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Hertz CEO Kathryn Marinello with CFO Jamere Jackson and other members of the executive team in 2017

Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2021

Two cases about Hertz claimed top spots in 2021's Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies

Two cases on the uses of debt and equity at Hertz claimed top spots in the CRDT’s (Case Research and Development Team) 2021 top 40 review of cases.

Hertz (A) took the top spot. The case details the financial structure of the rental car company through the end of 2019. Hertz (B), which ranked third in CRDT’s list, describes the company’s struggles during the early part of the COVID pandemic and its eventual need to enter Chapter 11 bankruptcy. 

The success of the Hertz cases was unprecedented for the top 40 list. Usually, cases take a number of years to gain popularity, but the Hertz cases claimed top spots in their first year of release. Hertz (A) also became the first ‘cooked’ case to top the annual review, as all of the other winners had been web-based ‘raw’ cases.

Besides introducing students to the complicated financing required to maintain an enormous fleet of cars, the Hertz cases also expanded the diversity of case protagonists. Kathyrn Marinello was the CEO of Hertz during this period and the CFO, Jamere Jackson is black.

Sandwiched between the two Hertz cases, Coffee 2016, a perennial best seller, finished second. “Glory, Glory, Man United!” a case about an English football team’s IPO made a surprise move to number four.  Cases on search fund boards, the future of malls,  Norway’s Sovereign Wealth fund, Prodigy Finance, the Mayo Clinic, and Cadbury rounded out the top ten.

Other year-end data for 2021 showed:

  • Online “raw” case usage remained steady as compared to 2020 with over 35K users from 170 countries and all 50 U.S. states interacting with 196 cases.
  • Fifty four percent of raw case users came from outside the U.S..
  • The Yale School of Management (SOM) case study directory pages received over 160K page views from 177 countries with approximately a third originating in India followed by the U.S. and the Philippines.
  • Twenty-six of the cases in the list are raw cases.
  • A third of the cases feature a woman protagonist.
  • Orders for Yale SOM case studies increased by almost 50% compared to 2020.
  • The top 40 cases were supervised by 19 different Yale SOM faculty members, several supervising multiple cases.

CRDT compiled the Top 40 list by combining data from its case store, Google Analytics, and other measures of interest and adoption.

All of this year’s Top 40 cases are available for purchase from the Yale Management Media store .

And the Top 40 cases studies of 2021 are:

1.   Hertz Global Holdings (A): Uses of Debt and Equity

2.   Coffee 2016

3.   Hertz Global Holdings (B): Uses of Debt and Equity 2020

4.   Glory, Glory Man United!

5.   Search Fund Company Boards: How CEOs Can Build Boards to Help Them Thrive

6.   The Future of Malls: Was Decline Inevitable?

7.   Strategy for Norway's Pension Fund Global

8.   Prodigy Finance

9.   Design at Mayo

10. Cadbury

11. City Hospital Emergency Room

13. Volkswagen

14. Marina Bay Sands

15. Shake Shack IPO

16. Mastercard

17. Netflix

18. Ant Financial

19. AXA: Creating the New CR Metrics

20. IBM Corporate Service Corps

21. Business Leadership in South Africa's 1994 Reforms

22. Alternative Meat Industry

23. Children's Premier

24. Khalil Tawil and Umi (A)

25. Palm Oil 2016

26. Teach For All: Designing a Global Network

27. What's Next? Search Fund Entrepreneurs Reflect on Life After Exit

28. Searching for a Search Fund Structure: A Student Takes a Tour of Various Options

30. Project Sammaan

31. Commonfund ESG

32. Polaroid

33. Connecticut Green Bank 2018: After the Raid

34. FieldFresh Foods

35. The Alibaba Group

36. 360 State Street: Real Options

37. Herman Miller

38. AgBiome

39. Nathan Cummings Foundation

40. Toyota 2010


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7 Strategies for Improving Your Management Skills

Business team writing on sticky notes

  • 09 Jan 2020

Developing managerial skills is important for all professionals. According to the World Economic Forum , people management is one of the top 10 skills needed to thrive in today’s workforce. Additionally, research by Gallup shows companies with talented managers experience greater profitability, increased levels of productivity, and higher employee engagement scores—highlighting how vital management is to an organization’s culture and success.

Whether you’re an aspiring or seasoned manager, there are actions you can take to improve how you oversee and guide people, products, and projects. Here are seven ways to become a better manager and advance your career.

Access your free e-book today.

How to Improve Your Management Skills

1. strengthen your decision-making.

Sound decision-making is a crucial skill for managers. From overseeing a team to leading a critical meeting , being an effective manager requires knowing how to analyze complex business problems and implement a plan for moving forward.

In the online course Management Essentials , the following components—referred to as the “three C’s”—are presented as essential building blocks for a successful decision-making process:

case study on management skills

  • Constructive conflict: This involves engaging team members in the decision-making process. It invites diverse perspectives and debate and stimulates creative problem-solving.
  • Consideration: All stakeholders involved in a decision should feel their viewpoints were fairly considered before a solution is determined. Without this sense of acknowledgment, they may be less inclined to commit to and implement the solution.
  • Closure: This is a function that ensures stakeholders are aligned before proceeding. It requires defining what constitutes a project or initiative as “done” within a set period, determining if anything remains to be accomplished, and ensuring everyone agrees as to whether the outcome was a success.

By ensuring your decision-making process encompasses these qualities, you can become a key contributor at your organization and influence the context in which decisions get made.

2. Cultivate Self-Awareness

A high level of self-awareness is critical for managers, and it’s what separates high-performers from their peers in the workplace.

This core tenet of emotional intelligence requires introspection and an honest evaluation of your strengths and weaknesses. Through engaging in self-assessment and turning to trusted colleagues to gain insight into your managerial tendencies, you can chart a path for your professional development that hones in on areas where you need to improve, enabling you to bring out the best in yourself and others.

Related: Emotional Intelligence Skills: What They Are & How to Develop Them

3. Build Trust

Trust reaps numerous benefits in the workplace. According to research outlined in the Harvard Business Review , employees at high-trust companies report:

  • Less stress
  • More energy at work
  • Higher productivity
  • Greater engagement

Forge deeper connections with your colleagues by engaging in small talk before meetings and learning more about their lives outside the scope of their work. In addition, encourage inclusive dialogue about personal and professional differences, and be open to diverse viewpoints in discussions.

Doing so can cultivate empathy among your team , leading to a greater sense of camaraderie, belonging, and motivation.

Related: 6 Tips for Managing Global Teams

4. Be a Better Communicator

Strong communication skills are a hallmark of any successful manager. Being in a managerial role involves tackling complex business situations and ensuring your team has the information and tools required to succeed.

When facing challenges like navigating organizational change , be transparent about tasks at hand and instill your team with a shared vision of how your company can benefit from the impending transition. Continually provide updates and reiterate the plan for moving forward to ensure your employees are aligned and understand how their work factors into larger corporate objectives. By developing communication and other interpersonal skills, you’ll set your team up for success.

5. Establish Regular Check-ins

Make it a habit to regularly check in with your employees outside of their annual performance reviews. According to research by Gallup , team members whose managers provide weekly feedback are over:

  • Five times more likely to strongly agree they receive meaningful feedback
  • Three times more likely to strongly agree they’re motivated to do outstanding work
  • Two times more likely to be engaged at work

Keep the conversation informal when delivering feedback , and focus on the person’s progress toward organizational goals rather than their personality. In addition, help them chart a plan for moving forward, and affirm your role as a trusted advisor as they tackle next steps.

6. Carve Out Time for Reflection

Beyond regular check-ins, set a consistent cadence for reflecting on and reviewing your team’s work. In one study by Harvard Business School professors Francesca Gino and Gary Pisano, it was found that call center employees who spent 15 minutes reflecting at the end of the workday performed 23 percent better after 10 days than those who did not.

In a video interview for Management Essentials , HBS Professor Amy Edmondson says reflection is crucial to learning.

“If we don’t have the time and space to reflect on what we’re doing and how we’re doing it, we can’t learn,” Edmondson says. “In so many organizations today, people just feel overly busy. They’re going 24/7 and think, ‘I don’t have time to reflect.’ That’s a huge mistake, because if you don’t have time to reflect, you don’t have time to learn. You’re going to quickly be obsolete. People need the self-discipline and the collective discipline to make time to reflect.”

Schedule reflection sessions shortly after the completion of an initiative or project and invite all members of your team to participate, encouraging candor and debate. Hone in on problems and issues that can be fixed, and plot a corrective action plan so that you don’t encounter the same pitfalls in your upcoming undertakings.

7. Complete Management Training

Beyond your daily work, furthering your education can be an effective way to bolster your management skills.

Through additional training , such as an online management course , you can learn new techniques and tools that enable you to shape organizational processes to your advantage. You can also gain exposure to a network of peers with various backgrounds and perspectives who inform your managerial approach and help you grow professionally.

