- The Open University
- Explore OpenLearn
- Get started
- Create a course
- Free courses
My OpenLearn Create Profile
- Personalise your OpenLearn profile
- Save Your favourite content
- Get recognition for your learning
- Welcome to this free course on 'General Teaching M...
- Information that is not to miss
- Alternative format
- Tell us what you think of this course
- Acknowledgements & references
- Course guide
- TOPIC 1 - QUIZ
- TOPIC 2 - QUIZ
- TOPIC 3 - QUIZ
- TOPIC 4 - QUIZ
- TOPIC 5 - QUIZ
- 1.1 DEFINITIONS, TYPES & PROCESSES OF LEARNING
- What is learning
- Conclusion on learning theories
- 1.2 LEARNING STYLES
- Introduction to learning styles
- Overview of learning styles
- Interpersonal learners
- Intrapersonal learners
- Kinesthetic learners
- Verbal learners
- Visual learners
- Logical learners
- Auditory learners
- Identifying learning styles
- 1.3 LEVELS OF COGNITION
- Introduction to Bloom's taxonomy
- How Bloom’s Taxonomy is useful for teachers
- 2.1 FOUNDATION AND RATIONALE
- Introduction to Active Teaching and Learning
- Defining Active Teaching and Learning
- Rationale for Active Teaching and Learning
- 2.2 METHODS, TECHNIQUES & TOOLS
- METHODS FOR ACTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING
- Problem-based learning
- Project-based learning
- Learning stations
- Learning contracts
- TECHNIQUES FOR ACTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING
- TOOLS FOR ACTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING
- Low cost experiments
- Charts and maps
- Student portfolio
- 2.3 BARRIES IN INTEGRATING ACTIVE TEACHING
- Identifying Barriers
- 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATION
- Defining classroom management
- The role of the teacher
- Defining classroom organization
- Classroom seating arrangement
- Overview of classroom seating arrangement styles
- Benefits of effective classroom management and organization
- 3.2 STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
- The teacher as a model
- Desired learner behaviour
- Rewarding learners
- Types of rewards
- Reinforcing learners
- Delivering a reinforcement
- 3.3 LESSON PLANNING
- Definition of a lesson plan
- Components of a lesson plan
- 4.1 INTRODUCTION TO ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
- Definition of assessment
- Formative vs. summative assessment
- Assessment for learning
- Assessment vs. evaluation
- 4.2 CLASS ASSESSMENT TOOLS
- Assessment rubrics
- 4.3 REFLECTIVE PRACTICE
- Definition of reflective practice
- The reflective cycle
- 5.1 CONCEPT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
- Introduction to teaching and learning materials
- Purpose of teaching and learning materials
- 5.2 TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
- Traditional and innovative resources
- Educational videos
- Educational posters
- Open Educational Resources (OERs)
- 5.3 CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
- Integrating instructional materials
- Factors to consider when selecting instructional materials
About this course
- 11 hours study
- 1 Level 1: Introductory
- Course description
Free Statement of Participation on completion of these courses.
Earn a free digital badge if you complete this course, to display and share your achievement.
General Teaching Methods
If you create an account, you can set up a personal learning profile on the site.
A presentation delivers content through oral, audio and visual channels allowing teacher-learner interaction and making the learning process more attractive. Through presentations, teachers can clearly introduce difficult concepts by illustrating the key principles and by engaging the audience in active discussions. When presentations are designed by learners, their knowledge sharing competences, their communication skills and their confidence are developed.
- Define the objectives of the presentation in accordance to the lesson plan (lesson planning)
- Prepare the structure of the presentation, including text, illustrations and other content (lesson planning)
- Set up and test the presentation equipment and provide a conducive seating arrangement and environment for the audience (lesson planning)
- Invite the audience to reflect on the presentation and give feedback (lesson delivery)
- After the presentation, propose activities or tasks to check the learners’ understanding
- Use Mentimeter for interactive presentations and to get instant feedback from your audience (consult this written tutorial on how to use Mentimeter).
- An infographic; graphic visual representations of information, data, or knowledge, is an innovative way to present. Use the digital tool Canva to create your own infographics (consult this written tutorial on how to use Canva).
- Use Google Slides or the Microsoft software PowerPoint , to easily create digital presentations.
- The purpose of a presentation is to visually reinforce what you are saying. Therefore the text should contain few words and concise ideas organised in bullet-point.
- Support your text using images .
- Provide time for reflection and interaction between the presenter and the audience, for example by using Mentimeter .
Techniques/ Demonstration Techniques/ Brainstorming
For further information, take a look at our frequently asked questions which may give you the support you need.
Have a question?
If you have any concerns about anything on this site please get in contact with us here.
Report a concern
National Extension Water Outreach Education
Division of extension.
Home » Water Outreach Education » BEP Website Resources » Use Education Resources » Tools for Teaching » Teaching and Presentation Skills
Teaching and Presentation Skills
Tools for teaching navigation.
Facilitation Skills : The art of group facilitation
Teaching and Presentation Skills : Keep these techniques in mind
Keep these five techniques in mind when developing or polishing your outreach skills.
