over Indian Seas, viz., INDOEX (Indian Ocean Experiment) and BOBMEX (Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment).

A new high-end computer system has been installed recently at the Centre, which will improve the accuracy, range and resolution of weather forecasts, especially of hazardous weather phenomena. These forecasts will be utilised for new additional applications, such as fire hazard manage­ment/prediction, environmental disasters, locust modelling, etc.

A regional component of an international study called Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP), the Monsoon Experi­ment (MONEX) was conducted jointly by the World Meteorological Organisation and International Council of Scientific Unions in 1979.

The IMD was the main executing agency of this project in India. ISRO’s contribution to the project comprised collection of wind data using rockets and meteorological data collected by using Omega Sondes. The Balasore Rocket Launching Station in Orissa was set up by ISRO during MONEX to launch rockets of meteorological observations.

The Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP) is a nationwide cooperative effort of many scientific departments and organisations to investigate the physical and chemical phenomena and processes taking place in the atmosphere between 10-100 km.

The mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar is the second largest such radar in the world (the largest being at Jicamarca, Peru). It has been installed and it operates at Gadanki, a village near Tirupati, in Andhra Pradesh. It is a national facility of immense use in atmospheric research.

Gadanki was chosen for setting up of this radar facility because of its geographic location, near the Equator, as well as low level-noise prevalence. Besides, it is near Sriharikota, the launch pad of the ISRO, which can also benefit from the data obtained by this radar.

MST corresponds to three height regions of atmosphere, 50-85 km, 17-50 km and 0-17 km respectively. A radar which is used to study the dynamics of the above heights is called MST radar. Rockets and balloons are conventionally used for probing the atmosphere. Different sensors sent up with these devices into the atmosphere, however, can give data only for a few minutes. The atmosphere can be analysed on a continuous basis every day by the MST radar.

A radar uses radio waves to detect and range the objects of interest. It sends radio waves and receives back the echo from the target. From the time of received echo and shift in frequency of the echo, the range and velocity of the target can be determined. In normal radars, the target may be airplanes.

For an MST radar the target is the irregularities in the radio refractive index of the atmosphere. The strength of the echo is very weak, since reflexivity of the clear atmosphere is extremely small. This dictates the use of high transmitter power and antenna array with large physical aperture.

The Indian MST radar is operating at a frequency of 53 MHz. It can provide details of the wind velocity of over five to 100 km with a height resolution of 150 metres. The antenna system of this radar is spread over a high area of 16,000 sq metres, employing 1024 Yagi antennae. There are 32 high power transmitters in the system.

The radar has been designed by the engineers of the Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering Research (SAMEER), Mumbai. The work of the MST radar is coordinated by the Department of Space on behalf of the Department of Electronics which provided 30 per cent funds. DST, DRDO, the Department of Environment, and CSIR also provided funds to this project.

CRYO Probes:

Under the ISRO geosphere-biosphere programme, balloon-based cryo-sampler experiments are planned to be conducted at regular intervals. The scientific information thus obtained is expected to help monitor and regulate ozone depletion substances. ISRO is one among very few organisations in the world to develop and successfully employ this advanced cryogenic technique.

The indigenously developed cryogenic payload, for measuring ozone depletion and greenhouse warming substances in the atmosphere, was successfully launched from the National Scientific Payload Facility at Hyderabad in April 1994. The payload, comprising 16 cryo probes, was lifted by a balloon of 1, 50,000 cubic metre capacity to the predetermined ceiling altitude of 37 km.

The cryo probes were commanded to collect the ambient samples at various heights during the ascent as well as descent. The trace gas elements include the ozone-damaging chlorofluo- rocarbon (CFC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and different oxides of nitrogen. The detailed analysis of the samples has been carried out at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad.

The technique of cryogenic pumping enables the measurement of almost all the ozone-depleting substances mentioned in the Montreal Protocol to which India is a signatory. According to ISRO sources, most of the ozone-depleting substances are produced and released into the atmosphere by developed countries, while India’s contribution is less than 0.1 per cent. But, atmospheric dynamics are such that an abundance of these substances in the tropical region is an index of the global ozone destructive potential of the substance.