For Raymond Porch , a manager of diversity programs at Boston Public Schools who took Management Essentials , engaging with fellow learners was the highlight of his HBS Online experience .

“My favorite part of the program was interacting with my cohort members,” Porch says. “I received valuable shared experiences and feedback and was able to be a thought partner around strategies and best practices in varying scenarios.”

Related: 5 Key Benefits of Enrolling in a Management Training Course

How Managers Become Great Leaders

While the terms “management” and “leadership” are often used interchangeably, they encompass different skill sets and goals . Yet, some of the most effective managers also exhibit essential leadership characteristics.

Characteristics of a great leader include:

  • Exemplary leadership: Strong leaders often consider themselves as part of the team they manage. They’re concerned with the greater good of their organization and use delegation skills to effectively assign tasks to the appropriate team members. Just as they must provide feedback to their team, great leaders must accept others’ constructive feedback to improve their leadership style.
  • Goal-oriented: It’s crucial for leaders to deeply understand their organization’s business goals. Knowing its overall mission allows them to strategically prioritize initiatives and align their team with a common vision.
  • Self-motivated: It’s vital that leaders are self-motivated and use time management skills to reach their goals. They must accomplish difficult tasks while inspiring their team to follow suit.

By bolstering your leadership skills , you can strengthen your relationship with your team and empower them to do their best work, ultimately complementing your managerial skills.

Which HBS Online Leadership and Management Course is Right for You? | Download Your Free Flowchart

Elevating Your Management Skills

Managing people and implementing projects on time and on budget is a business skill that all professionals should strive to master. Through sharpening your soft skills, building self-awareness, and continuing your education, you can gain the skills needed to excel as a manager and lead both your team and organization to success.

Do you want to become a more effective leader and manager? Explore our online leadership and management courses to learn how you can take charge of your professional development and accelerate your career. To find the right course for you, download the free flowchart .

This post was updated on September 2, 2022. It was originally published on January 9, 2020.

case study on management skills

About the Author

Get full access to 50 Case Studies for Management and Supervisory Training and 60K+ other titles, with a free 10-day trial of O'Reilly.

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50 Case Studies for Management and Supervisory Training

50 Case Studies for Management and Supervisory Training

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Book description

Managers and supervisors will sharpen their analytical and decision-making skills with this new collection of fully reproducible case studies. Based on actual, real-life situations, these exercises prepare supervisors and team leaders for the challenging problems they face in today's complex workplace.

Each case study includes:

Summary of the case

Discussion questions that evoke thought and analysis

Suggested solutions to the problems presented.

Table of contents

  • The Case Studies in This Manual
  • Using Case Studies in Training Programs
  • Cases and Role Playing
  • Questions and Answers About the Cases
  • Case Report Worksheet
  • Case Analysis Guidelines
  • Case Analysis Guidelines Worksheet
  • An Invitation to the Reader
  • Case Issues Index (1/2)
  • Case Issues Index (2/2)
  • Background Information
  • Case Discussion: How come they make more than me?
  • Case Discussion: "She's a Smart Enough Broad"
  • Case Discussion: Improving Performance in Business Services
  • Approaching the Job of Supervisory Leadership
  • Getting Things Under Control?
  • Case Discussion: "Looney Tunes on Parade"—Part 1: Getting Started
  • Flares in the Night
  • Changing the Guard
  • Case Discussion:" Looney Tunes on Parade"—Part 2: Kicking into Gear
  • Post Mortems
  • Case Discussion: "Looney Tunes on Parade"—Part 3: A Time for Action
  • Case Discussion: Mary Corey
  • Case Discussion: Shipping and Receiving
  • Case Discussion: They Came from Docu-Max
  • Case Discussion: He's Just Not the Same
  • Case Discussion: Special Checking Is Handed a Loss
  • Back to the Beginning: Bob Watson
  • Beverly Becomes Supervisor
  • Case Discussion: Beverly Comes Full Circle
  • Case Discussion: It Was Really So Simple
  • Case Discussion: Pain in Claims
  • Part 2—Betty's Ears Were Burning
  • Part 3—The Ice Breaks
  • Case Discussion: Don't Let Her Get Behind You
  • Case Discussion: Kathy Showers
  • Case Discussion: Forgetting Claims
  • Case Discussion: Answering the Phone
  • Case Discussion: Good News, Bad News
  • Case Discussion: Conflict in Customer Service
  • Case Discussion: Don't Let an Old Flame Die
  • Case Discussion: The Contradiction of Business
  • Case Conclusion
  • Case Discussion: Problems Behind the Counter
  • Case Discussion: Wanted: Good Secretary
  • Case Discussion: Another Staff Meeting
  • Case Discussion: The Case in Case Analysis
  • Case Discussion: A "No" in the Field
  • Case Discussion: Buddy Jefferson
  • Case Discussion: A Wet Pain in the Neck
  • Case Discussion: "Well, excuuse me!"
  • Case Discussion: The "B" Is Back
  • Part 2—Learning the Ropes?
  • Part 3—An Explosive Problem
  • Case Discussion: Accidents Happen (1/2)
  • Case Discussion: Accidents Happen (2/2)
  • Case Discussion: A Leadership Challenge
  • Case Discussion: It was Either Some Dress or Some Stain
  • Case Discussion: Bad News in Budgets
  • Case Discussion: Out of Control
  • Case Discussion: What a Waste of Time
  • Case Discussion: Getting a Fair Hearing
  • Case Discussion: Who's telling the truth?
  • Case Discussion: Shouting for Results
  • Case Discussion: Fixing Things Over Dinner
  • Case Discussion: A System's Migration to New Skills
  • Case Discussion: The Worst Part Was That She Often Was Right
  • Case Discussion: Lighting a Fire
  • Part 2—Stopping the Flow
  • Part 3—Finishing the Story
  • Case Discussion: Caught in the Act
  • Case Discussion: Look Out Ahead
  • B.L.'s Style: The Legend Grows
  • Part 2—B.L. in Operation
  • Part 3—A Problem in Security
  • Case Discussion: A Problem in Security (1/2)
  • Case Discussion: A Problem in Security (2/2)
  • Part 2—Why me? (1/2)
  • Part 2—Why me? (2/2)

Product information

  • Title: 50 Case Studies for Management and Supervisory Training
  • Author(s): Alan Clardy
  • Release date: January 1994
  • Publisher(s): HRD Press
  • ISBN: 9780874259773

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Management Skills in Providing Solutions to Problems Case Study

Introduction, case studies, theoretical overview, managerial skill, lessons and insights gained, reference list.

Management skills in an organization provide direction and facilitate achievement of goals. Challenges in the management can occur, and the management skills can be effective in preventing issues and providing solutions to problems. The following is a presentation of case studies and their possible solution. Theoretical overview, managerial skills and insights from the case study will also be discussed in the paper.

Listening case study

Listening is an important task in business and can have impacts on the organization. An analyst transfers accounts that were handled by a retired analyst. One of the clients whose account is transferred is Mrs. Crenshaw, a widow.

The two discuss her investments. Mrs. Crenshaw demonstrates fear that she did not have enough to support her in her old age, since she is in her late sixties. She demonstrates her interests in investing limited principle.

The analyst fails to note Mrs. Crenshaw fears and goes ahead to encourage Mrs. Crenshaw to invest higher principle which she quickly signs against. Mrs. Crenshaw was not interested in making changes and opted to be conservative.

Later on, the analyst faces the boss, David Sanders who after meeting with Mrs. Crenshaw son agree to delay changes. The analyst realized that he did not listen to Mrs. Crenshaw and he ended up losing the account to a senior analyst.

The analyst learnt his mistake of not listening and failure to detect the fears of Mrs. Crenshaw earlier. He may have been unable to note Mrs. Crenshaw concerns if he was unable to comprehend her perceived issue, had been given multiple tasks or had been overloaded with problems.

The significant task in listening was her fear in high risk investment, and lack of enough funds to sustain her. She signed the papers too quickly, and the analyst did not note that she was dissatisfied. The analyst can overcome the listening issues by increasing attentiveness, requesting for clarification and obtaining feedback.

Building teams case study

In his new job, Ben is placed in a new team. In his previous job, Ben tackled most of the team’s assignments alone in the team. He has high hopes of working in a team in his new job. Besides the team members having a great balance of diversity in specialization and background, the teams kick off well with good relationships and the members are assigned their work.

Communication plans and schedules are in order until the members are assigned individual work (Ckbooks.com, 2011). Before presenting the work, the team meets a day before to compile the work. Ben is disappointed since only one of the members has completed. The other team members had not completed their tasks.

Ben’s expectation of the team members is turned down, and he wishes he had tackled the team’s work individually. Not all members of the team are determined to achieve results. The team seems to be in social relationships that do not yield results at work. The problem occurred when the work was shared.

