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## Diagrammatic Presentation Of Data

Introduction.

The diagrammatic representation also helps in having a bird’s eye view or overall view of the differentiation of data. It is a norm to present statistical data in the form of diagrams so that it becomes easier to comprehend and understand them. Therefore, diagrammatic representation is an important tool in statistics.

## What is a Diagrammatic Presentation of Data?

Diagrammatic representation refers to a representation of statistical data in the form of diagrams. The diagrams used in representing statistical data are geometrical figures, such as lines, bars, and circles. The intention of using geometrical figures in statistical presentation is to make the study more interesting and easy to understand. Diagrammatic representations are widely used in statistics, economics, and many other fields of study.

## Types of Diagrammatic Presentations of Data

Various types of diagrammatic representations of data depend on the dataset and the particular statistical elements in them. Data presentation can be made in different types and forms.

These can be broadly classified into the following one-dimensional types −

## Line Diagram

In a line diagram, straight lines are used to indicate various parameters. Here, a line represents the sequence of data associated with the changing of a particular variable.

Properties of Line Diagram −

The Lines are either in vertical or horizontal directions.

There may be uniform scaling but this is not mandatory.

The lines that connect the data points offer the statistical representation of data.

The following is an example of a line diagram that shows profits in Rs crore from 2002 till 2008. Profit in 2002 was Rs 5 Crore while in 2008 it was Rs 24 Crore.

## Bar Diagram

Bar diagrams have rectangular shapes of equal width that represent statistical data in a straightforward manner. Bar diagrams are one of the most widely used diagrammatic representations.

Properties of Bar Diagram −

The Bars can be vertical or horizontal in directions.

All bars in a diagram have a uniform width.

All the Bars have a common and same base.

The height or width of the Bar shows the required value.

The following is an example of a Bar Chart that has time on the X axis and profits on the Y axis.

Also known as a "circle chart" , the pie chart divides the circular statistical graphic into sectors or sections to illustrate the numerical data. Each sector in the circle denotes a proportionate part of the whole. Pie-chart works the best at the time when we want to denote the composition of something. In most cases, the pie chart replaces other diagrammatic representations, such as the bar graph, line plots, histograms, etc.

In practice, the various sections in a pie chart are derived according to their ratio to the total area of the circle. Then according to their individual contributions, sections are divided into parts derived from 360 degrees of the circle.

## Advantages of Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

Easier to understand.

Pictorial representations are usually easier to understand than statistical text or representation in tabular form. One can easily understand which portion or part has more contribution toward the overall dataset. This helps in understanding the data better.

The creators of diagrams usually keep the simplicity of presentation in mind to offer more information to readers. That is why diagrams are easier to comprehend than texts and tables.

## More attractive

Pictorial or diagrammatic representations of datasets are more attractive than normal representations. As colors and various other tools can be incorporated into diagrams, they become more attractive and comprehensible for the readers.

Moreover, as diagrams can be made more interactive with the help of computer graphics, they have become more acceptable and attractive currently.

## Simpler presentations

Data can be presented more simply in diagrammatic form. Both extensive unstable data and smaller complex data can be represented by diagrammatic representations more easily. This helps statisticians offer more value to their findings.

## Comparison is easier

When two or more data are compared, it is easier to do so in pictorial form. As diagrams clearly show the portion of data consumed, it can be easily understood from the diagrams which part of the data is consuming more area in the diagrams. This can help one to understand the real differences through pictorial comparison.

## Universal acceptance

Diagrammatic representation of data is used in many fields of study, such as statistics, science, commerce, economics, etc. So, the diagrams are accepted universally and hence are used everywhere.

Moreover, since there are the same procedures for forming diagrams, the representations mean the same thing to everyone. So, there is nothing to alter when we obtain the diagrams to check the real values. It helps analysts solve problems universally.

## Improvement in presentation

Diagrammatic representations improve the overall representation of data to a large extent. As the data is classified into several groups and presented in a systematic manner in diagrams, the whole presentation of data gets improved during the diagrammatic representation.

Moreover, as diagrams can be made more interactive than texts or tables, diagrammatic presentations are one step ahead in presenting the data in a simpler yet recognizable manner.

## More organized and classified data

To represent data in diagrams, they must be organized and classified into comprehensive categories. This helps the data to be organized in a given fashion which makes them orderly and creates a sequence. This in turn helps realize diagrammatic data better than text forms.

## Relevance Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

Diagrams are a great way of representing data because they are visually attractive and they can make large, complex datasets look simpler. The otherwise heavy data can be simply and easily represented by line and bar diagrams, and pie charts. This makes data organization simpler and neater.

Moreover, as data must be classified before representation, one must organize them according to the norms required. So, diagrammatic representations save lots of time and resources.

Diagrams also have universal acceptance and so can be used to express data in different forms. This provides the analysts and researchers flexibility to present data in any required form.

Diagrams also remove confusion and offer a simpler tactic to present data. As no special skill has to be learned to represent data in diagrams, they can be used by most to show statistical data and results of various types of research and experiments.

Therefore, diagrammatic representation has great relevance that can be used for the benefit of economists, statisticians, marketing analysts, and a lot of other professionals.

The diagrams are a central part of statistics and their importance can be known from the fact that almost all statistical researchers use them in one way or the other. The diagrammatical representations make inferring statistical data much simpler and easier. It is a much easier way to visualize and understand data in simpler forms too.

To represent data in diagrammatic form, only a simple understanding of Mathematics is required. So, no special skills are needed to use diagrams and this makes them very popular tools for the representation of data sets. Learning how to present data in diagrams, therefore, should be a priority for everyone.

Q1. Which is the simplest diagrammatic presentation of data?