A ‘seismology programme’ was initiated in the year 1983 with a view to understand the earthquake processes and the related field manifestations. The initial focus of the programme was on two critical earthquake-prone areas, namely, north-west Himalayas and north-east part of India.

Later, as infrastructure such as seismic stations and strong motion seismic networks were established at various locations, new geographical areas like the Delhi region and Bihar plains were also taken up for carrying integrated studies. Special initiatives were launched for the north-east region.

Several seismological observatories have been set up, which are operated and maintained by various institutions to complement the national efforts of the IMD. The programme has made considerable progress over the years in terms of generation of new knowledge on understanding earthquake processes, identification of seismogenic features, acceleration values from near-source, manpower development and general public awareness.

Seismo-Tectonic Map:

Project Vasundhara by the Geological Survey of India aims to make an integrated evaluation of data received from satellites, air-borne geophysical and ground surveys and draw thematic maps of mineral-rich regions and delineate areas for mineral search.

As a spin-off of this project, a Seismo-tectonic map of peninsular India has been brought out which shows this region—once considered to be stable and relatively free of earthquakes— to be a seismically active zone.

Only two major earthquakes had occurred in the peninsula till 1967—one in Bellary in 1843 and the other in Coimbatore in 1900. Their intensity was 7 on the MM scale, but the 1967 Koyna earthquake, which recorded a magnitude of six on the Richter Scale, and the Bhadrachalam and Broach quakes whose intensities were 5.3 and 5.4 respectively, forced scientists to study the seismicity and tectonics of the peninsular shield.

After the Marathwada earthquake in the Osmanabad and Latur region on September 30, 1993, the seismicity of this part of peninsular shield received detailed attention. The seismicity in the region could be related to lineaments lying in the vicinity of zone of uplift deciphered in 1975 based on gravity data.

According to the Seismo-tectonic map brought out by the Geological Survey of India, there were 436 epicentres below the 17 degree latitude. The region is said to have low-to-moderate level seismic activity. It was possible to find a relationship between the various epicentres and lineaments, which are surface or subsurface manifestations of linear features representing faults, joints, fracture systems and dykes. Many faults and lineaments were identified as active based on reliable seismic activity.

A major seismic zone with a cluster of epicentres along the east- west track between Mysore and west of Puducherry was located near the Dharwar Craton-Pandyan zone. This zone included a system of northeast- south-west trending faults. The seismicity of this zone was probably related to these faults.

Clusters of epicentres were also found in the regions of Ongole, Chittoor and Cuddapah, east of Mangalore, besides Bangalore city and its neighbourhood.

The map was drawn after analysing Seismo-tectonic characteristics of the region based on the study of distribution of epicentres and their relation to faults, shear and lineaments. Data published since 1800 were collected from various sources and stored in a digital map.

The Latur earthquake of 1993 also prompted the government to launch a World Bank-assisted project on ‘seismological instrumentation upgradation and other collateral geographical studies in the peninsular shield region’.

The various components of the project were—upgrading existing observatories of the IMD; setting up new observatories; setting up of National Seismological Data Centre with improved communication links; geodetic observations using the Global Positioning System (GPS); and electrical conductivity mapping and structural response studies of tall buildings.

Deep Continental Studies:

Deep continental studies (DCS) programme is a collaborative, multi-disciplinary earth science research programme aimed at understanding the deep crustal configuration and related processes of the Indian lithosphere.

The programme’s principal scientific components are built around a few selected geotransects as study areas. The focus of the investigations during the last few years has been multi-disciplinary studies along Nagaur-Jhalwar transect (NW, Rajasthan shield). Central Indian Craton and south Indian shield, integrated studies have also been launched along the NW Himalayan geotransect (HIMPROBE).

Programme on GPS Observations:

The national GPS measure­ment programme is aimed at investigating the crustal deformation due to earthquake occurrence processes and other related geodynamic phe­nomena at the Himalayan convergent plate margin and the peninsular shield region.