The situation could have been prevented if a meeting to check on progress was called a few weeks prior to the day of presentation. The issue can be solved if the team meets and they agree on presenting the best work. Consequently, the team can request for additional time to complete its task. The team should meet before presenting the final work. The group should encourage one another and complete the task as well as exhibit work that is well done.

Managing conflict case study

According to the case study, the employer and employees have a conflict on the management which can be resolved. The boss comes in late and reschedules the day’s program, which causes disorientation and wastage of time.

Time wasted causes the employee to be angry and dissatisfied with the days output. Confronting the boss on the issue is difficult and the employee fears that the boss might not change after all.

The frustration of disorganization can be alleviated if the employee seeks to understand the boss. They can initiate a conversation that will enable the employee get communication earlier in the day. In cases where communication and cooperation is not achievable, the employee can consider compromising.

The employee should avoid competition and choose to be understanding. Emotional communication should also be avoided. Moreover, assumptions should be evaded. Communication will be the most effective approach for the management conflict.

Power and politicking case study

Shane gains a promotion after demonstrating leadership skills. She is an excellent communicator and a skilled problem solver. Shane leads the team to solve decreased sales and mounting customer complains together with a team consisting of other employees. Shane’s presentation earns her a promotion. The team members distance themselves. Their behavior towards Shane changes too. The new position places Shane at a closer level with her boss Athena where their relationship is likely to be affected.

Shane’s performance in the given task seems to be the basis for the promotion. The management has confidence in his ability to be the leader. The rest of the team may perceive that Shane was given credit for the team’s efforts. Balancing of power in the organization will require communication from the senior management to avoid misunderstandings.

Raymond the manager should have made a clarification of Shane’s new position and stated what nature of relationship with the other managers will be expected. Shane can emphasize the team’s effort that was a success and encourage team work in his new position as they maintain the team spirit.

Leading and empowerment case study

Gail was hired in a manufacturing company as an office and production manager. Larry was her supervisor and the plant manager. In her new office, she learnt that employees were inefficient. Kathy one of the employees would come late, pick personal calls and request others to answer the calls in the office.

Larry demonstrated dissatisfaction with Kathy’s behavior in the office. Gail warned Kathy but, there was no change in her habit despite getting warning of termination from Gail. When Kathy was fired, she went to Larry’s office and after a long conversation; Larry said Kathy was not fired.

In another department, Gail made changes and the supervisor Maggie, failed to cooperate. Maggie revealed to Gail that she could only take instructions from Larry. This left Gail feeling undermined. Gail together with Larry ordered supplies for production. Larry was accused Gail of ordering, a task that Larry is in charge of.

The challenges Gail is facing can be overcome if Larry, the boss gains trust and confidence on Gail. There should be clarity in the hierarchy, and the responsibilities be clearly outlined. Healthy relationships can be established over time. Communication should be emphasized. The relevance of Gail position can be considered and then the reporting relationship be spelled out.

According to Friendman and Currall (2001, p. 32) conflict management skills are important in every organizational management. Conflict management consists of negotiations that lead to agreement. Conflict management enhances positive outcomes and reduces negative impacts involved in conflicts. Conflicts can be effectively managed if a balance between concerns for self and concerns for others are balanced. Successful conflict management leads to better results. Communication is an effective component of conflict management.

Reh (2011, p. 1) mentions that team building is an activity that involves motivating employees to work as a team and to view the benefits of team work as their personal benefits. Team building is a continuous process that requires participation of every team member. The team is rewarded as a group.

Cooperation and continued efforts are required for every member is made to understand the success of the team is their success. Setting goals and enhancing communication are important aspects in the team building. Team members can identify with the team’s success and gain motivation. Team members should be made to understand that their combined efforts will yield better results than individuals work.

Leadership and empowerment assists in increasing efficiency in the organization. A leader cannot be able to do all tasks without the assistance of their subordinates. A leader delegates work to be able to attain the organizational goals. A leader can motivate and empower others to accomplish tasks.

They need to trust and be confident that they will be able to achieve the desired results and support them when they need assistance. Communication increases clarity and facilitates the exchange of important information within the organization. Duties can be shared so that overlapping tasks and undesignated tasks are avoided. Responsibility is shared according to skills and ability (Holistic Management, 2008, p. 1).

Reh (2006, p. 1) indicates that listening is a significant skill in management. In communication, it is equally important to listen to others just as it is important to give information. Listening involves letting others talk as one pays attention. Therefore, the listener is able to deduce meaning from the person conveying the message. One can develop the correct perception of an issue and address a problem comprehensively by gaining more understanding.

Power and politicking in organization reflects in organizations. To have power means one can influence another. To increase one’s power in an organization, individuals have increased their skills and demonstrated that they are knowledgeable. Employees willingly support leaders whose power is acceptable than one who is coercive. Those who are able to politicize and gain the attention of their bosses as good at performance are able to gain promotion and power in an organization.

Management skills significantly aid in the achievement of goals and objectives in an organization. Management skills are important in production and management of the entire business process. Coordinating activities in an organization require the manger to have adequate information to make appropriate decisions.

Yau and Sculli (1990, p. 33) say that communication is an important skill that enables one to exchange information and gain more knowledge. Listening is part of communication and enables one to gain insights and derive meaning from provided information. Communication also involves making information available to the employees in the organization.

The vision and the goals can be communicated in advance. The hierarchical structure of the organization information can be provided. Individual’s role is clearly outlined to avoid misunderstandings.

Issues that arise in management can be solved, and the organizational goals be achieved. Listening to a client and understanding what they need is a managerial skill. Paying attentiveness and getting clarification is important in every business process. Team building requires motivation for every member.

The motivation can be achieved if every member sees the teams work as their success. Members should continually engage in team work for excellent results to be obtained.

Conflicts can be resolved if there is communication. To manage conflict, negotiations that lead to agreements and compromise are realized. Employees can master the politics and power relations in the organization and gain promotion. Gaining power over others may affect one’s relationship.

Employees can learn to maintain a relationship and recognize team work as collective success. Leaders can effectively delegate responsibilities and attain success. They can trust their employees to make the right decisions. Relationship between managers and their juniors can be clearly outlined.

The case studies provided demonstrate that challenges in management can be overcome. Essential skills as discussed include listening skills, team work, conflict management, understanding power and politics in an organization and adopting leadership and empowerment skills. Management skills improve performance and increase efficiency. Employees require motivation and can learn to maintain healthy relationships in the work place.

Ckbooks. (2011). Power and politics . Web.

Friendman, R. A., & Currall, S. C., (2000). What goes around comes around: The impact of personal conflict style on work conflict and stress . The international Journal of Conflict Management , 11 (1): 32-35. Web.

Holistic Management. (2008). Background information: leadership and empowerment . Web.

Reh, F. J. (2006). Listening is a vital management skill . Web.

Reh, F. J. (2011). Team building . Web.

Yau, W. S. L., and Sculli, D. (1990). Managerial traits and Skills. Journal of management Development , 9 (6): 32- 40.

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"Management Skills in Providing Solutions to Problems." IvyPanda , 28 Mar. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/management-skills/.

IvyPanda . (2019) 'Management Skills in Providing Solutions to Problems'. 28 March.

IvyPanda . 2019. "Management Skills in Providing Solutions to Problems." March 28, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/management-skills/.

1. IvyPanda . "Management Skills in Providing Solutions to Problems." March 28, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/management-skills/.


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Leadership Case Studies

Here is a sample of three case studies from the book, Leadership Case Studies, that are most instructive and impactful to developing leadership skills.

Leadership Case Studies

For the past 30 years, I have conducted seminars and workshops and taught college classes on leadership.

I used a variety of teaching aids including books, articles, case studies, role-plays, and videos.

I recently created a book, Leadership Case Studies that includes some of the case studies and role-plays that I found to be most instructive and impactful.

Here is a sample of three case studies.

Peter Weaver Case Study

Peter Weaver doesn’t like to follow the crowd. He thinks groupthink is a common problem in many organizations. This former director of marketing for a consumer products company believes differences of opinion should be heard and appreciated. As Weaver states, “I have always believed I should speak for what I believe to be true.”

He demonstrated his belief in being direct and candid throughout his career. On one occasion, he was assigned to market Paul’s spaghetti-sauce products. During the brand review, the company president said, “Our spaghetti sauce is losing out to price-cutting competitors. We need to cut our prices!”

Peter found the courage to say he disagreed with the president. He then explained the product line needed more variety and a larger advertising budget. Prices should not be cut. The president accepted Weaver’s reasoning. Later, his supervisor approached him and said, “I wanted to say that, but I just didn’t have the courage to challenge the president.”