Ans. The simplest diagrammatic presentation of data is a line diagram that shows data in terms of straight lines.

Q2. What are the two characteristics of bar diagrams?

Ans. Bar diagrams have uniform width and their base remains the same.

Q3. How are the sections in a pie chart formed?

Ans. In practice, the various sections in a pie chart are derived according to their ratio to the total area of the circle. Then according to their individual contributions, sections are divided into parts derived from 360 degrees of the circle.

For example, if a section requires 25% of the presentation, it will consume degrees on the chart.

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## Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

The diagrammatic presentation of data gives an immediate understanding of the real situation to be defined by the data in comparison to the tabular presentation of data or textual representations. It translates the highly complex ideas included in numbers into a more concrete and quickly understandable form pretty effectively. Diagrams may be less certain but are much more efficient than tables in displaying the data. There are many kinds of diagrams in general use. Amongst them the significant ones are the following:

(i) Geometric diagram

(ii) Frequency diagram

(iii) Arithmetic line graph

Also check: Meaning and Objective of Tabulation

## Basics of Diagrammatic Presentation

Concept of Diagrammatic Presentation

- It is a technique of presenting numeric data through pictograms, cartograms, bar diagrams, and pie diagrams. It is the most attractive and appealing way to represent statistical data. Diagrams help in visual comparison and they have a bird’s eye view.
- Under pictograms, we use pictures to present data. For example, if we have to show the production of cars, we can draw cars. Suppose the production of cars is 40,000, we can show it by a picture having four cars, where 1 car represents 10,000 units.
- Under cartograms, we make use of maps to show the geographical allocation of certain things.
- Bar diagrams are rectangular and placed on the same base. Their heights represent the magnitude/value of the variable. The width of all the bars and the gaps between the two bars are kept the same.
- Pie diagram is a circle that is subdivided or partitioned to show the proportion of various components of the data.
- Out of the given diagrams, only one-dimensional bar diagrams and pie diagrams are there in our scope.

General Guidelines

Title: Every diagram must be given a suitable title which should be small and self-explanatory.

Size: The size of the diagram should be appropriate, i.e., neither too small nor too big.

Paper used: Diagrams are generally prepared on blank paper.

Scale: Under one-dimensional diagrams, especially bar diagrams, the y-axis is more important from the point of view of the decision of scale because we represent magnitude along this axis.

Index: When two or more variables are presented and different types of line/shading patterns are used to distinguish, an index must be given to show their details.

Selection of proper type of diagram: It is very important to select the correct type of diagram to represent data effectively.

## Advantages of Diagrammatic Presentation

(1) Diagrams are attractive and impressive: The data presented in the form of diagrams can attract the attention of even a common man.

(2) Easy to remember: (a) Diagrams have a great memorising effect. (b) The picture created in mind by the diagrams last much longer than those created by figures presented through the tabular forms.

(3) Diagrams save time : (a) They present complex mass data in a simplified manner. (b) The data presented in the form of diagrams can be understood by the user very quickly.

(4) Diagrams simplify data: Diagrams are used to represent a huge mass of complex data in a simplified and intelligible form which is easy to understand.

(5) Diagrams are useful in making comparison: It becomes easier to compare two sets of data visually by presenting them through diagrams.

(6) More informative : Diagrams not only depict the characteristics of data but also bring out other hidden facts and relations which are not possible from the classified and tabulated data.

## Types of One-Dimensional Diagram

One-dimensional diagram is a diagram in which only the length of the diagram is considered. It can be drawn in the form of a line or various types of bars.

The following are the types of one-dimensional diagram.

(1) Simple bar diagram

Simple bar diagram consists of a group of rectangular bars of equal width for each class or category of data.

(2) Multiple bar diagram

This diagram is used when we have to make a comparison between two or more variables like income and expenditure, import and export for different years, marks obtained in different subjects in different classes, etc.

(3) Subdivided bar diagram

This diagram is constructed by subdividing the bars in the ratio of various components.

(4) Percentage bar diagram

The subdivided bar diagram presented on a percentage basis is known as the percentage bar diagram.

(5) Broken-scale bar diagram

This diagram is used when the value of one observation is very high as compared to the other.

To gain space for the smaller bars of the series, the larger bars may be broken.

The value of each bar is written at the top of the bar.

(6) Deviation bar diagram

Deviation bars are used to represent net changes in the data like net profit, net loss, net exports, net imports, etc.

## Meaning of Pie Diagram

A pie diagram is a circle that is divided into sections. The size of each section indicates the magnitude of each component as a part of the whole.

Steps involved in constructing pie diagram

- Convert the given values into percentage form and multiply it with 3.6’ to get the amount of angle for each item.
- Draw a circle and start the diagram at the 12 O‘clock position.
- Take the highest angle first with the protector (D) and mark the lower angles successively.
- Shade different angles differently to show distinction in each item.

## Solved Questions

Q.1. Why is a diagrammatic presentation better than tabulation of data?

It makes the data more attractive as compared to tabulation and helps in visual comparison.

Q.2. Why do media persons prefer diagrammatic presentation of data?

Because it has an eye-catching effect and a long-lasting impact upon its readers/viewers.

Q.3. What will be the degree of an angle in the pie diagram if a family spends 50% of its income in food?

(50 ÷ 100) X 360 (Or) 50 x 3.6 = 180’

Q.4. Which bar diagram is used to show two or more characteristics of the data?

Multiple bar diagram

Q.5. Mention the sum of all the angles formed at the centre of a circle.

Q.6. Name a bar diagram where the height of all the bars is the same.

Percentage bar diagram

Q.7. Which diagram can be used to depict various components of a variable?

Subdivided bar diagram

Q.8. What is a multiple bar diagram?