Himalayan Glaciology:

The Himalayan glaciology programme is aimed at understanding the behaviour of glaciers and their interaction with climate and hydrological system and also to train manpower and create research and development related facilities in this vital area.

Under the programme, an integrated R&D programme on Gangotri glacier was approved recently. Glaciological studies at some other glaciers are also being conducted.

Agrometeorology Programme:

The programme involves undertak­ing field experiments related to modelling studies on the effect of weather and climate on crop growth, yields and pest and disease development. The data generated is used to develop subroutines for simulating agrometeorological processes, testing and validation.

An agrometeorological data bank has been initiated at the Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad, for collection, compilation and archival of various types of crop and weather data generated under agrometeorology projects supported by ICAR and DST.

Related Articles:

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Climate and Weather Concepts

The concepts of climate and weather are closely related to each other; the key distinction between the two is that climate is attributed to a particular region and even a certain season, whereas weather is not (Lutgens and Tarbuck 339).

Among the six elements of weather, temperature, humidity, perspiration, atmospheric pressure, clouds and wind are traditionally listed (Lutgens and Tarbuck 340).

Despite the common myth about oxygen and air being the same substance, the actual percentage of this gas in the atmosphere of the Earth – or, at least, in the lower layers of the troposphere – makes around 20% (20,1%, to be more exact). Surprisingly enough, nitrogen makes most of the atmosphere (78,1%), the rest being filled by such elements as argon, neon, helium, and various compounds (CO2, CH4, etc.).

If the production of CFCs was miraculously stopped, it would take around a century for the ozone depletion to stop and the ozone layer to recover fully ( NASA, NOAA Data Indicate Ozone Layer is Recovering para. 10).

Traditionally, four key layers are identified in the Earth atmosphere; these are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere and the thermosphere. With the increase in height, the density of the gases and, therefore, the pressure, drops. The layer known as the exosphere is also mentioned often; however, since it borders space and contains gases at extremely low densities, it is often omitted (Lutgens and Tarbuck 341).

High temperature of the thermosphere is predetermined by the absorption of the solar radiation; the small amount of oxygen that the thermosphere contains is heated fast, releasing the kinetic energy through rapid movement of the molecules (Lutgens and Tarbuck 340).

Though the two words sound very similarly, the difference between them is huge. Revolution is the movement of a planet around the sun; for the Earth, for instance, it takes roughly 365 days and predisposes the change of seasons. Rotation, in its turn, is the movement of the planet around its axis; in the case with the Earth, takes 24 hours, while on Neptune, rotation takes about 16 hours ( The Planet Neptune para. 2).

In summer, the angle at which the sun beams hit the Earth is much steeper. As a result, the refraction percentage is lesser and the temperature is higher.

The handle of a saucepan on the stove is heated due to the process known as thermal (or heat) conduction. The speed of heat conduction depends on the type of material; for instance, a wooden handle of a metal saucepan practically does not conduct heat (Lutgens and Tarbuck 351).

The length of microwaves is higher than that one of X-rays (1 mm compared to 0.1 nm) (Lutgens and Tarbuck 352).

On the Moon, the sky is black, since there is no atmosphere and, therefore, no possibility for sunlight refraction.

Greenhouse gases are the gases in the atmosphere, which emit radiation. Methane (CO4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) are the most common greenhouse gases (Lutgens and Tarbuck 366).

Among the key effects of global warming, melting of ice capes, destruction of a range of ecosystems due to the increase in average temperature, and a steep rise in the global sea level can be expected (Lutgens and Tarbuck 378).

The difference in the climate of Winnipeg and Vancouver in summer is predetermined by their geographic location. Vancouver is located closer to the sea, the latter serving as a means to make the changes in temperature less noticeable, thus, serving as a means to bring the rates of thermal conduction down (Lutgens and Tarbuck 383).

Works Cited

Lutgens, Frederick K. and Edward J. Tarbuck. “The Restless Ocean.” Foundations of Earth Science. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2014. 339–372. Print.

NASA, NOAA Data Indicate Ozone Layer is Recovering . 2003. Web.