Variety of Teaching Methods and Strategies
Create Effective Presentations
Use audiovisuals, teach outdoors, evaluate yourself and others, use a variety of teaching methods and strategies.
We each learn differently based on our learning style, multiple intelligences and past knowledge and experience. We learn best when we experience a teaching approach that matches our unique learning profile. For this reason, educators need to use a variety of teaching strategies to assure that they are meeting the needs of their learners (audiences).
A Continuum of Teaching Methods
Explanation of Teaching Continuum (pdf, 5 pp., 145 KB)
Photo courtesy of the Rock River Coalition, WI
A presentation is a spoken communication made in a prepared and formal way. You can give a presentation to one person or hundreds of people or thousands. The skills required can be learned and are very much the same regardless of the size of the group. Water management professionals are often called upon to give a wide variety of presentations. You may be asked to:
- Give a progress report to your supervisor.
- Demonstrate to a group of contractors how to install a BMP.
- Speak to a civic group on how to reduce NPS pollution.
- Show your commissioners how county money is used to leverage more money.
- Pique the interest of local farmers in renting your no-till drill.
- Conduct a workshop for 40 educators.
- Persuade legislators to support an increase in cost-share monies.
- Explain a new procedure to employees.
- Teach a group of scouts how to do water quality monitoring.
- Deliver a keynote speech at an annual meeting.
- Give a dedication speech for your new outdoor education area.
With such diversity, a broad range of skills is needed. Developing great speaking abilities is not unlike learning a new sport. Every sport has basic skills that you have to master individually as well as combined together in a game. Basketball players, for example, have to learn to dribble and pass the ball, shoot foul shots and lay-ups, grab rebounds and defend the opponent. While they may excel in some skills, a certain level of expertise is needed in all areas to have an overall successful game. In addition, ballplayers need to integrate their skills with others to work as a whole, i.e., as a team.
Learning to become an effective speaker is similar. In the beginning it can be just as frustrating as learning to properly dribble or throw a basketball. However, after learning a few basic skills, and, most importantly, practicing them, things usually improve. But to really learn to present well takes constant practice and mastery of the basic skills and the ability to weave them together as a whole, i.e., into a presentation.
Where to Start
Goals and Objectives
How to Present Your Content to Make the Most Sense
Effective Questioning Strategies
The “How and When” of Handling Audience Questions
Getting Ready and Making Room Arrangements: The Final Steps
Audiovisuals include any teaching tool used to focus attention, emphasize, clarify and reinforce key points. Visuals, in particular, are important presentation tools because humans are visual creatures we process visual information (pictures, graphs, etc.) 60,000 times faster than text and retain it up to five times longer.
Well-planned and well-executed audiovisuals can do many things for the audience:
- Capture attention and focus attention
- Reinforce (but not repeat verbatim) the verbal message
- Clarify information
- Accelerate learning
- Increase retention
and for the presenter:
- Help organize the presentation
- Increase presenter credibility
- Help manage time and help maintain control
- Help keep presenter/audience on the same track
General Tips for Planning Successful Audiovisuals
Advantages, disadvantages, and tips for common types of audiovisuals (pdf)
Water resource professionals provide outreach activities and programs for both youth and adults in outdoor settings. These include, for example, pond clinics, field days, water festivals, teacher workshops, camp programs, land lab activities as well as Earth Day, Arbor Day and other special events. Outdoor experiences serve as a powerful vehicle for first-hand learning and a means for helping youth and adult learners make connections that are personal and relevant. Whether learning best practices for pond management and soil erosion or the effects of water quality on organisms found in a stream, learners can become more engaged and successful through the use of hands-on experiences in the outdoors.
While the principles of good education serve equally well inside and outside, several strategies for outdoor learning can make these experiences more rewarding for both the learner and the leader. The following guidelines can help you as you explore the outdoors with learners young and old.
Preparing the Activity or Program
Preparing the Learners
Doing the Activity or Program
Following the Activity or Program
Becoming an effective presenter or teacher is a process, not an event. It takes many years of practice, focusing on one skill and then another and another, building your repertoire of presentation techniques, your style and your confidence. The best way to improve is through self-evaluation and comments by friends, colleagues and experts.
Strategies to Help Improve Your Skills
A Guide for Growing Volunteer Monitoring Programs directs program coordinators to resources for building successful programs. See the USA Volunteer Water Quality Network website, and especially:
- Tools for Effective Outreach
- From the Trenches – Tips and Tools for Better Presentations
Adapted with permission from Soil and Water Conservation District Outreach: A Handbook for Program Development, Implementation and Evaluation . Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Soil and Water Conservation, 2003.
More in this Section
- Teaching Skills: audience questions
- Teaching Skills: a continuum
- Teaching Skills: content organization
- Teaching Skills: the introduction
- Teaching Skills: things to avoid
- Teaching Skills: where to start
- Teaching Skills: audiovisuals
- Teaching Skills: goals and objectives
- Teaching Skills: effective questioning strategies
- Teaching Skills: presenting content
- Teaching Skills: prepare activity
- Teaching Skills: final steps
- Teaching Skills: prepare the learner
- Teaching Skills: make presentation interesting
- Teaching Skills: doing the activity
- Teaching Skills: checking understanding
- Teaching Skills: audience retention
- Teaching Skills: powerful closing
- Teaching Skills: alert the audience
- Teaching Skills: tips for closings
- Teaching Skills: increasing learning
- Teaching Skills: evaluate yourself
- Teaching Skills: following the activity
We teach, learn, lead and serve, connecting people with the University of Wisconsin, and engaging with them in transforming lives and communities.