A multiple bar diagram is one that shows more than one characteristic of data.

Q.9. Which bar diagram is used to represent the net changes in data?

Deviation bar diagram

Q.10. What is the other name of the subdivided bar Diagram?

Component bar diagram

The above-mentioned concept is for CBSE Class 11 Statistics for Economics – Diagrammatic Presentation of Data. For solutions and study materials, visit our website or download the app for more information and the best learning experience.

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- Accountancy
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- CBSE Class 11 Statistics for Economics Notes

## Chapter 1: Concept of Economics and Significance of Statistics in Economics

- Statistics for Economics | Functions, Importance, and Limitations

## Chapter 2: Collection of Data

- Data Collection & Its Methods
- Sources of Data Collection | Primary and Secondary Sources
- Direct Personal Investigation: Meaning, Suitability, Merits, Demerits and Precautions
- Indirect Oral Investigation : Suitability, Merits, Demerits and Precautions
- Difference between Direct Personal Investigation and Indirect Oral Investigation
- Information from Local Source or Correspondents: Meaning, Suitability, Merits, and Demerits
- Questionnaires and Schedules Method of Data Collection
- Difference between Questionnaire and Schedule
- Qualities of a Good Questionnaire and types of Questions
- What are the Published Sources of Collecting Secondary Data?
- What Precautions should be taken before using Secondary Data?
- Two Important Sources of Secondary Data: Census of India and Reports & Publications of NSSO
- What is National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO)?
- What is Census Method of Collecting Data?
- Sample Method of Collection of Data
- Methods of Sampling
- Father of Indian Census
- What makes a Sampling Data Reliable?
- Difference between Census Method and Sampling Method of Collecting Data
- What are Statistical Errors?

## Chapter 3: Organisation of Data

- Organization of Data
- Objectives and Characteristics of Classification of Data
- Classification of Data in Statistics | Meaning and Basis of Classification of Data
- Concept of Variable and Raw Data
- Types of Statistical Series
- Difference between Frequency Array and Frequency Distribution
- Types of Frequency Distribution

## Chapter 4: Presentation of Data: Textual and Tabular

- Textual Presentation of Data: Meaning, Suitability, and Drawbacks
- Tabular Presentation of Data: Meaning, Objectives, Features and Merits
- Different Types of Tables
- Classification and Tabulation of Data

## Chapter 5: Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

- Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: Meaning , Features, Guidelines, Advantages and Disadvantages
- Types of Diagrams
- Bar Graph | Meaning, Types, and Examples
- Pie Diagrams | Meaning, Example and Steps to Construct
- Histogram | Meaning, Example, Types and Steps to Draw
- Frequency Polygon | Meaning, Steps to Draw and Examples
- Ogive (Cumulative Frequency Curve) and its Types
- What is Arithmetic Line-Graph or Time-Series Graph?

## Diagrammatic and Graphic Presentation of Data

Chapter 6: measures of central tendency: arithmetic mean.

- Measures of Central Tendency in Statistics
- Arithmetic Mean: Meaning, Example, Types, Merits, and Demerits
- What is Simple Arithmetic Mean?
- Calculation of Mean in Individual Series | Formula of Mean
- Calculation of Mean in Discrete Series | Formula of Mean
- Calculation of Mean in Continuous Series | Formula of Mean
- Calculation of Arithmetic Mean in Special Cases
- Weighted Arithmetic Mean

## Chapter 7: Measures of Central Tendency: Median and Mode

- Median(Measures of Central Tendency): Meaning, Formula, Merits, Demerits, and Examples
- Calculation of Median for Different Types of Statistical Series
- Calculation of Median in Individual Series | Formula of Median
- Calculation of Median in Discrete Series | Formula of Median
- Calculation of Median in Continuous Series | Formula of Median
- Graphical determination of Median
- Mode: Meaning, Formula, Merits, Demerits, and Examples
- Calculation of Mode in Individual Series | Formula of Mode
- Calculation of Mode in Discrete Series | Formula of Mode
- Grouping Method of Calculating Mode in Discrete Series | Formula of Mode
- Calculation of Mode in Continuous Series | Formula of Mode
- Calculation of Mode in Special Cases
- Calculation of Mode by Graphical Method
- Mean, Median and Mode| Comparison, Relationship and Calculation

## Chapter 8: Measures of Dispersion

- Measures of Dispersion | Meaning, Absolute and Relative Measures of Dispersion
- Range | Meaning, Coefficient of Range, Merits and Demerits, Calculation of Range
- Calculation of Range and Coefficient of Range
- Interquartile Range and Quartile Deviation
- Partition Value | Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles
- Quartile Deviation and Coefficient of Quartile Deviation: Meaning, Formula, Calculation, and Examples
- Calculation of Mean Deviation for different types of Statistical Series
- Mean Deviation from Mean | Individual, Discrete, and Continuous Series
- Standard Deviation: Meaning, Coefficient of Standard Deviation, Merits, and Demerits
- Standard Deviation in Individual Series
- Methods of Calculating Standard Deviation in Discrete Series
- Methods of calculation of Standard Deviation in frequency distribution series
- Combined Standard Deviation: Meaning, Formula, and Example
- How to calculate Variance?
- Coefficient of Variation: Meaning, Formula and Examples
- Lorenz Curveb : Meaning, Construction, and Application

## Chapter 9: Correlation

- Correlation: Meaning, Significance, Types and Degree of Correlation
- Methods of measurements of Correlation
- Calculation of Correlation with Scattered Diagram
- Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient
- Karl Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation
- Karl Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation | Methods and Examples