The Planet Neptune . n. d. Web.

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            A moment's view of the atmosphere is considered weather. Weather is determined by the temperature, wind, and precipitation when recorded at a specific moment in time. The climate is considered over many moments in time. Climate is dependant on the changes in the weather over a period in time. Weather and Climate don't differ as much as they play a part in how the other is determined.              Air temperature plays a major part in how weather and climate counteract. The intensity and duration of radiation from the sun is how temperature is determined. Those factors along with the amount of water vapor in the air, the degree of cloud cover, nature of the earths" surface and elevation above sea level together make up the temperature at any given location. The temperature today is what the weather is like, but the varying temperatures throughout the year in one location is one of the factors that determine the climate. .              Barometric readings are a normal part, along with the recorded temperature of every weather report. Air Attempts to achieve equilibrium by evening out measure imbalances which results from heating and cooling. The greater the differences in air pressure between places the greater the wind. Wind can play a major part in the climate of the area. Ascending air can expand easily because less pressure is on it causing precipitation.              Precipitation is any form of water particles as in rain, sleet, snow or hail, that fall from the atmosphere to the earth's surface. When heat from the lower air spreads through a larger volume, the mass of air becomes cooler. Cool air is less able to hold water vapor than warm air. Causes of weather changes that occur as hair from high-pressure zones flows toward low pressure areas, fronts pass and waves develop, dew points are reached, and sea breezes arise. Parts of the world experience these changes more rapidly and more often than do other parts.

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Essays Related to Weather And Climate

1. climate change and environmental protection.

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One of the natural causes of climate change is variations in solar output. ... This will cause climate change as the increased release of infrared rays will heat up the Earth. ... This means the long-term climate changes is most likely due to something else. Burning fossil fuels is also a cause of climate change. ...

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2. Climate Change and Global Warming

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A warming planet thus leads to a change in climate which can affect weather in various ways, as discussed further below. 2. ... Greenhouse effect is the process where energy from the sun drives the earth's weather and climate, and heats the earth's surface. ... Won't warmer weather be nicer for everyone? ... Scientists have pointed out that  Northern Europe could be severely affected  with colder  weather if climate change continues, as the arctic begins to melt and send fresher waters further south. ... German Watch published a  Global Climate Risk Index  at the end of 2...

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The most pressing ecological issue of our time, in my opinion is the global climate change. Climate change is defined as the statistical distribution of weather patterns that last for an extended period of time. ... In order to fully understand climate change, one must look at the evidence of climate changes occurrence, the causes and effects, and the possible solutions to stop this monstrosity from destroying our planet. There are many striking evident reactions to the global climate change. ... The global climate change is the top ecological issue that our planet faces today. ...

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He also pointed to political events about global warming that took place in cold weather. ... In conclusion, Human-induced climate change has contributed to changing patterns of extreme weather across the globe, from longer and hotter heat waves to heavier rains. From a broad perspective, all weather events are now connected to climate change. While natural variability continues to play a key role in extreme weather, climate change has shifted the odds and changed the natural limits, making certain types of extreme weather more frequent and more intense. While our understanding of how climate ...

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5. A Global Problem: Responsibility for Climate Change.

A Global Problem: Responsibility for Climate Change. ... Taking unified global action against climate change, however, has proven contentious. ... The climate system is complex and scientists still need to improve their understanding of the extent, timing and impacts of climate change, but what we know already alerts us to its dangers. ... These increases have already brought changes to the earth's climate. ... In sum, a sizable net increase in weather-related human mortality is expected if the climate warms as the models predict. ...

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Introduction Climate change is defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as "a change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and that is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.... In New Zealand some impacts of climate change are higher temperatures over the whole of New Zealand but more in the North Island than the South, rising sea levels from the melting of large ice masses around the world, more frequent extreme weather events such a...

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7. Global implications of climate change

essay of climate and weather

Global warming impacts human health through weather disasters, heat stress, land and water scarcity, nutritional health, non-infectious diseases and infectious diseases. One such effect is the acceleration of the global water cycle, resulting in more frequent and more severe weather disasters. ... Weather disasters, primarily in un-developed countries leads to a loss of living space and food availability, and eventually leading to droplet-spread and water-borne disease epidemics. The weather disaster losses for the world during 1998 were $89 billion, which ellipsed the losses of $55 billi...