Explore Extension »
Connect with your County Extension Office »
Find an Extension employee in our staff directory »
Get the latest news and updates on Extension's work around the state
An EEO/AA employer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title VI, Title IX, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act requirements.
Activate your 30 day free trial to unlock unlimited reading.
Presentation method of teaching
You are reading a preview.
Activate your 30 day free trial to continue reading.
Check these out next
Download to read offline
it is important to teacher to know about methods of teaching. Here is describe top 3 methods which are very important. for fashion, style, dresses visit site https://fashion2days.com/
More Related Content
Slideshows for you (20).
Similar to Presentation method of teaching (20)
Recently uploaded (20)
- 2. Methods of Teaching 2
- 3. Topic General Methods of Teaching 3
- 4. 4 General Methods of Teaching Prégent (1990) defines a method of teaching as particular way of organizing pedagogical activities knowingly implemented according to certain rules in order to make learners reach specified objectives
- 5. Teaching methods can be grouped as (A) Teacher – Centred Methods: (B) Student-Centred Group Methods: (C) Individual Student-Central Methods: 5
- 6. Types of Lecture Method • Simple lecture • Illustrated lecture • Lecture concentration • Lecture cum Buzz session • Lecture interposed with questions • Seminar 6
- 7. 7 Suggestions for effective lecture preparation The Beginning of the Lecture The Body of the Lecture The Closing of the Lecture Questions to Consider Delivery-Vocal Delivery-Physical Other
- 8. 8 The recitation is a form of educative activity. In this sense the recitation is a process of instruction, and a mode of teaching. Meaning of recitation According to American Heritage Dictionary, The meaning of recitation is 1-Act of reciting; rehearsal; repetition of words or sentences 2- The rehearsal of a lesson by pupils before their instructor. Recitation method
- 9. Steps of conducting recitation method Planning Be enthusiastic Process of recitation Audiovisual aids, demonstrations Teacher’s attitude towards students Use of blackboard Problem-solving Student participation Questioning skills Discipline and class control Giving a quiz Be flexible Special Situations Record-Keeping 9
- 10. 10 Discussion Method Discussion method is effective in getting the students to think constructively while interacting with the rest of the group. It may by Conducted discussions with small groups; small groups are more desirable.
- 11. Kinds of Discussion Method Panel discussion Dialogue Symposium Forum Open forum Panel-forum Symposium-forum Dialogue-form Lecture and question answer Colloquy Buzz Session Audience Reaction Team Question Period Brain storming Discussion Group Workshop Seminar Conference 11
- 12. 12 Benefits of Group Discussion Whole the group pool and share ideas. Analyse, discuss and share experiences. Very effective in short groups. Reasoning and questioning skills may be enhanced. Students learn civic sense. Students learn consensus building. It creates connection between old and new knowledge. It enhances thinking and reasoning skills and process. It creates students interest in a topic and the subject of social studies
- 13. 13 Main steps for the discussion method Planning and preparation Group Formulation Selection of Group Leader Observer or Recorder Preparation Conducting of Discussion Analyse and Interpret
- 14. 14 Visit our website for fashion update https://fashion2days.com Like our Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/Girlss-Fashiontodays-1424409630955361/ Thanks
Public clipboards featuring this slide, select another clipboard.
Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already.
You just clipped your first slide!
Create a clipboard
Get slideshare without ads, special offer to slideshare readers, just for you: free 60-day trial to the world’s largest digital library..
The SlideShare family just got bigger. Enjoy access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, and more from Scribd.
You have now unlocked unlimited access to 20M+ documents!
Learn faster and smarter from top experts
Download to take your learnings offline and on the go
Instant access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, podcasts and more.
Read and listen offline with any device.
Free access to premium services like Tuneln, Mubi and more.
Help us keep SlideShare free
It appears that you have an ad-blocker running. By whitelisting SlideShare on your ad-blocker, you are supporting our community of content creators.
Methods for Presenting Subject Matter
- Tips & Strategies
- An Introduction to Teaching
- Policies & Discipline
- Community Involvement
- School Administration
- Technology in the Classroom
- Teaching Adult Learners
- Issues In Education
- Teaching Resources
- Becoming A Teacher
- Assessments & Tests
- Elementary Education
- Secondary Education
- Special Education
- M.A., English, Western Connecticut State University
- B.S., Education, Southern Connecticut State University
The word educate comes from Latin, meaning "to bring up, to rise, and to nourish, to train." To educate is an active enterprise. In comparison, the word teach comes from German, meaning "show, declare, warn, persuade." To teach is a more passive activity.
The difference between these words, educate and teach, has resulted in many different instructional strategies, some more active and some more passive. The teacher has the option to choose one in order to successfully deliver content.