## Chapter 10: Index Number

- Index Number | Meaning, Characteristics, Uses and Limitations
- Methods of Construction of Index Number
- Unweighted or Simple Index Numbers: Meaning and Methods
- Methods of calculating Weighted Index Numbers
- Fisher's Index Number as an Ideal Method
- Fisher's Method of calculating Weighted Index Number
- Paasche's Method of calculating Weighted Index Number
- Laspeyre's Method of calculating Weighted Index Number
- Laspeyre's, Paasche's, and Fisher's Methods of Calculating Index Number
- Consumer Price Index (CPI) or Cost of Living Index Number: Construction of Consumer Price Index|Difficulties and Uses of Consumer Price Index
- Methods of Constructing Consumer Price Index (CPI)
- Wholesale Price Index (WPI) | Meaning, Uses, Merits, and Demerits
- Index Number of Industrial Production : Characteristics, Construction & Example
- Inflation and Index Number

## Important Formulas in Statistics for Economics

- Important Formulas in Statistics for Economics | Class 11

Diagrammatic and graphic presentation of data means visual representation of the data. It shows a comparison between two or more sets of data and helps in the presentation of highly complex data in its simplest form. Diagrams and graphs are clear and easy to read and understand. In the diagrammatic presentation of data, bar charts, rectangles, sub-divided rectangles, pie charts, or circle diagrams are used. In the graphic presentation of data, graphs like histograms, frequency polygon, frequency curves, cumulative frequency polygon, and graphs of time series are used.

## General Rules for Construction of Diagrammatic and Graphic Presentations:

1. Chronic Number: Each outline or chart should have a chronic number. It is important to recognize one from the other.

2. Title: A title should be given to each outline or chart. From the title, one can understand what the graph or diagram is. The title ought to be brief and simple. It is normally positioned at the top.

3. Legitimate size and scale: An outline or chart ought to be of ordinary size and drawn with an appropriate scale. The scale in a chart indicates the size of the unit.

4. Neatness: Outlines should be pretty much as straightforward as could be expected. Further, they should be very perfect and clean. They ought to likewise be dropped to check out.

5. File: Each outline or chart should be joined by a record. This outlines various sorts of lines, shades or tones utilized in the graph.

6. Commentary: Commentaries might be given at the lower part of an outline. It explains specific focuses in the chart.

## Merits of Diagrammatic and Graphics Presentation:

The fundamental benefits or merits of a diagrammatic and graphical representation of data are as follows:

1. To simplify the data: Outlines and charts present information in a simple manner that can be perceived by anyone without any problem. Huge volume of data can be easily presented using graphs and diagrams.

2. Appealing presentation: Outlines and charts present complex information and data in an understandable and engaging manner and leave a great visual effect. In this way, the diagrammatic and graphical representation of information effectively draws the attention of users.

3. Helps with comparison of data: With the help of outlines and charts, comparison and examination data between various arrangements of information is possible.

4. Helps in forecasting: The diagrammatic and graphical representation of information has past patterns, which helps in forecasting and making various policies for the future.

5. Saves time and labour: Charts and graphs make the complex data into a simple form, which can be easily understood by anyone without having prior knowledge of the data. It gives ready to use information, and the user can use it accordingly. In this way, it saves a lot of time and labour.

6. Universally acceptable: Graphs and diagrams are used in every field and can be easily understood by anyone. Hence they are universally acceptable.

7. Helps in decision making: Diagrams and graphs give the real data about the past patterns, trends, outcomes, etc., which helps in future preparation.

## Demerits of Diagrammatic and Graphics Presentation:

The demerits of diagrammatic and graphics presentation of data are as follows:

1. Handle with care: Drawing, surmising and understanding from graphs and diagrams needs proper insight and care. A person with little knowledge of statistics cannot analyze or use the data properly.

2. Specific information: Graphs and diagrams do not depict true or precise information. They are generally founded on approximations. The information provided is limited and specific.

3. Low precision: Graphs and diagrams can give misleading results, as they are mostly based on approximation of data. Personal judgement is used to study or analyze the data, which can make the information biased. Also, data can easily be manipulated.

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Statistical Methods in Medical Research pp 21–25 Cite as

## Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

- Charan Singh Rayat 2
- First Online: 24 August 2018

The most important function of science of statistics is to simplify the complexity of quantitative data and to make them easily understandable. Numeric figures are usually avoided by common man, but pictures, diagrams, and graphs always attract our attention. Diagrams and graphs give a “birds’ eye view” to the entire mass of statistical data that have been collected about any hypothesis. Characteristics of diagrams and rules for drawing these have been discussed with limitations and use of these. There are a variety of diagrams like dimensional drawings, pictograms, cartograms, graphs, curves, and circles or pie diagrams, which have great utility in the presentation of data.

Download chapter PDF

## 4.1 Usefulness

The impression created by a diagram or a picture is likely to last longer in the mind than the effect created by a set of figures.

One has to tax his brain in understanding figures and drawing conclusions, but in case of diagrams, conclusions automatically follow.

## 4.2 Limitations

Diagrams only give an approximate view of data.

Diagrams are likely to be misused easily.

## 4.3 Characteristics of Diagrams and Rules for Drawing These

Diagrams are meant only to give a pictorial representation to the quantitative data with a view to make them comprehensive.

Diagrams do not approve or disapprove a particular fact.

Diagrams are not suitable for further analysis of data which could only be possible from tables with numeric values.

Data to be represented with diagrams should be homogenous and comparable.

Diagrams are not substitute for numeric figures.

Selection of a scale is a must for execution of a diagram.

If multiple diagrams are to be drawn, the same scale should be used for all.

Vertical scale is shown on the left-hand side and the horizontal scale at the bottom of the diagram.

Diagram should not be clumsy.

Diagram should be attractive.

Various points could be emphasized in a diagram with different colors, line patterns, dots, and crossings.