On another occasion, the president sent Weaver and 16 other executives to a weeklong seminar on strategic planning. Weaver soon concluded the consultants were off base and going down the wrong path. Between sessions, most of the other executives indicated they didn’t think the consultants were on the right path. The consultants heard about the dissent and dramatically asked participants whether they were in or out. Those who said “Out” had to leave immediately.

As the consultants went around the room, every executive who privately grumbled about the session said “In.” Weaver was fourth from last. When it was his turn, he said “Out” and left the room.

All leaders spend time in reflection and self-examination to identify what they truly believe and value. Their beliefs are tested and fine-tuned over time. True leaders can tell you, without hesitation, what they believe and why. They don’t need a teleprompter to remind them of their core beliefs. And, they find the courage to speak up even when they know others will disagree.

  • What leadership traits did Weaver exhibit?
  • If you were in Weaver’s shoes, what would you have done?
  • Where does courage come from?
  • List your three most important values.

Dealing with a Crisis Case Study

Assume you are the VP of Sales and Marketing for a large insurance company. Once a year your company rewards and recognizes the top 100 sales agents by taking them to a luxury resort for a four-day conference. Business presentation meetings are held during the morning. Afternoons are free time. Agents and spouses can choose from an assortment of activities including golf, tennis, boating, fishing, shopping, swimming, etc.

On day 2 at 3:00 p.m., you are at the gym working out on the treadmill, when you see Sue your administrative assistant rushing towards you. She says, “I need to talk to you immediately.”

You get off the treadmill and say, “What’s up?” Sue states, “We’ve had a tragedy. Several agents went boating and swimming at the lake. Randy, our agent from California died while swimming.”

(Background information – Randy is 28 years old. His wife did not come on the trip. She is home in California with their three children).

  • Explain what you would communicate to the following people.
  • Your Human Resources Department
  • The local police
  • The attendees at the conference (Would you continue the conference?)
  • How will you notify Randy’s wife?
  • If Randy’s wife and a few family members want to visit the location of Randy’s death, what would you do?
  • What are some “guiding principles” that leaders need to follow in a crisis situation?

 Arsenic and Old Lace Case Study

Review the YouTube video, “ I’ll show them who is boss Arsenic and Old Lace.”   

Background Information

The Vernon Road Bleaching and Dyeing Company is a British lace dyeing business. It was purchased in bankruptcy by the father/son team of Henry and Richard Chaplin. Richard has been acting as “Managing Director” which is the same as a general manager or president of a company.

The company has had 50-to-150 employees with 35-to-100 being shop floor, production employees. The company produces and sells various dyed fabrics to the garment industry.

Gerry Robinson is a consultant who was asked to help transform methods of conducting business to save the company.

Jeff is the factory manager.

  • What are Richard’s strengths and weaknesses as a leader?
  • What could Richard have done to make the problems of quality and unhappy customers more visible to the workforce?
  • What do you think Richard’s top three priorities should be for the next 12 months?
  • What could Richard have done to motivate the workforce?
  • Evaluate Jeff’s approach and effectiveness as a leader.

The book contains 16 case studies, four role-plays, and six articles. I hope you find some of the content useful and helpful in your efforts to teach leadership.

Click for additional leadership case studies and resources .


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4 Facts and Stats to Help You Make the Case for Managers as Coaches

  • By Ryan Houmand
  • Performance Management
  • May 23, 2024

Table of Contents

Your people managers play an enormous role in improving and sustaining  employee performance —and creating a culture of coaching can increase the impact of their efforts.

When you develop managers with the skills and behaviors to coach, you empower them to steer conversations, forge strong relationships, and unleash the full potential of your people.

Read on to explore how coaching skills can become a significant asset for your managers and your organization at large.

The Role of Managers as Employee Coaches

Ask your employees about the factors that have the biggest impact on their career development, performance, or overall job satisfaction. For many, their manager is likely to be one of the most significant.

The research bears this out too. A survey conducted by Gartner finds that 77% of employees are increasingly looking to managers as a source of support. 

Empowering your managers as coaches with the necessary skills and behaviors helps them to provide this support and guidance. It’s also a powerful way for managers to promote purposeful training and development , correct behaviors, and work with employees to define their career goals and get them to where they want to be.

For teams, coaching communicates a shared vision and purpose, improving collaboration and trust.

Managers can weave coaching into a variety of existing scenarios, all of which assist in bolstering performance and development outcomes. These coaching conversations are likely to include some of the following elements:

  • Sharing consistent, timely, and actionable feedback
  • Setting achievable goals
  • Improving role and goal clarity
  • Helping identify and overcome roadblocks
  • Preparing employees to advance within the organization
  • Recognizing progress and achievements

PARTNER WITH YOUR PEOPLE MANAGERS | ‘ How HR Can Help Managers With Talent Development ’

The Benefits of Empowering Managers to Be Coaches

There are several practical applications for employee coaching, each with the potential to add measurable value. Let’s explore four cases for coaching and the benefits each one brings:

1) Facilitating Employee Development

A survey of 6,000 employees conducted by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development found that managers greatly influence development outcomes. In fact, the quality of line managers and the support and training employees received were the most commonly cited factors in the report—they were mentioned by 40% of respondents who stated that their careers have met or exceeded their personal expectations.

Among employees dissatisfied with their development and progression, commonly cited factors included the poor quality of line managers and a lack of coaching and mentoring.

Coaching is valuable for both short-term behavior changes and long-term career development and growth . It prepares people for career advancement by uncovering their goals and equipping them with the skills and experience they need to progress within the organization.

A coach will typically work alongside recently promoted employees and those looking to move into management and leadership positions to identify strengths and challenges, then tailor guidance around developing skills and closing gaps.

2) Improving Employee Engagement

Employee experience matters, and Gallup estimates that low employee engagement levels cost the global economy $8.8 trillion annually. And the primary cause of disengagement? A lack of manager and leadership development.

While a lack of manager development leads to low levels of engagement, there's a direct benefit to developing coaching capabilities among your people managers. According to Bridge-sponsored research , organizations prioritizing manager-employee coaching are more likely to see higher levels of employee engagement .

When coaching is an ongoing commitment, you increase satisfaction and motivation in a growth-focused environment and develop your people to their full potential. By embedding coaching into check-ins and conversations, managers build trust with their people and provide a safe, judgment-free space to share timely feedback , recognition, and set clear expectations.

3) Prioritizing Performance Goals

Further Bridge-sponsored research reveals that high-performing organizations are nearly three times more likely to recognize the critical role that managers play in driving business results. They’re also more likely to hold managers accountable by tracking coaching conversations.

Whether addressing gaps in skills or behaviors, setting expectations for goals, or improving accountability for deadlines, performance coaching bridges gaps in a supportive environment.

With the proper guidance, employees learn to solve problems, find new ways to approach challenges, and improve accountability toward goals. Integrating coaching into employee-manager discussions can make these goal-centric discussions an integral part of your performance management processes .

MORE ABOUT PERFORMANCE CONVERSATIONS | ‘ Performance Fundamentals: 4 Benefits of Embracing Performance Management Systems ’

4) Managing and Sustaining Change

Change is unavoidable, but coaching gives organizations actionable ways to implement and sustain initiatives that lead to long-term success.

A study of one company’s transformation found that employee perceptions directly impact the outcome. Specifically, successful change resulted when employees felt that they'd been supported through the process with frequent communication and positive empowerment, and had received adequate training.

As those most closely connected to their teams, managers play a key role in championing change initiatives, sharing a long-term vision, and answering any questions. During transitions, coaches communicate the scope of this change and support people in embracing it positively and seeing things from a different perspective. 

HELP YOUR MANAGERS START PRODUCTIVE CONVERSATIONS | ‘ 9 Ways to Maximize the Effectiveness of Your 1:1s ’

Increase the Impact of Your Manager Development Programs

Bolster your talent development efforts with a framework that turns your managers into effective coaches. Download our ebook, ‘ How to Empower Managers to Be Coaches ’, to learn more.

Ryan Houmand

case study on management skills

  International Journal of Applied Technologies in Library and Information Management Journal / International Journal of Applied Technologies in Library and Information Management / Vol. 10 No. 1 (2024) / Articles (function() { function async_load(){ var s = document.createElement('script'); s.type = 'text/javascript'; s.async = true; var theUrl = 'https://www.journalquality.info/journalquality/ratings/2405-www-ajol-info-jatlimi'; s.src = theUrl + ( theUrl.indexOf("?") >= 0 ? "&" : "?") + 'ref=' + encodeURIComponent(window.location.href); var embedder = document.getElementById('jpps-embedder-ajol-jatlimi'); embedder.parentNode.insertBefore(s, embedder); } if (window.attachEvent) window.attachEvent('onload', async_load); else window.addEventListener('load', async_load, false); })();  

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Article Details

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License .

Main Article Content

Information literacy skills training model for clinicians based on a case study of their information experiences and practices in south-east, nigeria, samuel k. ibenne.