In choosing an active or passive instructional strategy, the teacher must also consider for other factors such as subject matter, the resources available, the time allotted for the lesson, and the background knowledge of the students. What follows is a list of ten instructional strategies that can be used to deliver content regardless of grade level or subject matter.
Lectures are instructor-centered forms of instruction given to a whole class. Lectures come in many different forms, some more effective than others. The least effective form of lecture involves a teacher reading from notes or the text without differentiating for student needs. This makes learning a passive activity and students may quickly lose interest.
The lecture is the most used strategy. An article in "Science Educator" titled "Brain Research: Implications to Diverse Learners" (2005) notes:
"Although lecturing continues to be the most widely employed method in classrooms across the country, research on the way we learn indicates that lecturing is not always very effective."
Some dynamic teachers, however, lecture in a more free-form manner by including students or providing demonstrations. Some skilled lecturers have the ability to engage students using humor or insightful information.
The lecture is often coined as "direct instruction" which can be can be made into a more active instructional strategy when it is part of a mini- lesson .
The lecture portion of the mini-lesson is designed in a sequence where the teacher first makes a connection to previous lessons. Then the teacher delivers the content using a demonstration or a think-aloud . The lecture part of the mini-lesson is revisited after students have an opportunity for hands-on practice when the teacher restates the content one more time.
In a whole group discussion , the instructor and the students share the focus of the lesson. Typically a teacher presents information through questions and answers, trying to ensure that all students are involved in learning. Keeping all students on task, however, may be difficult with large class sizes. Teachers should be aware that using an instructional strategy of whole-class discussions may result in passive engagement for some students who may not participate .
To increase engagement, whole-class discussions may take several different forms. The Socratic seminar is where an instructor asks open-ended questions allowing students to respond and build on each others thinking. According to education researcher Grant Wiggins , the Socratic seminar leads to more active learning when,
"...it becomes the student’s opportunity and responsibility to develop habits and skills that are traditionally reserved for the teacher."
One modification to the Socratic Seminar is the instructional strategy known as the fishbowl. In the fishbowl, a (smaller) inner circle of students respond to questions while a (larger) outer circle of students observes. In the fishbowl, the instructor participates as a moderator only.
Jigsaws and Small Groups
There are other forms of small group discussion. The most basic example is when the teacher breaks the class up into small groups and provides them with talking points that they must discuss. The teacher then walks around the room, checking on the information being shared and ensuring participation by all within the group. The teacher may ask students questions to ensure that everyone's voice is heard.
The Jigsaw is one modification on small group discussion that asks each student to become an expert on a particular topic and then share that knowledge by moving from one group to another. Each student expert then "teaches" the content to the members of each group. All members are responsible to learn all content from one another.
This method of discussion would work well, for example, when students have read an informational text in science or social studies and are sharing information to prepare for questions posed by the instructor.
Literature circles are another instructional strategy that capitalizes on active small group discussions. Students respond to what they have read in structured groups designed to develop independence, responsibility, and ownership. Literature circles can be organized around one book or around a theme using many different texts.
Role Play or Debate
Roleplay is an active instructional strategy that has students take on different roles in a specific context as they explore and learn about the topic at hand. In many ways, role-play is similar to improvisation where each student is confident enough to offer an interpretation of a character or an idea without the benefit of a script. One example could be asking students to participate in a luncheon that is set in a historical period (ex: a Roaring 20s "Great Gatsby" party).
In a foreign language class, students might take on the role of different speakers and use dialogues to help learn the language . It is important that the teacher has a firm plan for including and assessing the students based on their role-playing as more than participation.
The use of debates in the classroom can be an active strategy that strengthens skills of persuasion, organization, public speaking, research, teamwork, etiquette, and cooperation. Even in a polarized classroom, student emotions and biases can be addressed in a debate that begins in research. Teachers can foster critical thinking skills by requiring students to provide evidence to support their claims before any debate.
Hands-on or Simulation
Hands-on learning allows students to participate in an organized activity best evidenced in stations or science experiments. The arts (music, art, drama) and physical education are those recognized disciplines that require hands-on instruction.
Simulations are also hands-on but are different than role-playing. Simulations ask students to use what they have learned and their own intellect to work through an authentic problem or activity. Such simulations might be offered, for example, in a civics class where students create a model legislature in order to create and pass legislation. Another example is having students participate in a stock market game. Regardless of the kind of activity, a post-simulation discussion is important for assessing student understanding.
Because these kinds of active instructional strategies are engaging, students are motivated to participate. The lessons do require extensive preparation and also require the teacher to make clear how each student will be assessed for their participation and then be flexible with the results.
Teachers can use a variety of educational software on different platforms to deliver digital content for student learning. The software might be installed as an application or a program that students access on the internet. Different software programs are selected by the teacher for their content ( Newsela ) or for the features that allow students to engage ( Quizlet ) with the material.
Longterm instruction, a quarter or semester, can be delivered over software platforms online such as Odysseyware or Merlot . These platforms are curated by educators or researchers who provide specific subject materials, assessment, and support materials.
Short term instruction, such as a lesson, can be used to engage students in learning content through interactive games ( Kahoot !) or more passive activities such as reading texts.