Extreme care should be exercised in selection of a particular type of diagram capable of representing given set of figures of data.

## 4.4 Different Types of Diagrams

Dimensional diagrams :

One-dimensional diagrams: These are vertical or horizontal lines or bars. The lengths of the lines or bars are in proportion to the different figures these represent.

Two-dimensional diagrams: These are in the shape of rectangles, squares, or circles. The areas of squares, rectangles, or circles are in proportion to the size of items represented by these.

Three-dimensional diagrams: These are in the shape of cubes, blocks, or cylinders. Volumes of these are in proportion to the values being represented. Systolic blood pressure in nine patients has been depicted as scattergram in Fig. 4.1 ; and distribution of serum cholesterol levels in 1000 normal men aged 30–60 years has been depicted in Fig. 4.2 by bar graph.

Scattergram representing systolic blood pressure in nine patients

Distribution of serum cholesterol levels in 1000 normal men

Pictograms : When figures are represented by pictures, these are called pictograms. Sizes and number of pictures are in proportion to the data figures. Data relating to the distribution in various ages is usually represented by “pyramids.” Fasting blood sugar levels in five patients have been illustrated with pictogram in Fig. 4.3 .

Pictogram exhibiting fasting blood sugar in five patients

Cartograms : Here maps are drawn, and the data figures representing the events/phenomena are shown by signs or symbols.

Graphs and curves : Graphs can be in natural scale or ratio scale. In simple bar diagram, one bar would represent one figure, and as such, the number of bars will correspond to the number of observations. The thickness of bars is not taken into account. Width of bars should be uniform. Bars should be at equal distance. Bars can be drawn vertically or horizontally. If the data are not in the shape of time series, the observations may be arranged in ascending or descending order to accomplish comparison. Department-wise data regarding 95 deaths in a hospital in the year 2016 have been illustrated with bars in Fig. 4.4 .

Department-wise data of deaths in a hospital in the year 2016

Circles or pie diagrams : Circles occupy a unique place among two-dimensional diagrams. The area of circles is directly proportional to the “square” of its “radius.” For construction of circles, the “square roots” of various data figures are calculated first. Circles look more presentable than squares and are easy to be drawn. The aggregates can be presented by a big circle and the various components by sectors cut inside it. Such diagrams are known as “angular diagrams.” Department-wise data regarding 95 deaths in a hospital in the year 2016 have been depicted with pie diagram in Fig. 4.5 .

## Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India

Charan Singh Rayat

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## Copyright information

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## About this chapter

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Rayat, C.S. (2018). Diagrammatic Presentation of Data. In: Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0827-7_4

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- Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

Nowadays a lot of emphases is laid upon exceptional presentation of data. All of this is because, when presented diagrammatically, data is easy to interpret with just a glance. In such a case we need to learn how to represent data diagrammatically via bar diagrams, pie charts etc.

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Bar diagrams.

As the name suggests, when data is presented in form of bars or rectangles , it is termed to be a bar diagram.

## Features of a Bar

- The rectangular box in a bar diagram is known as a bar. It represents the value of a variable .
- These bars can be either vertically or horizontally arranged.
- Bars are equidistant from each other.
- Each bar originates from a common baseline or a common axis.
- The width of bars remain same but the height changes, according to the value of a variable, to denote the difference between their values.
- Unless they are in a specific order, the convention is that bars can be arranged in an ascending or descending order.

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- Textual and Tabular Presentation of Data

## Types of Bar Diagrams

Simple bar diagram.

These are the most basic type of bar diagrams. A simple bar diagram represents only a single set of numerical data. Generally, simple bar diagrams are used to represent time series data for a single entity.

Generally, the Y-axis contains markings which represent the range of the value of variable whereas the X-axis contains divisions for entities like years, time periods, areas etc.

## Multiple Bar Diagram

Unlike single bar diagram, a multiple bar diagram can represent two or more sets of numerical data on the same bar diagram. Generally, these are constructed to facilitate comparison between two entities like average height and average weight, birth rates and death rates etc.

Separate sets of numerical data are differentiated with the help of colour variation. By the same token of simple bar diagrams, multiple bar diagrams also have divisions on Y-axis and X-axis that represent different values of the variable and entities like year, areas etc. respectively. Note that each division on X-axis has two or more bar diagrams each according to the specified number of bars.

## Sub-divided or Differential Bar Diagrams

Sub-divided bar diagrams are useful when we need to represent the total values and the contribution of various sections of the total simultaneously. The different sections are shaded with different colours in the same bar.

For example, such a bar diagram can be used to represent the varying levels of employment over the years in India and each bar can be divided into two sectors, the urban and rural. Again, here the Y-axis and X-axis represent same values as in simple and multiple bar diagrams.

## Percentage Bar Diagrams

This is derived further from the subdivided bar diagrams. In this, each bar has the same height that represents 100 percent of the Y-axis in totality. Further, each bar is divided into sections based on percentages calculated according to the contribution of these sections.

Percentage bar diagrams are used when the values are really high. This is because using subdivided bar diagrams in such cases would not be easy and appropriate.

## Deviation Bar Diagrams

Lastly, the deviation bar diagrams are most interesting of the lot. In such a type of bar diagram, there are both negative and positive values on the y-axis. The deviation bar diagrams are used to compare the net deviation of related variables with respect to time and location.

For example, it can be used to represent a bar diagram for savings (represented by positive deviations) and deficit (represented by negative deviations) over years.

## Pie or Circular Diagrams

In addition to bar diagrams, pie diagrams are also widely used to pictorially represent data. In this, a circle is divided into various segments which are decided on the basis of percentages. Which means the circle is divided into sectors depending on various percentages.