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8. Climate Change and Planet Earth

How do people really understand what is climate change is? ... We should be afraid of something unusual in this world where weather sim not normal anymore. ... Climate change is an event that is effecting life on Earth with extreme temperature and weather change. ... The weather got more extreme, it brings to us heavy rainstorms, longer and deeper droughts. ... We are getting changes in weather, which effects life on planet. ...

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9. Animals and Extreme Climate Survival

Each animal needs to recognize the changing weather in order to prepare for what weather conditions might be coming next. ... A change they can make to survive is to make physical or behavioral adaptations that can help them to get through the changing weather. ... Another way the animals adapt for survival is by knowing what and when to eat to fatten up for the colder weather. ... Another way animals survive is by using migration where they relocate to a warmer climate for a period of time to find food. ... Animals that live in the cold weather climates have special adaptations that they use...

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The year 2023 was very active, particularly through early August. While the region witnessed one of our warmest winters on record, we still managed a couple impactful wintry precipitation events during the last week of January. March roared in like a lion with a powerful storm system that led to severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, flooding, strong gradient winds of 50-70 mph, and the lowest barometric pressure on record in Paducah and Evansville. We witnessed an incredibly high number of windy days during the first several months. Our office ended up issuing a total of 12 wind advisories from January through April (records for wind advisories date back to 2006 and this was 3 more than the previous highest during the first 4 months of the year which was 9 in 2019). During the overnight hours on April 5th, an EF-2 tornado touched down in Bollinger County Missouri and unfortunately took the lives of 5 people as it tore through the town of Glenallen.

An extremely active pattern set up from late June through early August with multiple rounds of severe thunderstorms and flash flooding. The first round arrived over the weekend leading up to the 4th of July, when we issued 154 combined warnings over a 4 day period (breaking the previous 4 day record of 148 warnings set from April 24-27, 2011). This was followed by a historic flash flooding event on July 19th that produced a swath of rainfall amounts of 6 to 11 inches. Numerous Flash Flood Emergencies were issued and the Graves County mesonet site broke the Kentucky state 24-hour precipitation record picking up an incredible 11.28". Yet another flash flooding event occurred in early August, this time focused slightly further west across southeast Missouri and far west Kentucky. Despite starting off the summer with drought conditions developing from late May through June, parts of the region ended up observing one of our wettest summers on record thanks to the insane rainfall totals from July 1 - August 15. Anomalously high soil moisture levels in August helped contribute to record high humidity levels (dewpoints in the low to mid 80s) which produced heat index readings as high as 120 during our week-long heat wave from August 20-26.

We finally got a much needed break from the active weather September through November, with drought conditions redeveloping across much of the region. Record low water levels were observed along portions of the Mississippi River from New Madrid down to Memphis in October. As we neared the end of the year, a severe weather event occurred on December 9th across southern portions of west Kentucky. An EF-2 tornado left a path of damage across Todd County, Kentucky (part of a 48 mile long track which included EF-3 damage in Clarksville, TN). The year ended with a combined 647 warnings (severe thunderstorm, tornado, and flash flood) which was the 2nd most on record for a year dating back to 1995 (the record is 709 warnings issued in 2006). 

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Student Essays


Essay on Weather [ Types, Importance in Life ]

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Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time. It includes temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and pressure. The following Essay on Weather talks about its meaning and concept, types and how weather is important for us.

List of Topics

Essay on Weather | Types of Weather | Weather vs Climate

Weather is one of the most important aspects of our lives. It can have a huge impact on our mood, our health, and even our ability to function properly during the day. That’s why it’s so important to understand the different types of weather and how they can affect us.

Types of Weather

There are four main types of weather: sunny, cloudy, rainy, and snowy. Each type of weather has its own set of benefits and drawbacks.