Many software programs can collect data on student performance which can be used by teachers to inform instruction in areas of weakness. This instructional strategy requires that teacher vets the materials or learns the software processes of the program in order to best use the data that records student performance.
Presentation Through Multimedia
Multimedia methods of presentation are passive methods of delivering content and include slideshows (Powerpoint) or movies. When creating presentations, teachers should be aware of the need to keep notes concise while including interesting and relevant images. If done well, a presentation is a kind of lecture that can be interesting and effective for student learning.
Teachers may want to follow a 10/20/30 rule which means there are no more than 10 slides , the presentation is under 20 minutes, and the font is no smaller than 30 points. Presenters need to be aware that too many words on a slide can be confusing to some students or that reading every word on the slide aloud can be boring for an audience that can already read the material.
Movies present their own set of problems and concerns but can be extremely effective when teaching certain subjects. Teachers should consider the pros and cons of using movies before using them in the classroom.
Independent Reading and Work
Some topics lend themselves well to individual classroom reading time. For example, if students are studying a short story, a teacher might have them read in class and then stop them after a certain time to ask questions and check for understanding. However, it is important that the teacher is aware of student reading levels to make sure that students do not fall behind. Different leveled texts on the same content may be necessary.
Another method some teachers use is to have students select their own reading based on a research topic or simply on their interests. When students make their own choices in reading, they are more actively engaged. On independent reading selections, teachers may want to use more generic questions to assess student understanding such as:
- What did the author say?
- What did the author mean?
- What words are the most important?
Research work in any subject area falls into this instructional strategy.
The instructional strategy of using student presentations as a way to present content to the class as a whole can be a fun and engaging method of instruction. For example, teachers can divide up a chapter into topics and have the students "teach" the class by presenting their "expert" analysis. This is similar to the Jigsaw strategy used in small group work.
Another way to organize student presentations is to hand out topics to students or groups and have them present information on each topic as a short presentation. This not only helps students learn the material in a deeper manner but also provides them with practice in public speaking. While this instructional strategy is largely passive for the student audience, the student presenting is an active demonstrating a high level of understanding.
Should students choose to use media, they should also adhere to the same recommendations that teachers should use with Powerpoint (ex: a 10/20/30 rule) or for films.
Student use of all manner of digital devices (smartphones, laptops, i-Pads, Kindles) that allow access to content brought the beginning of the Flipped Classroom. More than a switch of homework to classwork, this relatively new instructional strategy is where the teacher moves the more passive elements of learning such as watching a powerpoint or reading a chapter, etc.as an activity outside of the classroom, usually the day or night before. This design of the flipped classroom is where valuable class time is available for more active forms of learning.
In flipped classrooms, one goal would be to guide students to make decisions on how to learn better on their own rather than having the teacher deliver information directly.
One source of materials for the flipped classroom is Khan Academy, This site originally began with videos that explained math concepts using the motto "Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere."
Many students preparing for the SAT for college entry might be interested to know that if they are using Khan Academy, they are participating in a flipped classroom model.
By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.
Presentations and lectures
A lecture is delivered to a large number of learners by a teacher (usually in person, but can be by broadcast, video or film). A conventional lecture would be 50–55 minutes of uninterrupted discourse from the teacher with no discussion, the only learner activity being listening and note-taking. Lectures will not necessarily include visual aids. Presentations follow a similar pattern but are more likely to happen outside formal education for example in the workplace. Presentations might be shorter and would definitely include visual aids — possibly of a high-tech nature.
There are many advantages to using presentations and lectures as a delivery method for training. Although the disadvantages are fewer, it is important to acknowledge them and to take measures to minimise them as they are significant and can undermine the learning experience.
There has been a lot of research carried out on learning experiences which sheds light on the appropriateness and value of presentations and lectures as a delivery technique. When preparing your presentation it is good to bear in mind the following:
- The brain has an average attention span of 10 minutes unless the trainer does something to stimulate attention, e.g. ask a question, show a slide, change the pace
- When a message is given once, the brain remembers only 10 per cent a year later — when the message is repeated six times, recall rises to 90 per cent
- The brain is more likely to remember the beginning and end of events
- Recall is high when mnemonics or analogy is used
- Recall falls rapidly after 24 hours without review
- The brain prefers rounded diagrams and figures to square
- The brain prefers colour to black and white
- The brain remembers unusual things very well
Tips for delivering effective presentations and lectures
There are some people who are natural speakers. They can speak without preparation, without notes, without visual aids and put together a presentation on their chosen or accepted subject that will impress, inform and captivate their audience. In so doing they might violate all the tips and guidance offered in this section but they will nevertheless be gifted trainers. Most of us need to develop and practice our speaking and presentation skills and following the guidance below will assist in preparing and delivering an effective and professional presentation or lecture. Some of the tips will also be relevant to other kinds of delivery methods.
- Say whether the learners may ask questions
- Tell them whether and when to take notes
- Tell them about the handouts
- Outline your presentation
Find out about your participants’ existing knowledge
This is also a good way to “warm up” the class.