These sectors are differentiated with the help of colours. Pie diagrams have an edge over bar diagrams because they can easily provide an overview and provides a better sense of contributions of each part. The steps for construction of a pie diagram are:

The first step involves finding out respective percentages. This is done by a simple mathematical formula to find out percentages which is –

{(Parts for the respective sector)/total parts) ×100} .

For example, if in a class of 1oo students, 30 are obese, 20 are fat and 50 are slim then the percentages will be as follows:

(30/100) × 100= 30%

(20/100) × 100= 20%

(50/100) × 100= 50%

2] A circle comprises 360 degrees. The angles that each sector will span across is decided by the given formula: (Percentage value/100)×360°

3] Finally, just plot these values according to their respective angles on a circle and give appropriate markings to complete the pie chart.

## A Solved Example for You

Q: Which among the following is not a feature of a bar in the bar diagram?

- The width is same but the heights are generally different
- They are rectangular in shape
- Bars should not be equidistant
- Each bar originates from a common baseline

Ans: Of all the above options, option C is incorrect because conventionally the bars should be equidistant.

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## Download Diagrams for PowerPoint

This category contains awesome diagrams for PowerPoint presentatations with unique slide designs and styles. Download diagram templates for PowerPoint presentations containing different types of diagrams like tree diagrams, process flow diagrams , circular or cycle process diagrams, popular business & strategy diagrams like the SWOT templates and more.

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PowerPoint Diagram Templates are slide designs and styles containing images creatively embedded in the structures with the proper color to communicate with the users’ audiences. Our Diagram PowerPoint templates assist in converting boring textual data into more visually appealing graphics and diagrams that are easier to understand at a glance for the audience. Because of the interactive design of the template, users can incorporate this PowerPoint diagram into their scientific, business, or educational presentations and stand out from the crowd.

Our 100% editable diagram presentation templates and PowerPoint designs can assist you in creating an effective business presentation. The Animated Hexagonal Diagram PowerPoint Template is an animated design for professional productions. It is designed with a vibrant color scheme to ensure an impressive audience experience.

These templates are one-of-kind because they are available in various colors, styles, fonts, and font sizes. They are also compatible with Keynote, Office365, and Google Slides.

## What is a PowerPoint Diagram template?

It displays numerical data using pictograms, cartograms, bar diagrams, and pie diagrams. It is the most visually appealing and appealing way of representing statistical data. Diagrams aid in visual comparison and provide a bird’s-eye view.

## What are the benefits of a diagram template?

Using this template will save you the stress of designing a PowerPoint slide from scratch, which can be tiring. All you need to do is to download our pre-designed and edit it to suit your preferences.

- It gives an easy-to-understand approach to every presentation.
- It enhances information retention.
- A pictorial representation is easy to compare.
- It enhances the user’s communication with audiences.
- The audience quickly grasps the information at a glance.
- It helps in the visual representation of data.
- It makes your presentation engaging.

## Why do we use diagrams?

Graphs, tables, diagrams, and charts can help your reader understand your research findings and how they compare to other data. Additionally, PowerPoint Diagrams are used to: make your boring business presentation more exciting and appealing.

- Assist the audience in comprehending your slide-through visuals.
- Display a large amount of data on a single slide with the help of a chart, images, etc.

## What are the types of Diagrams?

There are numerous types of diagrams used for data presentation. The following are some examples of popular types of graphs:

- Line diagram
- Simple bar diagram
- Multiple bar diagram
- Circular or pie chart

However, there is a comparison between graphs and diagrams. A chart is a two- or three-dimensional representation of information that uses lines on two or three axes, such as x, y, and z. In contrast, a diagram is a simple pictorial representation of what something looks like or how it works.

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## Graphical Representation of Data PPT (Power Point Presentation)

Graphical representation of data ppt (line diagram, bar diagram, histogram, frequency curve, ogive and pie chart).

What is graphical representation? Importance of Graphical Representation, Advantages of Graphical Representation, Disadvantages of Graphical Representation, Things to remember when constructing a Graph, Different types of graphs / charts: Line Diagram, Bar diagram, Simple Vertical Bar Diagram, Subdivided Bar Diagram, Multiple Bar Diagram, Percentage Bar Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Frequency Curve, Ogive, Less Than Ogive, Greater Than Ogive, Calculating Median from Ogive, Pie Chart, Relative Frequency and Pie Diagram.

Learn more: Lecture Note in Graphical Representation of Data Part 1 , Part 2

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- Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

## Introduction - Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

Diagrams are an essential operational tool for the presentation of statistical data. They are objects, mainly geometrical figures such as lines, circles, bars, etc. Statistics elaborated with the help of diagrams make it easier and simpler, thereby enhancing the representation of any type of data.

## What is Diagrammatic Representation of Data?

Representation of data assisted by diagrams to increase the simplicity of the statistics surrounding the concerned data is defined as a diagrammatic representation of data. These diagrams are nothing but the use of geometrical figures to improve the overall presentation and offer visual assistance for the reader.

## What are the Types of Diagrams used in Data Presentation?

The type of diagram suitable for data presentation solely depends on the particular dataset and its statistical elements. There are multiple types of diagrams used in data presentation. They can be broadly categorized in the following types of one-dimensional diagrams –

## A. Line Diagram

Line diagram is used to represent specific data across varying parameters. A line represents the sequence of data connected against a particular variable.

## Properties of Line Diagram –

The Lines can be used in vertical and horizontal directions.

They may or may not have uniform scaling

The line connecting the data points state the statistical representation of data.