Sunny: Sunny weather is great for outdoor activities and spending time in the sun. However, it can also be very hot and dry, which can be dangerous for people with certain medical conditions.

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Cloudy: Cloudy weather is cooler than sunny weather, but it can also be more humid. This type of weather is good for people who don’t like the heat but don’t want to deal with the cold.

Rainy: Rainy weather is perfect for activities that involve water, such as swimming or fishing. However, it can also be very muddy and wet, which can make it difficult to get around.

Snowy: Snowy weather is great for winter activities like skiing and sledding. However, it can also be very cold and dangerous for people who are not used to the cold weather.

Weather vs Climate:

Weather is the day-to-day condition of the atmosphere in a particular place, while climate is the average weather conditions in that place over a long period of time. Climate varies from place to place around the world. The climate in a tropical rainforest is very different from the climate in a desert.

Importance of Climate

Climate is important because it determines the types of plants and animals that can live in a particular place. For example, tropical rainforests have a very different climate from deserts. This means that different types of plants and animals can live in each environment.

Changes in Climate:

Climate change is a long-term shift in the average conditions of the atmosphere over a large area. Climate change could refer to a particular location or the planet as a whole. Climate change has been happening for millions of years, but it is only recently that humans have begun to impact the climate on a global scale.

Steps that we can take to Promote Healthy Weather

There are many things we can do to help promote healthy weather. Some of these steps include:

1. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using less energy and switching to renewable sources of energy 2. Protecting and restoring forests, which play a vital role in regulating the climate 3. Improving agricultural practices to reduce methane emissions from livestock 4. Conserving water to reduce the amount of energy needed to pump and treat it

Weather is an important part of our lives and can have a big impact on our mood, health, and ability to function properly. There are four main types of weather: sunny, cloudy, rainy, and snowy. Each type of weather has its own set of benefits and drawbacks. Climate is important because it determines the types of plants and animals that can live in a particular place.

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Climate change is a long-term shift in the average conditions of the atmosphere over a large area. There are many things we can do to help promote healthy weather, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions, protecting and restoring forests, and improving agricultural practices.

Short Essay on Weather For Students:

Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place. It includes various elements such as temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, and air pressure. Weather plays an important role in our daily lives as it affects our activities and influences our mood.

Importance of Weather

Weather has a significant impact on human life. It affects agriculture, transportation, tourism, health, and even the economy. Farmers rely on weather conditions for their crops to grow while tourists plan their trips based on favorable weather conditions. Weather also has an effect on mental health as certain weather patterns can lead to seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

Factors Affecting Weather

The main factors that influence the weather are latitude, altitude, topography, and global air circulation patterns. Latitude determines the amount of sunlight received, while altitude affects temperature and precipitation. The shape of the land and presence of water bodies can also affect weather patterns.

Weather conditions can vary greatly depending on geographical location and time of year. Some common types of weather include sunny, cloudy, rainy, snowy, windy, hot, cold, and humid.

Sunny Weather

Sunny weather is characterized by clear skies with abundant sunshine. It usually occurs when high pressure systems dominate the area.

Cloudy Weather

Cloudy weather refers to a condition where the sky is covered with clouds blocking out the sun’s rays. This type of weather often occurs during low-pressure systems.

Rainy Weather

Rainy weather is characterized by precipitation in the form of rain. It can be caused by warm air rising and condensing into water droplets, which then fall to the ground.

Snowy Weather

Snowy weather occurs when temperatures are low enough for precipitation to freeze and fall as snow. This type of weather often brings hazardous driving conditions and can lead to school or work closures.

Windy Weather

Windy weather refers to a condition where there is a strong movement of air. It can be caused by differences in air pressure between two areas or by geographical features such as mountains.

Hot Weather

Hot weather is characterized by high temperatures and humidity levels. It can cause heat-related illnesses such as heatstroke and dehydration if precautions are not taken.

Cold Weather

Cold weather is characterized by low temperatures and can bring about freezing conditions, which can be dangerous for both humans and animals.

Humid Weather

Humid weather refers to a condition where there is a high level of water vapor in the air. It can make hot or cold temperatures feel even more extreme and uncomfortable.