This paper is the outcome of an exploratory case study of Paediatricians in a tertiary hospital in Southeast, Nigeria, which aimed at providing understanding of the relationship between their information experiences, practices and their decisions in patient care. It was conducted using the qualitative method, with data obtained through interviews, diaries and observation. Paediatricians in the cadres of: Consultants, Senior Registrars, Registrars and Residents provided data which was coded thematically with the Nvivo software and analysed using the interpretative method. The findings are that in general: i) there was haphazard approach to information literacy training for the clinicians during professional education resulting in varied information capabilities, and inadequacy of knowledge and skills for good information practice; ii) obtaining medical information from colleagues was the predominant feature of paediatricians' information practices; iii)printed textbooks were the paediatricians preferred source for obtaining medical evidence, however, there was a growing popularity in the use of electronic medical information sources, including at the point of care; iv) there was general perception by the paediatricians that access to, and use of medical information supports patient care and achievement of better treatment outcomes. This perception instilled a sense of value for information use, demonstrated through the clinicians' dedication to the self-provision of information resources; vi) a dearth of medical resources germane to the contextual management of illnesses led to inadequate clinician knowledge in a good number of cases. The study recommends among others that the information literacy skills training (ILST) model developed from the findings, be used as a practical training tool for information literacy for the paediatricians' at the level of residency training to enhance their skills in medical information sourcing and use in patient care.

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Journal Identifiers

case study on management skills

  • Open access
  • Published: 22 May 2024

Joint interprofessional education of pharmacy and dietetics undergraduates - a scoping review

  • Anna Rudzińska   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8369-2131 1 ,
  • Piotr Guzy   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-4071-2080 2 ,
  • Agnieszka Skowron   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-3768-4958 2 ,
  • Jerzy Gąsowski   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8025-5323 1 &
  • Karolina Piotrowicz   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-4760-8588 1  

BMC Medical Education volume  24 , Article number:  557 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

Metrics details


Interprofessional education (IPE) is an integrative approach that enables collaboration of students of two or more different health professions in aim to acquire skills and competencies related not only to their field of study but also to ensure the standard of care based on collaborative practice. IPE has not yet been explored in relation to collaboration between dietetics-nutrition and pharmacy students, while there is evidence that in many cases nutrition is complementary to pharmacotherapy in the treatment process.

The aim of this scoping review was to gather, describe and discuss all relevant literature regarding joint interprofessional training of pharmacy and dietetics-nutrition undergraduates.

We performed a literature search for studies where IPE between dietetics-nutrition and pharmacy students was described. 2204 articles on this topic were identified. After eligibility assessment, 8 articles were included in the review.

Eight studies were included in the review. Two of these described IPE activities between dietetics and pharmacy students only. The included studies varied in setting, methodology and outcome measures and covered a wide range of topics relevant to clinical practice, such as management of inflammatory bowel diseases, care of the older adults or counselling skills. The most common teaching method was the use of case studies. Some of the included studies did not identify specific learning objectives. The most common way of gathering feedback from participants was through questionnaires and interviews.


IPE of pharmacy and dietetics-nutrition students is feasible and may be beneficial in many aspects related to learning. However, there is no well-established model or standard that would facilitate the implementation of such activities in individual educational institutions.

Peer Review reports

Collaborative, interprofessional healthcare should become the model for healthcare delivery. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) document published in 2010, the benefits of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaborative practice include shorter hospital stays, lower rates of complications and reduced mortality [ 1 ]. IPE is a topic of interest for research on graduate-level education in various aspects of medical care. However, literature reports vary in the models of educational approach evaluated, including, but not limited to, the number of different professions or specialties included, the educational level of participants (graduate or undergraduate), the learning settings, and the educational topics [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. There are also significant differences in the effects measured across studies. These may aim to measure students’ knowledge, skills, or opinions and experiences, as well as clinical skills or effects on the functioning of care systems [ 2 , 4 , 5 ]. Student-oriented outcomes include effects related to specific clinical or professional areas, as well as general collaborative skills, including teamwork or communication skills [ 4 , 6 , 7 ].

In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on incorporating elements of interdisciplinary education into the curricula of medical schools. This has been highlighted by the accreditation committees of medical and nursing schools in the United States, such as the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) [ 8 ] and the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing (ACEN) [ 9 ], which include in their guidelines requirements for teaching aimed at effective collaboration between different professions. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) publishes guidelines for accreditation that include a requirement to introduce interprofessional activities aimed at teaching skills such as conflict resolution and recognition of different professional roles [ 10 ]. In the UK, the General Medical Council requires medical schools to provide opportunities for students to work with other health and social care professionals during the course of their studies [ 11 ].

There are well-documented examples of good practice in providing such learning activities for the aforementioned majors, while care teams in both hospital and community settings are becoming increasingly multi-professional [ 12 ]. Nowadays, pharmacological and nutritional lifestyle interventions are considered important and complementary treatment modalities and pharmacists and dietitians are becoming more common members of these care teams. This creates an area for collaborative learning between dietitian-nutritionists and pharmacists, which may be considered beneficial in training on topics relevant to clinical practice where the required competencies are cross-disciplinary and part of the curriculum overlaps. This approach of combining pharmacological and dietary interventions is reflected in the clinical guidelines for diabetes [ 13 , 14 , 15 ], hypertension [ 16 ], dyslipidaemia [ 17 , 18 ], chronic kidney disease [ 19 , 20 ] or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency [ 21 , 22 ].

The two curricula have in common not only the learning outcomes related to knowledge of therapeutic interventions, but also the role of both professions in the health care system. Both dieticians and pharmacists are responsible for delivering elements of health education in many European countries. Tasks that used to be carried out mainly by doctors and nurses are now largely carried out by members of both professions. This creates favourable conditions for learning using interprofessional education methods. Dietetics and pharmacy students can transfer knowledge on chronic disease management to each other and support each other in acquiring skills for effective communication with other members of the healthcare team and, most importantly, with the patient. Such an approach at the undergraduate level can lay a solid basis for future professional collaboration.

The purpose of this scoping review is to gather, describe and discuss all relevant literature regarding joint interprofessional training of pharmacy and dietetics-nutrition undergraduates with particular focus on learning settings, methods, topics, and outcome measures of joint learning used in research.

We used the extended definition of IPE proposed by Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE), according to which IPE can be defined as occasions when members or students of two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care and services [ 23 ].

We decided to conduct this review in accordance with scoping review methodology, following PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews [ 24 ].

Inclusion/exclusion criteria

We included each study that examined the interprofessional education initiatives involving pharmacy students and dietetics-nutrition students.

We excluded studies where:

students of either pharmacy or dietetics-nutrition were not included;

the majority (> 50%) of the group were postgraduates;

it was uncertain, whether dietetics-nutrition and pharmacy students had the opportunity to work together;

described learning outcomes of interprofessional learning activity were unrelated with future working environment and patient care (e.g. language courses, time management training).

During the screening stage, we considered only publications in English and Polish. We excluded narrative reviews, conference abstracts, letters, opinions, and editorials.

Search strategy

We conducted systematic search of 3 medical databases: Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library and Embase with following queries:

For PubMed and Cochrane: (((((((((((dietician) OR (nutritionist)) OR (dietitian)) OR (dieticians)) OR (nutritionists)) OR (dietitians)) OR (dietetics student)) OR (dietetics students)) OR (“Dietetics“[Mesh]))) AND ((((((pharmacist) OR (pharmacists)) OR (Pharmacy student)) OR (Pharmacy students)) OR (“Students, Pharmacy“[Mesh]))))

For Embase: ((‘pharmacist’/exp OR pharmacist) OR ‘pharmacy education’/exp OR ‘pharmacy student’/exp) AND ((‘dietitian’/exp OR ‘dietitian’) OR ‘dietetics’/exp OR ‘dietetics student’/exp).

Search results are current as of May 17, 2023.

The selection of relevant studies was carried out independently by two researchers with didactic experience (PG, MPharm and AR, Master of Dietetics) in three step eligibility assessment process compliant with PRISMA Statement Extension for Scoping Reviews [ 24 ]. After the removal of duplicates, we screened titles and abstracts of identified literature. In the next step full texts have been screened. After selection of studies, we additionally reviewed the reference lists of the included full texts and checked the manuscripts citing the retrieved papers. Any disagreements on the inclusion of the study were resolved by discussion with third researcher with high level of competence in university-level teaching, research, and clinical experience (KP; MD, PhD).

Of the initial 2204 records screened, we included 8 manuscripts. Details on the sources, reasons for exclusion, and selection process are presented in PRISMA diagram (Fig.  1 ).

figure 1

The PRISMA flowchart for the scoping review of joint interprofessional education of pharmacy and dietetics undergraduates

In total, 234 students of dietetics and 721 students of pharmacy participated in the included studies. The characteristics of individual studies are compared in Table  1 .