Example: Arjun, Sayak and Mainak started monitoring their time of reporting for duty for a certain week. A-Line diagram to represent their observed data on average reporting time for those days would look like –

(Image will be Uploaded Soon)

So, as per the Line Diagram, it can be easily determined that Arjun reported for work mostly at 9:30 AM while Sayak and Mainak’s most frequent times of entry at work is 10:30 AM and 10:50 AM respectively.

## B. Bar Diagram

Bar Diagram is used mostly for the comparison of statistical data. It is one of the most straightforward representations of data with the use of rectangular objects of equal width.

## Properties of Bar Diagram –

The Bars can be used in vertical and horizontal directions.

These Bars all have a uniform width.

All the Bars have a common base.

The height of the Bar usually corresponds to the required value.

Example: A dataset comparing the percentile marks obtained by Shreyasi and Monika in Science subjects in the examination can be represented with the help of a Bar diagram as –

From this diagram, we can easily compare the percentile marks obtained by Shreyasi and Monika in the subjects Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Computer Science.

## C. Pie Chart

To know what a Pie Diagram is, it is advised to brush up on the fundamentals of the geometrical theories and formula of a Circle. For the statistical representation of data, the sectors of a circle are used as the data points of a particular dataset. A sector is the area of a circle formed by the several divisions done by the radii of the same circle.

Example: In a recent survey, a dataset was created to figure how many participants of the survey thought that Tenure or Tenor is the correct spelling in the field of Banking . A Pie Chart would present the collected data as –

With the help of this Pie Chart, it can be easily determined that the percentage of participants in the survey who chose ‘Tenor’, to be the correct spelling of the word for use in the field of banking, is 25% whereas 45% picked ‘Tenure’ as the correct answer. 20% opted for both to be correct while 10% of them were not sure with their attempt.

## Advantages of Diagrammatic Presentation

There are several advantages in the presentation of data with the various types of diagrams. They are –

## 1. Makes it Much Easier to Understand

The presentation of data with the help of diagrams makes it easier for everybody to understand, which thereby makes it easier to grasp the statistics behind the data presented. Diagrammatic data presentation is quite common in newspapers, magazines and even in advertising campaigns so that the common mass can understand what the data is trying to reveal.

## 2. Presentation is Much Simpler

With the help of diagrams, presentation of extreme values – extensive unstable data as well as small complicated data complex can be simplified exponentially.

## 3. Comparison Operations are More Interactive

Datasets that require comparison of their elements use the application of diagrams for representation. Not only is the presentation attractive, but it is also ideal for showcasing a comparison in statistics.

## 4. Accepted Universally

Every academic and professional field, let it be Economics, Commerce, Science, Engineering, Statistics, etc. make use of diagrams across the world. Hence, this metric of data presentation is universally accepted.

## 5. Improves the Representation of Data as a Whole

Statistics are incomplete if diagrams are tables that are not implemented for the presentation of data. Hence, the use of diagrams helps in the overall statistical concept of data representation.

Students who are looking forward to diving deep into the theories and principles of Diagrammatic representation of data, make sure to visit the official website of Vedantu and join a live online tutoring class!

## Relevance of Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

Diagrams are visually pleasing and are a great way of representing any form of data. The heavy statistics that we generate can be easily represented via diagrams such as bar charts, pie charts etc. It makes the presentation look neater and more organized. They visually aid the reader in understanding the exact situation and are also very easy to look at. They save a lot of time and confusion and have a universal utility . All students must learn how to represent data through diagrams so that they can present facts and figures in an organized manner.

## Does Vedantu have Anything on the Diagrammatic Presentation of Data?

Vedantu has ample study material on the diagrammatic representation of data. All students can read from Diagrammatic Presentation of Data and know more. This is available completely free of cost on the platform so that the students do not hesitate before accessing them.

## FAQs on Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

1. Which are the types of diagrams used in data representation?

The types of diagrams used in the representation of data are line diagrams, bar diagrams, pie charts and a few others. These are used to represent facts as they make it easier for the students to understand certain information. More about this has been explained in the Diagrammatic Presentation of Data. This page has relevant information that the students can use to understand these diagrams. After having gone through this page, they will know how to represent certain information in the form of diagrams.

2. Are there any merits of the diagrammatic representation of data?

There are a couple of merits of the diagrammatic representation of data. Some of which is that it makes it much easier to understand data, the presentation is simpler, it becomes easier to compare and correlate, and it is universally accepted.

This page has all the details that are needed by the students to know. It is always better to present data in the form of diagrams as it makes it much more systematic. An organized manner of depicting figures makes anything simpler to understand.

3. Is a pie chart an accurate way of representing data diagrammatically?

In a pie chart, the sectors of a circle are used as the data points of a particular dataset. It is indeed an accurate method of representing data as the correct percentage can be found out. All students can check out the Diagrammatic Presentation of Data on Vedantu. This page has all the information that’s needed by the participants. The other forms of diagrams that can be utilized for data presentations have also been talked about. This page has been created by expert Commerce teachers who know the topic inside out and can be read by all those who wish to do well in the tests.

4. Difference between the Diagrammatic and Graphical Presentation of Data.

All graphical representations of data can be a diagram, but all diagrams are not a graph. Graphs are represented on a scale, but diagrams are required to be constructed to a scale. Construction of graphs requires two more axes, but none is a necessity in case of diagrams.

5. What are the different Types of Diagrams in Statistics?

The different types of diagrams used in statistics are line diagram, bar diagram, and pie chart. Bar diagrams can further be classified into simple bar diagrams, multiple bar diagrams and component or sub-divided bar diagrams.

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2. 2 Diagrammatic presentation is the visual form of presentation of data in which facts are highlighted in the language of diagrams. • It consists in presenting statistical material in interesting and attractive geometrical figures (Bars, Circle, Rectangle, Squares), pictures, maps and charts etc.