- Ask the class questions
- Give them a (brief) written test or quiz
- Find out what they have done before
Organise your information well
- Make sure you know enough about the subject to be able to respond to searching questions which are not part of your presentation
- Your lecture/presentation should have a beginning, a middle and an end or follow some other logical structure
- Remember you might need to re-orient your learners half way through
- Explain how the presentation fits into the overall training
- Relate your session to previous and subsequent elements of the training
Relate to learners
- Place subject in context
- Identify with something they will find useful
- Use analogies
- Use illustrations and diagrams to help clarity
- Use examples which will make the topic interesting for learners
- Use plain and simple language
- Use words that the learners know
- Write up definitions for complex terms or provide a glossary handout
- Explain abbreviations
- Avoid jargon and unnecessary repetition (but remember to reinforce important points)
- Be sure to make eye contact with the class without focusing too much on any one individual
- Remember to smile and look confident
- Avoid excessive gesturing which can be distracting
- Find a comfortable posture so that you stand balanced and relaxed
- Use voice tone and pitch to avoid monotony
- Pace yourself slowly enough to be clear — you will need to speak much more slowly than your usual talking speed
- Pause to allow time for words to be digested
- Wear clothes that make you feel confident and comfortable
- Aim to wear clothes that will not alienate your audience — if in doubt it is best to be smarter
- If “lucky” ties and ear-rings help boost your confidence, wear them
- Remember loud or inappropriate clothes can distract your audience
- Know your subject
- Keep to your time (practice delivering the presentation to be sure that the timing is right)
- Be honest — even if it means admitting you don’t know the answer
- Be enthusiastic
- Be yourself
- Summarise content and/or review main points
- Refer to bibliography and further reading as appropriate
- Allow time for questions
The most common technique for making lectures and presentations more interesting and effective is the use of visual aids . Lecturing can be a boring and therefore ineffectual way of delivering learning. Visual aids are used in presentations and lectures to illustrate the subject, they can help to break up the monotony, providing a visual stimulant to reinforce what the learners are listening to. The most common forms of visual aids are:
- Overheads (also know as OHPs, slides or transparencies)
- Photographic slides
- Powerpoint presentations
- Objects, pictures or documentation which is handed around the class but which do not constitute a handout
More detail on developing effective visual aids is given in the Teaching aids section.
How are presenters and lecturers assessed by the audience?
Making presentations and delivering lectures can be a very daunting experience, particularly as most of us have been on the receiving end of speeches in the past. It can be helpful to remember how we might be judged or received by our audience. There are three main areas on which a speaker’s competence may be judged:
- Knowledge: technical competence and practical experience
- Design and delivery: the “performance”, including: voice control; eye contact; body language; audio-visual use and support; facilitating discussion; making learning fun
- Enthusiasm: interest in the subject; listening skills; ability to answer questions
How to make lectures and presentations more interactive
Lectures can be the best way to get a lot of factual information over to a large group of people. However, they do not have to involve lengthy periods of monologue from the speaker as there are ways of breaking up the delivery to add variety and interest. Here are some suggestions:
- Interrupt the lecture with questions to the class
- String together a set of mini lectures and class activities
- Buzz groups — set a specific question and ask the learners to discuss it in pairs
- Provide partial handouts to be filled in by the class during the lecture
- Give the class a short piece of relevant reading
- Give the class quiet time (time to think: ask learners to read their notes, think about a problem, or summarise an idea in their heads)
Last updated: 20 December 2005
- Request a Consultation
- Workshops and Virtual Conversations
- Technical Support
- Course Design and Preparation
- Observation & Feedback
Improving Presentation Style
Strategies for making your presentation style more effective in the classroom
Effective lecturers combine the talents of scholar, writer, producer, comedian, showman, and teacher in ways that contribute to student learning.”
Wilbert J. McKeachie, Teaching Tips
An effective teacher is an excellent communicator and therefore thinks about improving his or her presentation skills. One of the most important aspects of communicating is shaping both content and style to fit your audience. In the classroom, if you cannot communicate in a way that is both comprehensible and interesting to your students, their learning will be greatly reduced.
To strengthen your presentation skills, focus on improving your skills in these three areas:
Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
- Find out all you can about the room in which you will be presenting. Visit the room ahead of time to familiarize yourself with its size and layout, as well as the type of chalkboards, chalk, erasers, and multimedia available. In addition, obtain any necessary training on the multimedia.
- Use the classroom as a stage. Move around to engage and interact with your audience. Do not stand in one spot the entire time. Move with purpose; do not walk aimlessly.
- Prepare. Preparation is essential. All excellent teachers are well prepared for each class. Practice in the room if you can, especially if you are new to teaching. In addition, prepare yourself emotionally and psychologically by taking the time to organize your thoughts and to look forward to teaching before every class.
- Speak loudly and clearly. Project your voice and face your audience when you are speaking. Speak slightly louder than you do in a normal conversation. Use a microphone in a medium to large classroom. The class may include students with hearing problems. Moreover, a microphone will help ensure that students can hear you even when you turn to the chalkboard momentarily.
- Modulate the tone, pitch, and speed of your speech. Do not speak in a monotone. Vary the pitch and speed of your voice for emphasis and effect. Use appropriate pauses. Rather than using filler words such as “uh,” for example, simply pause before moving on to the next idea or point.