Students (majors) involved in the interdisciplinary training

Only in the studies by Wilby et al. and Khalafalla et al. did pharmacy and dietetics students have the opportunity to work together without the participation of students from other disciplines [ 26 , 29 ]. Wilby et al. described a one-day course-based voluntary IPE session in which students were given a case of a patient with Crohn’s disease and aimed to develop a care plan taking into account nutritional and pharmacological issues. Attitudes towards team-based care were assessed using an adapted survey (Heinemann, Schmitt, Farrell and Brallier; 1999). The survey consisted of 11 items measuring attitudes towards interprofessional care [ 26 , 33 ]. 95.1% of students agreed that the team approach improves the quality of patient care and 87.8% agreed that team meetings promote communication between team members from different disciplines. In general, the vast majority of participants agreed that interprofessional care was an applicable and beneficial concept, but there were few items in the questionnaire where opinions were divided. Controversies tended to relate to the leading role of doctors in interprofessional care and whether they had the right to interfere with patient care plans developed by other members of the healthcare team. 56.1% of respondents disagreed with the statement ‘Physicians are natural team leaders’. The other controversial items in the survey were ‘When developing interdisciplinary patient care plans, much time is wasted translating jargon from other disciplines’ (only 56.1% disagreed) and ‘Patients are less satisfied with their care when it is provided by a team’ (only 61.0% disagreed) [ 26 ]. In a study by Khalafalla et al., pharmacy and dietetics students participated in a voluntary university course aimed at improving communication between future health professionals, clarifying roles and developing teamwork skills. The authors did not specify why they chose to include these two professions in the interprofessional course. The teaching method used in this course was team-based learning (TBL) [ 29 ]. Although only pharmacy and dietetics students attended the course, the curriculum was facilitated by a team consisting of a registered dietitian, a clinical pharmacist, a paediatrician and a cardiovascular researcher. The course consisted of four sessions. Three were dedicated to theoretical knowledge on healthy eating, lifestyle and obesity, and the development of soft skills such as motivational interviewing, coaching and cultural competence. In the fourth session, students conducted mock interviews and had the opportunity to receive feedback from the registered dietitian. Student outcomes were assessed using the Interprofessional Collaborative Competencies Attainment Survey (ICCAS). In general, students’ self-perceived competencies increased in all areas assessed. In presenting the results of this study, the authors did not make a comparison between nutrition and pharmacy students [ 29 ].

In other studies, the number of majors varied from five (Watts et al.) [ 32 ] to eleven (Van Digelle et al.) [ 31 ]. The most common major to participate in an interprofessional learning environment was nursing, which was included in every study except the two that included only students of pharmacy and dietetics. Other common majors included were physiotherapy (in three studies) [ 25 , 27 , 31 ], social work and occupational therapy (each in four studies) [ 25 , 27 , 28 , 30 , 31 , 32 ] and psychology (in three studies) [ 25 , 28 , 30 ]. Based on the data we obtained from the included manuscripts, none of the authors provided a rationale for the selection of specific majors.

Learning setting and subject

The majority of the described interprofessional initiatives were implemented as university courses (voluntary or compulsory). In two studies an interprofessional clinic, where students could perform their professional roles was set (Kent et al., Watts et al.) [ 25 , 32 ].One study was based in a clinical setting, as the described intervention was interprofessional clinical rotations as part of the curriculum of the participating programmes (Pelham et al.) [ 27 ].

Four studies (Kent et al., Khalafalla et al., Bhattacharya et al., Van Diggele et al.) mentioned specific learning outcomes achieved by students upon completion of the course [ 25 , 29 , 30 , 31 ]. Six of the included studies defined subject areas (e.g., childhood obesity) or skills that students were expected to develop through participation in a course (e.g., cultural competency). In the study by Kent et al. students worked in an outpatient clinic for older adults, and the study aimed to report learning outcomes related to interprofessional collaboration in this specific setting [ 25 ]. In the study by Wilby et al., nutrition and pharmacy students worked on a case study of a patient with Crohn’s disease, but no learning objectives or specific topics were mentioned. In the study by Reitsma et al. no specific learning outcomes were mentioned, but the authors mentioned that the case studies used during the course reflected patients referred to their local clinics, e.g. patients with cancer, human immunodeficiency virus, Alzheimer’s disease, a teenager with an eating disorder and older adults. The project was planned with the involvement of a multidisciplinary team of teachers from six different health professions [ 26 ]. In the study by Khalafalla et al. the learning outcomes were defined but only related to the different aspects of nutrition education and motivational interviewing and not to the interdisciplinary practice of pharmacists and dietitians. Topics covered in the course included obesity, healthy nutrition, and lifestyle, coaching and motivational interviewing skills, and cultural competency [ 29 ]. The study by Bhattacharya et al. was part of the Geriatrics Champions Programme (GCP), a multidisciplinary project designed to train health professionals in different aspects of geriatric care. Thirty learning objectives were divided into eight domains: special considerations in geriatric care; medication management; cognitive, affective and behavioural health; complex or chronic illness in older adults; palliative and end-of-life care; hospital patient safety; transitions of care; ambulatory care. The domains were based on the American Geriatrics Society Internal Medicine-Family Medicine (IM-FM) Residency Competencies. Learning objectives within each domain were adapted for each specialty involved in interprofessional learning [ 30 ]. In study by van Diggele et al. three learning outcomes related to interprofessional collaboration were defined. The manuscript lacked in information on specific topics covered during the course [ 31 ]. Studies by Watts et al. and Pelham et al. lacked in information on learning outcomes provided by described courses [ 27 , 32 ].

Learning approach

Two of the included studies (Kent et al., Watts et al.) used the service-learning (SL) method [ 25 , 32 ]. Service-learning is a learning approach that combines theoretical knowledge gained in an academic setting with practical outcomes that benefit community members in some way. The important parts of service-learning are established learning objectives that meet the needs of the beneficiaries, reflection on the learning experience, reciprocity between beneficiaries and learners so that both parties have the opportunity to learn and teach, and structuring of the learning experience [ 34 ]. In Kent et al. and Watts et al. studies SL was used to create student-led clinics. In a study by Kent et al., the student-led clinic aimed to address the needs of senior citizens being discharged from hospital. Students from different disciplines formed interdisciplinary teams and provided advice and, if an unmet health need was identified, wrote a recommendation to the patient’s GP. After each day students presented each case study to other participants [ 25 , 32 ]. The study by Watts et al. aimed to compare face-to-face mobile community clinics run by students from different professions with the experience of a virtual student-run clinic. While the online clinic sessions were conducted using case studies and real patients were not present during the course, the face-to-face mobile clinics involved community members, particularly underserved older adults, and were offered in assisted living and senior centres. During the patient’s visit to the clinic, students collected health and dietary information, carried out supervised medication reconciliation and assessed the need for social support services. Debriefing sessions were held after the clinics to allow students to discuss the impact of interdisciplinary medical practice [ 32 ].

Case-based learning was the main intervention described in three of the included manuscripts (Wilby et al., Reitsma et al., van Diggele et al.) [ 26 , 28 , 31 ]. Case-based learning is a structured teaching approach that aims to prepare students for the future practice using clinical cases [ 35 ]. In the study by Reitsma et al., students participated in weekly meetings to discuss treatment approaches from the perspective of different health professions. The authors aimed to assess team dynamics and identify students who took on leadership roles during the intervention, as the course lasted 4–6 weeks. The number of nutrition and pharmacy students who took a leadership role during the meeting increased between the first and last meeting of the course [ 28 ]. In the van Diggele et al. study, students were asked to solve a case study and produce a video of their case management and treatment plan for this particular patient. The results of an intervention were evaluated using thematic analysis of the qualitative data. The following themes were identified in students’ responses to an open-ended question “What was most beneficial to your learning?“: opportunity to practice working in an interprofessional team, peer learning and collaboration (for both dietetics and pharmacy students), role clarification (for pharmacy students), perspectives of other disciplines in patient management (for dietetics students) [ 31 ].

The study by Khalafalla et al. used the team-based learning method, previously defined in this article [ 29 ]. The main components of this teaching approach are individual student preparation, individual and team Readiness Assessment Tests (tRATs), and in-class assignments requiring team-based decision making [ 36 ]. The second manuscript that described an intervention based on a team-based learning approach was the study by Bhattacharya et al. The intervention studied was a 24-month course in geriatrics led by facilitators from different faculties. The sessions were structured and consisted of individual and team readiness assessment tests, case studies, discussions and feedback. Before each session, students had access to online materials such as articles and patient cases. Participation in discussions and other activities was rewarded with points, and the team with the highest score received a prize at the end of the academic year [ 30 ].