Diagrammatic representation refers to a representation of statistical data in the form of diagrams. The diagrams used in representing statistical data are geometrical figures, such as lines, bars, and circles. The intention of using geometrical figures in statistical presentation is to make the study more interesting and easy to understand.

Presentation of data ppt. 1. Mrs. Suja Santosh Professor RVS College of Nursing, Sulur, Coimbatore. 2. Method by which the people organize, summarize and communicate information using a variety of tools such as tables, graphs and diagrams. 3.

The diagrammatic presentation of data gives an immediate understanding of the real situation to be defined by the data in comparison to the tabular presentation of data or textual representations. It translates the highly complex ideas included in numbers into a more concrete and quickly understandable form pretty effectively. Diagrams may be ...

Read. Diagrammatic and graphic presentation of data means visual representation of the data. It shows a comparison between two or more sets of data and helps in the presentation of highly complex data in its simplest form. Diagrams and graphs are clear and easy to read and understand. In the diagrammatic presentation of data, bar charts ...

5. General rules for constructing diagrams 1. A diagram should be neatly drawn and attractive. 2. The measurements of geometrical figures used in diagram should be accurate and proportional. 3. The size of the diagrams should match the size of the paper. 4. Every diagram must have a suitable but short heading.

Playful Venn Diagram PowerPoint Template; Venn diagrams are great when it comes to showing the similarities and differences between 2 or more data sets. Just by looking at the diagram, your audience can tell if there's anything common between data sets A and B. Or if there's a relationship between data sets B and C. Likewise, if you want to ...

Charts & Diagrams. Discover an extensive range of ready-to-use charts and diagrams for PowerPoint and Google. Our vast library features over 1,207 free, editable, and easy-to-customize designs to elevate your visual data representation and engage your audience. Charts and diagrams can be used to enhance any presentation, whether it's for a ...

Indicator. An indicator is a sharp and visual method of data presentation. It is very simple and gives an instant message. It is best to show a single piece of information and make an impact. Indicators can also show a progression or a target for the future. The needle is a way of saying, this is where we are.

In the construction of pie diagram the following steps are involved. Step 1: Whenever one set of actual value or percentage are given, find the corresponding angles in degrees using the following formula. Angle =. (or) Angle =. Step 2: Find the radius using the area of the circle π r2 where value of π is 22/7 or 3.14.

3. Diagrams are not suitable for further analysis of data which could only be possible from tables with numeric values. 4. Data to be represented with diagrams should be homogenous and comparable. 5. Diagrams are not substitute for numeric figures. 6. Selection of a scale is a must for execution of a diagram. 7.

The rectangular box in a bar diagram is known as a bar. It represents the value of a variable. These bars can be either vertically or horizontally arranged. Bars are equidistant from each other. Each bar originates from a common baseline or a common axis. The width of bars remain same but the height changes, according to the value of a variable ...

7.3 DIAGRAMMATIC PRESENTATION As you know, diagrammatic presentation is one of the techniques of visual presentation of statistical data. It is a fact that diagrams do not add new meaning to the statistical facts but they reveal the facts of the data more quickly and clearly. Because, examining the figures from tables becomes

Register and download. Forget about the stress of making your own data visualization. This fully customizable diagrammatic and graphical representation of statistical data ppt template will make sure you have a great looking PowerPoint presentation in no time! Use it to create reports, presentations and more with just one click for all elements ...

Our 100% editable diagram presentation templates and PowerPoint designs can assist you in creating an effective business presentation. The Animated Hexagonal Diagram PowerPoint Template is an animated design for professional productions. ... It is the most visually appealing and appealing way of representing statistical data. Diagrams aid in ...

The guided practice will teach you the basics of data diagrammatic presentation, including the data table and chart. Understanding the elements of an exemplary data diagram is an essential part of becoming a great data visualiser. This section will introduce the essential elements of a data table and chart and provide several examples of each.

Graphical Representation of Data PPT (Line Diagram, Bar Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Curve, Ogive and Pie Chart). What is graphical representation? Importance of Graphical Representation, Advantages of Graphical Representation, Disadvantages of Graphical Representation, Things to remember when constructing a Graph, Different types of graphs / charts: Line Diagram, Bar diagram, Simple Vertical ...

2. DIAGRAMMATIC PRESENTATION OF DATA It is a geometric technique of presenting numerical information through bar diagram, pie diagram, pictogram or cartogram is know as a diagrammatic presentation of data. 3. ADVANTAGERS Diagrams are attractive and impressive Easy to remember Diagram simplify data. Diagram save time. Diagram are useful in ...

The presentation of data with the help of diagrams makes it easier for everybody to understand, which thereby makes it easier to grasp the statistics behind the data presented. Diagrammatic data presentation is quite common in newspapers, magazines and even in advertising campaigns so that the common mass can understand what the data is trying ...

Presentation of data ppt. ... • Diagrammatic data representations give a simple and easy understanding of any numerical data collected as compared with the tabular form of the data or textual form of the data. • The diagrammatic representation of data is a method used in the analysis and exploration of information with the help of diagrams.

A diagrammatic representation of data is a visual representation that uses diagrams, such as charts or graphs, to present information or data in a clear and concise manner. It helps to easily understand and analyze complex data sets. 2. What are the advantages of using a diagrammatic representation of data?

This PowerPoint diagrammatic representation of data in statistics ppt template can be used in a variety of ways. It supports all default color schemes and font styles installed on MS Office, which means that you will not have to install any additional fonts for your presentation to look great across different computers.

Graphical representation is the visual display of data using plots and charts. it is used in many academic and professional disciplines but most widely so in the field of mathamatics,medicine and the science. Graphical representation helps to quantify, sort and present data in a method that is understandable to a large variety of audience.