Weather affects our lives in many ways, from influencing our daily activities to shaping our emotions. Understanding the different types of weather and the factors that influence them can help us better prepare for any changes in the forecast. As we continue to face the impacts of climate change, it becomes even more important to pay attention to the weather and take necessary precautions to protect ourselves and our environment.

How do you write a weather essay?

A weather essay typically begins with an introduction about the significance of weather, followed by a description of different weather phenomena, their impact on daily life, and any relevant data or statistics. It should also include personal observations or experiences related to weather and conclude with a summary or reflection.

What is weather in 100 words?

Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions in a specific place and time. It encompasses elements such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, and precipitation. Weather can change rapidly and has a profound impact on daily life, agriculture, transportation, and various industries.

It is observed and forecasted by meteorologists using tools like weather stations, satellites, and computer models. Understanding and predicting weather is essential for planning outdoor activities, preparing for extreme conditions, and mitigating the effects of severe weather events like storms, hurricanes, and droughts.

What is weather in short notes?

Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere in a particular place at a specific time. It includes elements like temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, and precipitation. Weather conditions can vary from day to day and even within hours.

Meteorologists study and forecast weather using various instruments and technology to provide information for planning activities, predicting severe weather events, and understanding climate patterns over time.

How do you start a weather paragraph?

A weather paragraph can begin by describing the current weather conditions in a specific location or by introducing the topic of weather in a broader sense. You can use attention-grabbing phrases or statistics to engage the reader’s interest.

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Essay on Weather

Students are often asked to write an essay on Weather in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Weather


Weather is the day-to-day condition of our atmosphere. It includes factors like temperature, humidity, wind, and rainfall.

Types of Weather

Weather varies greatly around the world. It can be sunny, rainy, snowy, or windy. Each type of weather has its own features and effects.

Importance of Weather

Weather is important for many reasons. It affects our daily activities, health, and agriculture. We need to understand and predict it for safety and planning.

In conclusion, weather plays a significant role in our lives. It is a fascinating and complex natural phenomenon.

Also check:

  • 10 Lines on Weather

250 Words Essay on Weather

Weather is an integral part of our daily lives, influencing our activities, moods, and overall wellbeing. It is the state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place, characterized by parameters like temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and atmospheric pressure.

The Science of Weather

The science behind weather, meteorology, is a complex discipline that studies atmospheric phenomena. The sun plays a crucial role in weather formation, as it heats the Earth’s surface unevenly, creating temperature differences. These temperature variations lead to air movements that we perceive as wind. Furthermore, the Earth’s rotation and topography also contribute to the intricacy of weather patterns.

Weather and Climate

It’s essential to distinguish between weather and climate. While weather describes short-term atmospheric conditions, climate represents the average weather conditions over a longer period, typically 30 years. This distinction is vital in understanding global issues like climate change, which refers to long-term shifts in climate patterns, rather than daily weather fluctuations.

Weather Forecasting

Weather forecasting, a practical application of meteorology, has evolved significantly over the years. Today, meteorologists use sophisticated technology like satellites, radars, and computer models to predict weather patterns. These forecasts are not only crucial for daily planning but also for mitigating potential disasters.

In conclusion, weather is a dynamic and complex system that impacts our lives in myriad ways. Understanding its mechanisms and implications helps us not only in our daily lives but also in addressing broader environmental issues. As we advance technologically, our ability to predict and respond to weather changes will continue to improve.

500 Words Essay on Weather

Weather is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that influences every aspect of our lives. It is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, characterized by parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and atmospheric pressure. The study of weather, known as meteorology, is a crucial branch of Earth sciences, providing essential insights into our planet’s climatic patterns and their impact on the environment and human societies.

The Science Behind Weather

Weather results from the Earth’s atmosphere’s thermodynamic processes, primarily driven by the sun’s energy. The sun heats the Earth unevenly, creating temperature differences that lead to air movement, or wind. The Earth’s rotation, known as the Coriolis effect, further influences this wind, causing it to curve, which contributes to the formation of weather patterns.