Measure of outcomes

Two studies used qualitative methods to assess the outcomes of the educational intervention delivered. (Kent et al., Pelham et al.) [ 25 , 27 ]. The majority of included studies used both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the effectiveness and/or usefulness of the intervention for learners. (Reitsma et al., Khalafalla et al., Bhattacharya et al., Van Diggele et al.) [ 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 ]. In the Watts et al. and Wilby et al. studies, the only tool used to measure outcomes was a validated questionnaire [ 26 , 32 ]. One study analysed clinical workplace providers’ experiences with IPE (Pelham et al.) [ 27 ], one (Kent et al.) mentioned both students’ and educators’ perspective, while other focused on students’ experiences [ 25 ]. A comparison of the included studies in terms of used measures of outcomes is presented in Table  2 .

We identified eight manuscripts relating to the described interprofessional learning for dietetics and pharmacy students. Of the included studies, two focused exclusively on dietetics and pharmacy students. Clinical teaching (particularly including geriatrics, gastroenterology, obesity, infectious diseases, oncology), cultural competence and interprofessional collaboration were identified as areas where interprofessional learning for dietetics and pharmacy students could be considered useful. However, some of the included studies did not identify specific learning objectives that would be useful in optimising future collaborations between pharmacy and nutrition or dietetics students. The included studies varied in setting, methodology and outcome measures and covered a wide range of topics relevant to clinical practice. In the included studies, case-based learning was the most commonly used teaching method. The use of this approach allows students from different disciplines to be involved in the care of the patient within their area of expertise, while encouraging interdisciplinary discussion of case management.

In the study by Wilby et al. [ 26 ], which included only dietetics and pharmacy students, authors draw attention to the important issue of involving all potential members of the interprofessional care team in interprofessional learning activities. On the one hand, such an approach would create an environment for more complex collaboration, and on the other hand, joint work between two health professions allows students to become better acquainted with the specifics of a particular health profession. What is more, in this study, only 44% of the students surveyed felt that doctors were natural leaders of the care team. It is also possible that working in teams made up exclusively of two professions allowed them to take on a significant amount of responsibility that would otherwise have been shared between team members.

This finding is in line with what was found in another study on IPE. Mei-Chi Ho et al. [ 37 ] conducted a study involving nursing and physiotherapy students. At the end of the study, the participants described a better recognition of the roles of the different health professions and how they complement each other. The students emphasised that doctors may not have sufficient knowledge of subjects that are directly related to other professions, and therefore achieved better role clarification. Similar observations about collaboration between pairs of different medical professions suggest that it may be worth exploring the potential benefits of collaboration in interprofessional, yet less diverse groups, with the aim of achieving better role awareness and encouraging communication between groups of professionals who traditionally do not share the decision-making process in patient care.

None of the papers justified why particular groups of students were included in the study. To our knowledge, there are no guidelines on this aspect of setting up interprofessional learning groups. An important observation from our review is the suggestion that when setting up classes for students of different professions, it is important to ensure that the learners are provided with educational material that allows to demonstrate the skills of each of the professions included in the study. It is also important to identify thematic areas that can be used as a basis for interdisciplinary activities. The included studies show that a variety of topics can be explored by dietetics-nutrition and pharmacy students in collaborative educational environment. The themes identified in our review where dietetics and pharmacy students collaborated were geriatrics, gastroenterology, infectious diseases and oncology, and obesity. Students also achieved learning outcomes related to cultural competence, motivational interviewing and health coaching. In the study involving only dietetics and pharmacy students, topics included managing the treatment process of a patient with Crohn’s disease and developing soft skills useful in counselling. The case of a patient with Crohn’s disease may be used to illustrate the areas in which students from these disciplines can work together. Crohn’s disease is often associated with the need for enteral or parenteral nutrition. It is essential that at least four professionals are involved in the process of managing the patient’s nutritional needs: a medical doctor, a nurse, a dietitian and a pharmacist [ 38 ]. For this reason, the management of inflammatory bowel diseases seems to be a good field for joint competence development for dietitians and pharmacists. Another area of clinical practice where interprofessional training of dietitians and pharmacists seems relevant is geriatric care, including the management of nutrition-related adverse effects of medications. It is known that anorexia [ 39 ] of ageing can be caused by some groups of prescribed and over-the-counter medications as well as polypharmacy, which causes drug-drug interactions. By working together, dietitians and pharmacists can identify the problem of loss of appetite and resolve it by suggesting deprescribing or changing the schedule of medications and meals. An education that includes the above fields allows for the systematic development of skills from the higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy [ 40 ] as students are not only aware of the presence of other health professions (remember), but also have the opportunity to familiarise themselves with their competencies and identify challenges that require collaboration (understand), implement protocols of practice (apply), draw conclusions on the relevance of cooperation (analyze), discuss the advantages and disadvantages of implemented solutions (evaluate), and propose innovative solutions to patient care based on the skills and knowledge of all team members (create). One of the examples of the collaboration between postgraduate dietitians and pharmacists regarding remember and understand levels of Bloom’s taxonomy is the study by Kizaki et al. [ 41 ]., in which pharmacists and dietitians were asked to rate their feelings about the availability of dietary advice in pharmacies in Japan. When surveyed, 70% of pharmacists found this type of service useful. Pharmacists also agreed that the availability of dietary advice reduces the number of medicines a patient has to take. More than 80% of pharmacists thought that the number of pharmacies offering dietary advice would increase in the future. The successful implementation of such services in Japan, followed by a satisfactory level of mutual recognition of the competences of each profession, leads to the conclusion that there is an area for collaboration between practitioners of these two professions in relation to the higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy model. This is also in line with the implementation of the patient-centred model of care, as integrated education at undergraduate level seems a reasonable way to build skills and awareness that are crucial for future successful collaboration between health professions to achieve high standards of patient-centred care. In such patient-centered care model, patients’ preferences, goals and beliefs take precedence over medical paternalism. This often requires a shift from a disease-centred approach, which promotes the central role of the physician, to a perspective in which other needs of the patient are considered equally important, allowing other health-related professions to take the lead. As patient treatment is often influenced by nutritional status and polypharmacy, the added value of IPE between dietitians and pharmacists would be to teach such approaches from the outset, rather than putting health professionals from different disciplines in a situation where they have to start working together as a team without proper training on how to do so. Another important component of IPE approach is promoting an inclusive attitude where uncertainties are resolved with respect for each profession and attempts are made to establish common communication practices. In such an approach, IPE is not only a teaching format aimed at the acquisition of knowledge related to the future profession, but also an opportunity for students of different disciplines to learn communication beyond the boundaries of the profession. In this way, IPE is more about giving students a space to share their thoughts, discuss and collaborate, rather than teaching them the principles of effective communication in the artificial conditions of a classroom.

The results presented by the authors of the included studies tended to focus on the overall student experience. Most projects did not use standardised assessment tools. In addition, only one study considered teachers’ perceptions of the interprofessional education experience (Kent et al.) [ 25 ] and one study considered employers’ perceptions (Pelham et al.) [ 27 ]. An important direction for further research in the area of interprofessional education of dietetics and pharmacy students seems to be not only the student experience, but also the evaluation of the educational process by experienced educators and, in later stages, by potential employers. Involving employers in the evaluation of the usefulness of interprofessional educational activities may help to identify further areas where this collaboration could have long-term benefits. Another area where further research could be undertaken is the element of evaluating the uptake of leadership by students on different courses, introduced in one of the included articles. The effectiveness of the educational interventions described could then be assessed through a shift in the perception of the relevance of one’s role in the patient care process and the willingness to take initiative and responsibility for the outcomes achieved.

The included studies represented a wide range of educational and research approaches. In view of the conclusions drawn by the authors, we have decided to summarise the implications for the further planning of joint educational and research activities for students of nutrition and dietetics and pharmacy (Table  3 .).

Our scoping review needs to be considered in the context of its limitations. All included papers provided information on the type of learning project evaluated. However, only 4 of them (Kent et al., Khalafalla et al., Bhattacharya et al., Van Diggele et al.) reported specific learning outcomes. These outcomes differed significantly between studies [ 25 , 29 , 30 , 31 ]. In other studies authors included only a description of the skills (Wilby et al.) [ 26 ] or competencies (Reitsma et al.) [ 28 ] that the students should acquire during the training, but these were not specified or comparable between studies.

Several published studies addressed the issue of IPE jointly in pharmacy and dietetics-nutrition. The studies ranged in setting, methodology and outcome measures. Although the topics of educational courses varied, most of the included studies used case studies as the main teaching method during the courses described, two of the studies used student-led clinics and other types of problem-based learning. All of the teaching strategies used focused on students taking action and being encouraged to work together. The IPE, as delivered in the included studies, was feasible and was providing measurable benefit. The students who took part experienced improved skills both in individual soft competences and teamwork.