- Use gestures and facial expressions to help you explain, emphasize, and communicate the material. However, be careful not to develop distracting habits such as pacing or repeatedly adjusting your glasses or hair. To find out if you are unconsciously doing anything that may be distracting to your audience, have a colleague observe one of your classes or have your class videotaped. To schedule a videotaping and teaching consultation, call The Teaching Center at 935-6810.
- Develop a teaching persona. Decide how you want to be perceived and what mannerisms you want to have. For example, do you want to be quiet, humorous, formal, or informal? Whatever persona is right for you, aim to convey confidence and ease. Move with certainty and assuredness, and be careful not to seem pompous or intimidating.
- Show passion and enthusiasm for the topic. If you are not interested in the subject, you cannot expect your students to be interested, either. Point out the fascinating aspects of what they are learning.
- Do not read your notes or slides. Doing so will lower your energy level and lead your audience to feel less engaged.
- Interact with and pay attention to your audience. Make eye contact with the students, not with the wall or chalkboard. Build a rapport with the class. Make sure the class is with you (following and understanding what you are discussing). If they appear to be lost, take additional time to explain points and to ask and answer questions.
- Do not take yourself too seriously. Be able to laugh at yourself and your mistakes. Feel free to bring humor into the classroom, but direct it at yourself, rather than at your students’ questions and ideas.
- Keep track of the time. Do not start early or end late. The students often do not recall or listen to information presented after the class period is technically finished.
Effective Use of the Chalkboard and Visual-Aids
Using the Chalkboard
- Write legibly and big enough that your writing can seen in the back of the room.
- Think about the organization of the material on the board.
- Fill one board at a time, starting at the top of each board and writing down.
- Do not scrunch in words at the very bottom of the board or in the margins. The students in the back will not see the words at the bottom, and no one will see the words in the margins.
- Underline or mark major assumptions, conclusions, etc.
- Use color to emphasize points.Before the course starts, determine which colors are most visible in the back of the room.
- Erase a board only when you have run out of room.
- If you find a mistake on a previous board, do not erase it. Cross it out, then write the correction in, which is what the students must do.
Using Visual Aids, such as PowerPoint Slides
- Do not use visual aids unless they serve a clear and important purpose. Visuals should aid quick comprehension and support the main points.
- Book and check out the presentation equipment in advance.
- Talk to your audience and not to the screen.
- Use the visuals to enhance your presentation, not as a substitute for a verbal presentation.
- Use a pointer, if necessary.
- Coordinate the audio and the visual.
- Design your visuals with clarity and simplicity in mind.
Effective Design and Meaningful Organization of Content
Visual Design Suggestions
- Use single words or phrases.
- Organize the content visually.
- Choose a font that is easy to see. Choose a font that is simple, plain, and easy to read such as Times New Roman, Ariel, or Helvetica. Select a font size that is large enough to be seen at the back of the room. The minimal acceptable size is typically 24-point. Use both upper- and lower-case letters; all upper-case letters are difficult to read.
- Keep the design simple. Too many words, graphics, or different colors are distracting and cause students to miss the important points.
- Use short quotes, not long extracts, from documents.
- Assign a title for each visual. Doing so will help your audience organize and retain the information on each visual.
- Use summary lists.
- Limit the number of ideas on each visual. For example, limit the number of bullets on a page to approximately 4 to 6. Each bullet should be short, approximately one line. Do not crowd the visual with text; it will be too difficult to read.
- Use color for emphasis and organization. Color is useful, but needs to be used judiciously. The color should be used for emphasis or for distinguishing among data. Think about the color wheel: adjacent colors blend together and colors directly opposite each other are contrasting and provide better readability. Reds and oranges stand out, but are hard to continually focus on; therefore, use these colors only for emphasis. Greens, blues, and browns are easier to continually focus on, but do not grab a person’s attention.
- Design diagrams and tables that are simple and clear, with readily recognized symbols. Your audience must be able to read all data in your diagrams and tables. Often, this means that you will have to simplify a more complex or detailed table or diagram that has been prepared for a printed format.
- Use horizontal (landscape) layout, not vertical (portrait). Screens, video monitors, and computer monitors are shaped for a horizontal, not a vertical, format. In addition, a horizontal format is easier to project in rooms with low ceilings.
Content Organization Suggestions
- Plan the content. Think about the type of students in the class, the goals for the course and the current session, the type of material to be presented in the current session, and the type of media, if any, that you are going to use.
- Provide a structure. Each class session or presentation should have a beginning, a middle, and an end.
- List objectives or provide an outline at the beginning of each class session. Providing an outline helps students identify the most important points and follow the lecture or discussion more effectively.
- Organize course content with a theme or storyline. How do you want to arrange the material? How does each part of the material relate to what comes next.
- Remember that a typical student’s attention span is 15-20 minutes. Every 15-20 minutes, either change your teaching method or change activities. Use different teaching methods in one session to keep the students’ attention and to reach students who have different learning preferences. (See Teaching with Lectures .)