Water vapor, a key player in weather formation, can condense into clouds, leading to precipitation when the particles become too large to remain airborne. The interaction of these factors, along with topographical features like mountains and bodies of water, result in the diverse weather phenomena we experience.

Weather forecasting, an application of meteorology, has seen significant advancements over the years. It involves predicting atmospheric conditions at a future time and location. Modern meteorologists use sophisticated equipment like weather satellites, radars, and supercomputers to generate accurate forecasts. These predictions are not only critical for daily planning but also for preventing disasters, aiding agriculture, and informing policy decisions related to climate change.

Impact of Weather on Human Life

Weather significantly influences human activities and well-being. Favorable weather conditions are essential for agriculture, as crops require specific temperature and rainfall patterns to thrive. Extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts, can cause immense destruction and loss of life.

Moreover, weather plays a pivotal role in our health. Cold weather can exacerbate conditions like arthritis, while heatwaves can lead to heat stroke. Seasonal changes also affect mental health, with conditions like Seasonal Affective Disorder being linked to weather patterns.

Climate Change and Weather

The ongoing climate change, largely driven by human activities, is altering global weather patterns. Rising temperatures are expected to intensify extreme weather events, making hurricanes more powerful and heatwaves more frequent. This underscores the urgent need for effective climate policies to mitigate these changes and adapt to a warmer world.

In conclusion, weather is an intricate and vital aspect of our world, intricately linked with our daily lives and the broader environment. Understanding its mechanisms, predicting its patterns, and studying its impacts is crucial, especially in the face of climate change. As we continue to advance in our knowledge and technology, our relationship with weather will undoubtedly evolve, underscoring the importance of ongoing research and education in this field.

That’s it! I hope the essay helped you.

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    ADVERTISEMENTS: Here is your essay on Earth's Weather and Climate! The term 'earth sciences' is used to describe all the sciences concerned with the structure, age, composition and atmosphere of the earth. It includes the basic subject of geology, with its sub- classifications of geochemistry, geomorphology, geophysics, mineralogy, seismology and volcanism, oceanography, meteorology, and ...

  22. Weather

    Weather is described as the way the atmosphere is behaving over a short period of time (Bally, 2017). Weather is something that can change minute to minute or day to day. Though often used interchangeably, "climate" has a much different meaning than "weather." Climate is the change of weather over a relatively long period of time.

  23. Climate and Weather Concepts

    The concepts of climate and weather are closely related to each other; the key distinction between the two is that climate is attributed to a particular region and even a certain season, whereas weather is not (Lutgens and Tarbuck 339). Our experts can deliver a Climate and Weather Concepts essay tailored to your instructions

  24. FREE Weather And Climate Essay

    The climate is considered over many moments in time. Climate is dependant on the changes in the weather over a period in time. Weather and Climate don't differ as much as they play a part in how the other is determined. Air temperature plays a major part in how weather and climate counteract. The intensity and duration of radiation from the sun ...

  25. A Review of Weather Events of 2023

    The year 2023 was very active, particularly through early August. While the region witnessed one of our warmest winters on record, we still managed a couple impactful wintry precipitation events during the last week of January. March roared in like a lion with a powerful storm system that led to severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, flooding, strong ...

  26. Essay on Weather [ Types, Importance in Life

    Leave a Comment Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time. It includes temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and pressure. The following Essay on Weather talks about its meaning and concept, types and how weather is important for us. List of Topics

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    Trucks stuck in southern Sweden, Thursday, Jan. 4, 2024, as large amounts of snow caused chaos on the roads. Parts of Europe are experiencing an extreme start to the new year's weather, as some ...

  28. Essay on Weather

    Weather and Climate It's essential to distinguish between weather and climate. While weather describes short-term atmospheric conditions, climate represents the average weather conditions over a longer period, typically 30 years.

  29. China had its hottest year on record in 2023, marked by deadly ...

    Analysis from the European Union's Copernicus Climate Change Service found 2023's global temperature will be more than 1.4 degrees Celsius warmer than pre-industrial levels — close to the 1. ...