Changing paradigms of patient care lead to changes in educational approaches. Despite methodological differences, the reviewed papers suggest that IPE is a viable educational option. Its implementation can facilitate teamwork that is better adapted to the changing needs of the patient and thus lead to improvements in patient care. The main challenge to the wider use of IPE among students of dietetics-nutrition and pharmacy appears to be the lack of scientific evidence to support the decisions needed to carefully plan and implement IPE activities. However, the available data suggest that IPE in these programmes is feasible in a variety of settings and can be beneficial for learners.

Data availability

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary information files.


World Health Organization

Interprofessional education

Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education

Team-based learning

Interprofessional Collaborative Competencies Attainment Survey

Geriatrics Champions Program

American Geriatrics Society Internal Medicine-Family Medicine


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AR and PG contributed equally to this paper. They established inclusion/exclusion criteria, developed search strategy, conducted screening and articles review. They also extracted data from included papers. KP consulted AR and PG throughout the entire process, resolved disagreements on the inclusion of the study. AR, PG, KP, AS, JG analyzed and interpreted data. All authors reviewed manuscript.

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Rudzińska, A., Guzy, P., Skowron, A. et al. Joint interprofessional education of pharmacy and dietetics undergraduates - a scoping review. BMC Med Educ 24 , 557 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-024-05411-4

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  1. Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2021

    Fifty four percent of raw case users came from outside the U.S.. The Yale School of Management (SOM) case study directory pages received over 160K page views from 177 countries with approximately a third originating in India followed by the U.S. and the Philippines. Twenty-six of the cases in the list are raw cases.

  2. Management Skills: Articles, Research, & Case Studies on Management

    Learning to Manage: A Field Experiment in the Indian Startup Ecosystem. by Aaron Chatterji, Solene Delecourt, Sharique Hasan, and Rembrand Koning. This study of 100 high-growth startups in India finds that founder-executives can learn how to improve their management style from their peers at other firms.

  3. What the Case Study Method Really Teaches

    It's been 100 years since Harvard Business School began using the case study method. Beyond teaching specific subject matter, the case study method excels in instilling meta-skills in students.

  4. Management Articles, Research, & Case Studies

    Professor Ashley Whillans and her co-author Hawken Lord (MBA 2023) discuss Serhant's time management techniques and consider the lessons we can all learn about making time our most valuable commodity in the case, "Ryan Serhant: Time Management for Repeatable Success.". 08 Aug 2023. Research & Ideas.

  5. Leadership Articles, Research, & Case Studies

    Executives who confront new challenges with old formulas often fail. The best leaders tailor their approach, recalibrating their "action orientation" to address the problem at hand, says Ryan Raffaelli. He details three action orientations and how leaders can harness them. 05 Jul 2023.

  6. Management skills

    Consider allowing your team to redistribute tasks to tap their diverse interests and skills. Save; Share; December 07, 2017; ... Management Case Study. Suraj Srinivasan; Li-Kuan Ni; 8.95.

  7. PDF Learning and skills report case studies

    2021: CASE STUDIES. The CIPD is the professional body for HR and people development. The registered charity champions better work and working lives and has been setting the benchmark for excellence in people and organisation development for more than 100 years. It has more than 150,000 members across the world, provides thought leadership ...

  8. 7 Strategies for Improving Your Management Skills

    1. Strengthen Your Decision-Making. Sound decision-making is a crucial skill for managers. From overseeing a team to leading a critical meeting, being an effective manager requires knowing how to analyze complex business problems and implement a plan for moving forward. In the online course Management Essentials, the following components ...

  9. PDF Exploring Management Case Studies: Lessons in Effective Leadership

    His case study serves as a reminder that an organization's success is directly linked to its ability to prioritize employee well-being and address internal issues effectively. Management case studies offer valuable insights into effective leadership practices and strategies. The case studies of Steve Jobs, Mary Barra and Sundar Pichai

  10. PDF Case study Unlocking Leadership Potential

    Case Study: Global learning program for mid-level managers TECHNOLOGY & MEDIA | Leadership skills prioritized by the organization 1. Structure logical arguments ... - Further the leadership and management skills to enhance impact on their teams and achieve their leadership goals

  11. 50 Case Studies for Management and Supervisory Training

    Title: 50 Case Studies for Management and Supervisory Training. Author (s): Alan Clardy. Release date: January 1994. Publisher (s): HRD Press. ISBN: 9780874259773. Managers and supervisors will sharpen their analytical and decision-making skills with this new collection of fully reproducible case studies. Based on actual, real-life situations ...

  12. How to Learn from Management and Leadership Case Studies

    1. Read the case carefully. Be the first to add your personal experience. 2. Analyze the case critically. Be the first to add your personal experience. 3. Generate and evaluate alternatives. Be ...


    Case Study Keywords Marketing; Business performance; Business success; ... Clifton and Harter (2019) conducted a management consultancy study, surveying more than 50,000 managers between 2014 and 2019, and asking over ... the best management skills, his chances of success will be greater. Yes, without a doubt". He stated

  14. What Is Case Management? Definition, Process, and Models

    The case management process. Case management is a collaborative process in which a case manager works with clients to ensure they obtain the proper health care in the most cost-effective manner. This is what the process typically looks like: 1. Screening: The case manager reviews a client's medical records, medical history, and current ...

  15. Management skills

    Conclusion. The case studies provided demonstrate that challenges in management can be overcome. Essential skills as discussed include listening skills, team work, conflict management, understanding power and politics in an organization and adopting leadership and empowerment skills. Management skills improve performance and increase efficiency.

  16. How to Build Conflict Resolution Skills: Case Studies and Examples

    Client Service. Practice de-escalating conflict as a customer service specialist. Record a call between you and your client and suggest a suitable path forward. Build conflict resolution skills now. Avg. Time: 3-4 hours. Skills you'll build: Triage, problem-solving, de-escalation, customer retention, composure.

  17. Leadership Case Studies

    October 12, 2021. For the past 30 years, I have conducted seminars and workshops and taught college classes on leadership. I used a variety of teaching aids including books, articles, case studies, role-plays, and videos. I recently created a book, Leadership Case Studies that includes some of the case studies and role-plays that I found to be ...

  18. Leadership Development: Articles, Research, & Case Studies on

    Through a series of case studies, Robert Simons explores the unique qualities of visionary leaders and what today's managers can learn from their journeys. ... Robert Huckman and colleagues offer a roadmap for teaching doctors the management and leadership skills they need—before the next public health crisis. Open for comment; 0 Comments. 07 ...

  19. The Case Manager's Toolbox: The Essential Skills of an Effective Case…

    Negotiating, collaborating, communicating, team-building, precepting, educating, and consulting are the basis of what a successful case manager brings to the care setting each day. There are skill sets every case manager and social worker needs to be effective. These skills form the foundation of an effective case management professional.

  20. Case Manager Skills: Definition, Examples and Tips

    Case management requires critical-thinking skills to solve problems that may be barriers to effective patient care. If a patient requires in-network care to keep the cost of care within their budget, for example, a case manager can find creative ways to meet the patient's health needs while still keeping costs low.

  21. Case Study Method: A Step-by-Step Guide for Business Researchers

    Although case studies have been discussed extensively in the literature, little has been written about the specific steps one may use to conduct case study research effectively (Gagnon, 2010; Hancock & Algozzine, 2016).Baskarada (2014) also emphasized the need to have a succinct guideline that can be practically followed as it is actually tough to execute a case study well in practice.

  22. 4 Facts and Stats About Managers as Coaches

    Bridge offers an award-winning learning management system, employee development and performance platform in one unified experience. Helping engage employees through learning is at the heart of everything we do. Design and deliver training programs, and take learning to a new level with tools designed to build skills and drive growth.

  23. Case Studies in Self-management: Valuable Learning Experiences

    The cases illustrate the level of sophistication of clinical replications that can be attempted in a semester unit. These cases were chosen because they targeted long-standing serious problems which none of the students thought would be responsive to behavioural-cognitive techniques applied by themselves.

  24. Contemporary Strategy Analysis, 12th Edition

    Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Twelfth Edition, remains the ideal textbook for core strategy courses in Business Studies, Management, and MBA programs, as well as for executive courses on competitive strategy, corporate strategy, and management consulting skills. It is also a valuable resource for managers, business owners, founders, and other ...

  25. Information literacy skills training model for clinicians based on a

    This paper is the outcome of an exploratory case study of Paediatricians in a tertiary hospital in Southeast, Nigeria, which aimed at providing understanding of the relationship between their information experiences, practices and their decisions in patient care. It was conducted using the qualitative method, with data obtained through interviews, diaries and observation.

  26. Joint interprofessional education of pharmacy and dietetics

    The included studies varied in setting, methodology and outcome measures and covered a wide range of topics relevant to clinical practice, such as management of inflammatory bowel diseases, care of the older adults or counselling skills. The most common teaching method was the use of case studies.