- Allow for pauses and “wait-time.” Wait-time is the pause after the instructor either asks a question or asks for questions. Students need time to think of a response to a question, or to think of a question to ask. Do not be afraid of silence. Most instructors wait 1-3 seconds for a response. However, increasing the wait-time to 5-10 seconds dramatically increases the number and quality of responses. (See Asking Questions to Improve Learning .)
Clark, Donald. “Making Presentations that Audiences Will Love.” PowerPoint Presentation. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/templates/presentations.ppt .
—.“Monthly Speaking Tips.” LJL Seminars. http://www.ljlseminars.com/monthtip.htm .
“Common Visual Aids.” Faculty Development Committee. Honolulu Community College. http://letsgetengaged.wikispaces.com/file/view/using_visual_aids.pdf
“Creating Visual Aids That Really Work: Designing Effective Slides Using PowerPoint.” Effective Communications Group (ECG), Inc. http://ecgcoaching.com/library/ps/powerpoint.php
Davis, Barbara Gross. “Delivering a Lecture.” Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 1993.
Edwards, Paul N. “How to Give an Academic Talk.” School of Information. University of Michigan. http://pne.people.si.umich.edu/PDF/howtotalk.pdf .
McKeachie, Wilbert, et al. McKeachie’s Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers. 12th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.
“Presentations.” Teaching and Learning Center. Eastern Kentucky University.
Sammons, Martha. “Students Assess Computer-Aided Classroom Presentations.” The Journal Online, May 1995. http://thejournal.com/articles/1995/05/01/students-assess-computeraided-classroom-presentations.aspx?sc_lang=en
If you have suggestions of resources we might add to these pages, please contact us:
[email protected] (314) 935-6810 Mon - Fri, 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Find Your Program
Or browse by
Browse our programs
Share this page
The 7 presentation types everyone with an education degree should know.
Whether they know it or not, the kindergarten students who captivate the class during show-and-tell are at the early stages of perfecting presentation skills they’ll use throughout their lifetimes.
A number of accredited online colleges offer education degrees that help teachers learn to evaluate and develop the skills of young learners. Whether they are equipped with a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) or BS in Elementary Education , today’s educators are able to gain a great deal of insight by watching students prepare and then present to a group. Two important initial skill sets include:*
- Comprehension and Organization Skills : The student should have accounted for all of the key information. The information should be organized in such a way that the listener can discern the differences between the main ideas and the details.
- Research, Information Management, and Communication Skills : The design and delivery of a student’s presentation should reflect an extensive depth of knowledge on the topic which is then clearly communicated to the audience.
To help in the evaluation process, seven specific types of presentation methods have been identified and each serves its own purpose when it comes to developing a student’s valuable communication skills. Teachers preparing for licensure by earning a Master of Arts in Teaching or BS in Elementary Education are encouraged to use this chart to help with student evaluations. 1
Of course, there are a number of things teachers (and parents) can do to help their budding orators—including encouraging them to practice with peers, rewarding their hard work, and offering constructive feedback. If everything goes as planned, by the time these students reach high school, they could be ready for the debate team. Shortly thereafter, those same individuals may just find that their ability to collect, comprehend, and communicate information in the form of an effective presentation helps them land the job of their dreams.
Walden University is an accredited institution offering a BS in Elementary Education and an MS in Education degree program online . Expand your career options and earn your degree using a convenient, flexible learning platform that fits your busy life.
1 Source: Silver, H. F., Strong, R. W., & Perini, M. J. (2009). The Strategic Teacher: Selecting the Right Research-Based Strategy for Every Lesson . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Whether looking for information on programs, admissions, or financial aid, we're here to help.
Fill out the form and we will contact you to provide information about furthering your education.
Please use our International Form if you live outside of the U.S.
- Current 01 Contact Information
- 02 Academic Interests
- 8 Essential Traits of Successful Public Speakers
- MS in Education
- Five Strategies for Managing Conflict in the Classroom
A presentation delivers content through oral, audio and visual channels allowing teacher-learner interaction and making the learning process
Presentation method is the method that is regarded as worthwhile and efficacious at all levels of education. The instructors are making use
A presentation is a spoken communication made in a prepared and formal way. You can give a presentation to one person or hundreds of people or thousands. The
4 General Methods of Teaching Prégent (1990) defines a method of teaching as particular. Teaching methods can be grouped as (A) Teacher – Centred Methods: (B.
Methods for Presenting Subject Matter · Lecture · Socratic Seminar · Jigsaws and Small Groups · Role Play or Debate · Hands-on or Simulation.
Using Classroom Presentation Technique in Teaching Speaking Explanation Text in. Senior High School. Cipto Hadi Wardoyo. English department, Faculty of
A lecture is delivered to a large number of learners by a teacher (usually in person, but can be by broadcast, video or film). A conventional lecture would
Effective Design and Meaningful Organization of Content · Use single words or phrases. · Organize the content visually. · Choose a font that is easy to see. · Keep
Sometimes a teacher gives unclear explanation when teaching. So this can make students confused. By learning and presenting the English lesson, students are
1: Recount, To tell what happened · 2: Instruction, To present a lesson or demonstrate a skill · 3: Narrative, To entertain, inform, or share thoughts and